Elementary School DMC Test

The chart below shows the length of daylight in the Northern Hemisphere.

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If you are at 30 degrees latitude, how long is the summer solstice?

  (A) 10 hr 04 min

  (B) 13 hr 56 min

  (C) 18 hr 27 min

  (D) 24 hr 00 min


The information below shows an index page from a science book.

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On what page would information about mollusks be found?

  (A) page 14

  (B) page 22

  (C) page 49

  (D) page 96


The figure below shows a tree and flowers growing in the sunlight and in the shade.

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What is the best hypothesis that can be developed based on the figure?

  (A) Flowers like to grow near trees.

  (B) Flowers grow taller in the sunlight.

  (C) Flowers smell better when they are taller.

  (D) Flowers grow in groups of four when in the shade.


What does this demonstration show about how light travels?

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  (A) Light is bent by water.

  (B) Light is reflected by air.

  (C) Light never changes speed.

  (D) Light always follows a straight path.


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What can be learned from this fossil about the animal that it came from?

  (A) It was a carnivore.

  (B) It was a fast runner.

  (C) It lived in the ocean.

  (D) It lived in warm areas.


Four drops of red food coloring are added to each beaker of water. The results, after one minute, are shown below.

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Why does the red food coloring spread throughout the water at 80°C faster than in the water at 20°C?

  (A) Water molecules at 20°C or lower do not move.

  (B) Water molecules at 20°C or lower repel the food coloring molecules.

  (C) Water molecules at 80°C move faster than water molecules at 20°C.

  (D) Water molecules at 80°C or greater attract the food coloring molecules.


Study the energy pyramid below.

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From which level of this pyramid does the frog get its energy directly?

  (A) hawk

  (B) snake

  (C) grass

  (D) cricket


Below is a diagram of a plant cell with numbers pointing to four different structures.

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Which list shows the numbers with the correct cell structures?

  (A) (1) nucleus, (2) cell membrane, (3) cell wall, (4) cytoplasm

  (B) (1) chloroplast, (2) nucleus, (3) cell membrane, (4) cell wall

  (C) (1) chloroplast, (2) cytoplasm, (3) cell membrane, (4) nucleus

  (D) (1) nucleus, (2) cell wall, (3) chloroplast, (4) cytoplasm


The table below shows possible types of relationships among organisms.

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Which type of relationship describes mutualism?

  (A) 1

  (B) 2

  (C) 3


The picture below shows a tool being used to split wood.

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Which types of simple machines best describe the sharp edge and the handle of this tool?

  (A) wedge and lever

  (B) pulley and screw

  (C) screw and inclined plane

  (D) inclined plane and wedge


The diagram below represents the carbon dioxide - oxygen cycle. Animals produce X and take in Y. Plants produce Y and take in X.

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Which processes produce X and Y?

  (A) Decomposition produces X and nitrogen fixation produces Y.

  (B) Nitrogen fixation produces X and decomposition produces Y.

  (C) Photosynthesis produces X and cellular respiration produces Y.

  (D) Cellular respiration produces X and photosynthesis produces Y.


Below are three examples of simple machines.

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Which simple machine is in the same category as the machines shown above?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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A student observes two flowering plants in a meadow.

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Which characteristic of the plants is most alike?

  (A) height of plant

  (B) shape of leaves

  (C) shape of flower

  (D) number of petals


A student observed the circuits below and noticed the light bulbs in Circuit 1 were brighter than the light bulbs in Circuit 2.

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Based on this observation, which of the following is the best prediction?

  (A) If more bulbs are added to a circuit, then the bulbs will become brighter.

  (B) If more bulbs are added to a circuit, then the bulbs will become dimmer.

  (C) If longer wires are used in a circuit, then the bulbs will become brighter.

  (D) If longer wires are used in a circuit, then the bulbs will become dimmer.


On Monday, student predicted how the temperatures would compare at different times of the day. The graph below shows the measurements the students took to test the predictions.

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Which prediction is supported by the results in the graph?

  (A) The temperature will be higher at 12:00 P.M. than at 2:00 P.M.

  (B) The temperature will be higher at 6:00 P.M. than at 10:00 A.M.

  (C) The temperature will be higher at 12:00 P.M. than at 6:00 P.M.

  (D) The temperature will be higher at 10:00 A.M. than at 2:00 P.M.


A flashlight is a system of parts that work together, as shown in the diagram below.

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What part of a flashlight provides energy?

  (A) battery

  (B) bulb

  (C) spring

  (D) switch


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What does the heart do for the body?

  (A) It takes oxygen in from the environment.

  (B) It turns food into energy.

  (C) It removes waste from the blood.

  (D) It moves blood through the body.


Which group of living things shares the most characteristics?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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Use the picture below to answer the following question.

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What could you add to this to make it a more balanced meal?

  (A) a glass of milk

  (B) a banana

  (C) a pork chop

  (D) a muffin


Use the pictures below to answer the following question.

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Mark is using these materials to compare how water flows through three different soils. Which safety rules should he follow while doing the experiment?

  (A) fire safety rules

  (B) glassware safety rules

  (C) electrical safety rules

  (D) plant safety rules


Use the map below to answer the following question.

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Springfield, Missouri, and San Francisco, California, are at similar latitudes, but they have very different climates. Springfield has very hot summers and cold winters, while San Francisco has about the same temperature all year. What is the most likely reason the two cities have such different climates?

  (A) the amount of sunlight on each city

  (B) the distance of each city from an ocean

  (C) the elevation above sea level of each city

  (D) the distance of each city from the equator


Use the list below to answer the following question.

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Which of these items below belongs best with the list of items in the box?

  (A) oil

  (B) rocks

  (C) grass

  (D) glaciers


Use the table below to answer the following question.

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Which student in Mary's class grew the most during the school year?

  (A) Anna

  (B) Calvin

  (C) Frank

  (D) Rachel


Use the picture below to answer the following question

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Sarah put 10 marigold seeds in a pot of sand and 10 marigold seeds in a pot of soil. She then put both pots near a window and watered them with the same amount of water every few days. After three weeks, Sarah measured the height of the marigold seedlings in each pot. What was Sarah probably testing?

  (A) how light affects the growth of marigolds

  (B) which type of marigold grows best

  (C) whether marigolds grow better in soil or in sand

  (D) how water affects the growth of marigolds


Use the picture below to answer the following question.

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In which position does the rider use the least amount of force?

  (A) position 1

  (B) position 2

  (C) position 3

  (D) position 4


In which of the drawings below will the bulb light?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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Which animal belongs in the same category as the lizard?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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students recorded daily weather conditions on a calendar for the first two weeks of April. Which graph best shows the weather conditions recorded by the students?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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Use the picture below to answer the question.

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What could you add to this to make it a more balanced meal?

  (A) a glass of milk

  (B) a banana

  (C) a pork chop

  (D) a muffin


Use the map below to answer the following question.

image

Springfield, Missouri, and San Francisco, California, are at similar latitudes, but they have very different climates. Springfield has very hot summers and cold winters, while San Francisco has about the same temperatures all year. What is the most likely reason the two cities have such different climates?

  (A) the amount of sunlight on each city

  (B) the distance of each city from an ocean

  (C) the elevation above sea level of each city

  (D) the distance of each city from the equator


Use the picture below to answer the question.

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The spoon appears to be broken where it enters the water because

  (A) the light is reflected by the water

  (B) the light is absorbed by the water

  (C) the light is bent by the water

  (D) the light is dissolved by the water


Use the picture below to answer the question.

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What does the heart do for the body?

  (A) It takes oxygen in from the environment.

  (B) It turns food into energy.

  (C) It removes waste from the blood.

  (D) It moves blood through the body.


Task You are asked to read a science journal describing mixtures containing vinegar. Then you will answer five questions. The first four questions are multiple choice. The last question requires you to write an extended response. Grace and Sierra investigated mixtures containing vinegar. They recorded their investigations in their science journal. Read and study the science journal. Then answer questions 1 through 5. Science Journal-Mixtures with Vinegar Vinegar is a weak acid commonly used in cooking. Vinegar tastes sour. For example, it is what gives the sour taste to oil-and-vinegar-based salad dressings, such as "Italian" or "vinaigrette" dressings. Today we conducted an investigation to determine the effect of mixing different substances with vinegar. For our experiments, we used apple cider vinegar, which is made from fermented apple juice. It is a gold-colored liquid that pours like water. We followed this procedure for our investigation: 1. We added 30 mL (milliliters) of vinegar to each of five small beakers. 2. We used five additional beakers and added one of the following substances to each: oil, water, milk, salt, and baking soda. 3. We placed a beaker of vinegar and the beaker of oil on an electronic scale. 4. We recorded the total mass. 5. With the beaker of vinegar still on the scale, we poured the oil into the vinegar and put the empty oil beaker back on the scale. 6. We took a photograph of the beaker containing the mixture and made notes about the result. 7. To determine if the mass had changed, we recorded the total mass of everything again. 8. We then repeated steps 3-7 with the remaining four substances. Beaker 1-Vinegar and Oil

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The oil floated to the top, above the vinegar. Even after stirring, the oil would float to the top again. The total mass did not change Beaker 2-Vinegar and Water

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The water mixed with the vinegar. The resulting liquid was a pale color compared to the vinegar alone. The total mass did not change. Beaker 3-Vinegar and Milk

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The milk did not exactly mix with the vinegar. It made these strange, stringy, white blobs that floated throughout the vinegar and settled on the bottom. In the picture, you can see some of the blobs on the surface of the liquid. The total mass did not change. Beaker 4-Vinegar and Salt

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At first, the salt settled to the bottom of the beaker. We swirled the beaker a bit, and the vinegar turned cloudy. Soon it became less cloudy and we could not see any salt at all. The vinegar looked about the same as before we added the salt. The total mass did not change. Beaker 5-Vinegar and Baking Soda

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1.Three of the mixtures Grace and Sierra used are listed below: vinegar and oil vinegar and water vinegar and salt Of these three mixtures, how many showed evidence that a new substance with new properties was formed?

  (A) 0

  (B) 1

  (C) 2

  (D) 3


Dwight made this model using a golf ball, a baseball, and a basketball.

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How could Dwight improve his model?

  (A) Make the Moon smaller than Earth.

  (B) Use a flat object, such as a coin, for Earth.

  (C) Place Earth between the Moon and the Sun.

  (D) Place the Sun is between the Moon and Earth.


Use the picture of Saturn shown below to answer the question. Saturn

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Which statement is true about the planet Saturn?

  (A) It is bigger than Earth and farther from the Sun.

  (B) It is bigger than Earth and closer to the Sun.

  (C) It is smaller than Earth and farther from the Sun.

  (D) It is smaller than Earth and closer to the Sun.


Use the pictures below to answer the question.

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Which shows the correct order from simplest to most complex?

  (A) Cell -> Tissue -> Organ

  (B) Organ -> Tissue -> Cell

  (C) Cell -> Organ -> Tissue

  (D) Tissue -> Organ -> Cell


Use the desert picture below to answer the question.

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Which factor most likely limits the desert's carrying capacity for plant life?

  (A) the number of herbivores

  (B) the amount of sunlight

  (C) the availability of water

  (D) the availability of land


Use the diagram to answer the question. Gases and Photosynthesis

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The diagram shows the gases that enter and leave a plant during the process of photosynthesis. Which gases do arrows 1 and 2 represent?

  (A) Arrow 1 is nitrogen, and arrow 2 is oxygen.

  (B) Arrow 1 is oxygen, and arrow 2 is nitrogen.

  (C) Arrow 1 is oxygen, and arrow 2 is carbon dioxide.

  (D) Arrow 1 is carbon dioxide, and arrow 2 is oxygen.


Use the diagram to answer the question.

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The diagram shows the position of a flashlight, a cup, and the shadow of the cup. What should Susan do to make the shadow longer?

  (A) Use a shorter cup.

  (B) Add more liquid to the cup.

  (C) Place the flashlight directly above the cup.

  (D) Rotate the flashlight so it is more horizontal.


Use this key to answer the question. Kingdoms of Life

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This key is used to classify certain kinds of living organisms into kingdoms. According to the key, which kind of organism is multicellular, doesn't make its own food, and doesn't have a mouth?

  (A) a protist

  (B) a plant

  (C) an animal

  (D) a fungus


Which picture best illustrates a part of the hydrosphere?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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Task You are asked to read a science journal describing mixtures containing vinegar. Then you will answer five questions. The first four questions are multiple choice. The last question requires you to write an extended response. Grace and Sierra investigated mixtures containing vinegar. They recorded their investigations in their science journal. Read and study the science journal. Then answer questions 1 through 5. Science Journal-Mixtures with Vinegar Vinegar is a weak acid commonly used in cooking. Vinegar tastes sour. For example, it is what gives the sour taste to oil-and-vinegar-based salad dressings, such as "Italian" or "vinaigrette" dressings. Today we conducted an investigation to determine the effect of mixing different substances with vinegar. For our experiments, we used apple cider vinegar, which is made from fermented apple juice. It is a gold-colored liquid that pours like water. We followed this procedure for our investigation: 1. We added 30 mL (milliliters) of vinegar to each of five small beakers. 2. We used five additional beakers and added one of the following substances to each: oil, water, milk, salt, and baking soda. 3. We placed a beaker of vinegar and the beaker of oil on an electronic scale. 4. We recorded the total mass. 5. With the beaker of vinegar still on the scale, we poured the oil into the vinegar and put the empty oil beaker back on the scale. 6. We took a photograph of the beaker containing the mixture and made notes about the result. 7. To determine if the mass had changed, we recorded the total mass of everything again. 8. We then repeated steps 3-7 with the remaining four substances. Beaker 1-Vinegar and Oil

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The oil floated to the top, above the vinegar. Even after stirring, the oil would float to the top again. The total mass did not change Beaker 2-Vinegar and Water

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The water mixed with the vinegar. The resulting liquid was a pale color compared to the vinegar alone. The total mass did not change. Beaker 3-Vinegar and Milk

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The milk did not exactly mix with the vinegar. It made these strange, stringy, white blobs that floated throughout the vinegar and settled on the bottom. In the picture, you can see some of the blobs on the surface of the liquid. The total mass did not change. Beaker 4-Vinegar and Salt

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At first, the salt settled to the bottom of the beaker. We swirled the beaker a bit, and the vinegar turned cloudy. Soon it became less cloudy and we could not see any salt at all. The vinegar looked about the same as before we added the salt. The total mass did not change. Beaker 5-Vinegar and Baking Soda

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Which statement provides the strongest evidence that mixing vinegar and milk creates a new substance?

  (A) The color of the mixture was lighter than the color of the vinegar.

  (B) It was possible to see through pure vinegar, but not through the mixture.

  (C) The milk was a liquid, but formed stringy blobs in the vinegar.

  (D) The temperature of the liquid decreased when the milk was added.


Task You are asked to read a science journal describing mixtures containing vinegar. Then you will answer five questions. The first four questions are multiple choice. The last question requires you to write an extended response. Grace and Sierra investigated mixtures containing vinegar. They recorded their investigations in their science journal. Read and study the science journal. Then answer questions 1 through 5. Science Journal-Mixtures with Vinegar Vinegar is a weak acid commonly used in cooking. Vinegar tastes sour. For example, it is what gives the sour taste to oil-and-vinegar-based salad dressings, such as "Italian" or "vinaigrette" dressings. Today we conducted an investigation to determine the effect of mixing different substances with vinegar. For our experiments, we used apple cider vinegar, which is made from fermented apple juice. It is a gold-colored liquid that pours like water. We followed this procedure for our investigation: 1. We added 30 mL (milliliters) of vinegar to each of five small beakers. 2. We used five additional beakers and added one of the following substances to each: oil, water, milk, salt, and baking soda. 3. We placed a beaker of vinegar and the beaker of oil on an electronic scale. 4. We recorded the total mass. 5. With the beaker of vinegar still on the scale, we poured the oil into the vinegar and put the empty oil beaker back on the scale. 6. We took a photograph of the beaker containing the mixture and made notes about the result. 7. To determine if the mass had changed, we recorded the total mass of everything again. 8. We then repeated steps 3-7 with the remaining four substances. Beaker 1-Vinegar and Oil

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The oil floated to the top, above the vinegar. Even after stirring, the oil would float to the top again. The total mass did not change Beaker 2-Vinegar and Water

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The water mixed with the vinegar. The resulting liquid was a pale color compared to the vinegar alone. The total mass did not change. Beaker 3-Vinegar and Milk

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The milk did not exactly mix with the vinegar. It made these strange, stringy, white blobs that floated throughout the vinegar and settled on the bottom. In the picture, you can see some of the blobs on the surface of the liquid. The total mass did not change. Beaker 4-Vinegar and Salt

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At first, the salt settled to the bottom of the beaker. We swirled the beaker a bit, and the vinegar turned cloudy. Soon it became less cloudy and we could not see any salt at all. The vinegar looked about the same as before we added the salt. The total mass did not change. Beaker 5-Vinegar and Baking Soda

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Which flowchart shows some of the findings from the investigation?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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Task You are asked to read a science journal describing mixtures containing vinegar. Then you will answer five questions. The first four questions are multiple choice. The last question requires you to write an extended response. Grace and Sierra investigated mixtures containing vinegar. They recorded their investigations in their science journal. Read and study the science journal. Then answer questions 1 through 5. Science Journal-Mixtures with Vinegar Vinegar is a weak acid commonly used in cooking. Vinegar tastes sour. For example, it is what gives the sour taste to oil-and-vinegar-based salad dressings, such as "Italian" or "vinaigrette" dressings. Today we conducted an investigation to determine the effect of mixing different substances with vinegar. For our experiments, we used apple cider vinegar, which is made from fermented apple juice. It is a gold-colored liquid that pours like water. We followed this procedure for our investigation: 1. We added 30 mL (milliliters) of vinegar to each of five small beakers. 2. We used five additional beakers and added one of the following substances to each: oil, water, milk, salt, and baking soda. 3. We placed a beaker of vinegar and the beaker of oil on an electronic scale. 4. We recorded the total mass. 5. With the beaker of vinegar still on the scale, we poured the oil into the vinegar and put the empty oil beaker back on the scale. 6. We took a photograph of the beaker containing the mixture and made notes about the result. 7. To determine if the mass had changed, we recorded the total mass of everything again. 8. We then repeated steps 3-7 with the remaining four substances. Beaker 1-Vinegar and Oil

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The oil floated to the top, above the vinegar. Even after stirring, the oil would float to the top again. The total mass did not change Beaker 2-Vinegar and Water

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The water mixed with the vinegar. The resulting liquid was a pale color compared to the vinegar alone. The total mass did not change. Beaker 3-Vinegar and Milk

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The milk did not exactly mix with the vinegar. It made these strange, stringy, white blobs that floated throughout the vinegar and settled on the bottom. In the picture, you can see some of the blobs on the surface of the liquid. The total mass did not change. Beaker 4-Vinegar and Salt

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At first, the salt settled to the bottom of the beaker. We swirled the beaker a bit, and the vinegar turned cloudy. Soon it became less cloudy and we could not see any salt at all. The vinegar looked about the same as before we added the salt. The total mass did not change. Beaker 5-Vinegar and Baking Soda

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Grace and Sierra want to learn more about the reaction created by mixing vinegar and baking soda. Which question can best be tested with a scientific investigation in the classroom?

  (A) Why does the odor of the vinegar in the air increase when baking soda is added?

  (B) How does the amount of baking soda added affect the quantity of bubbles produced?

  (C) How do the chemicals in the vinegar and baking soda react to create bubbles?

  (D) Why do soap bubbles last longer than bubbles made by vinegar and baking soda?


When students from the local school helped clean the city park, they found a lot of litter floating on top of the pond. They wondered if more litter had sunk to the bottom of the pond. Back in the classroom, they conducted an experiment to see how long litter objects would float. They ran three trials; the averages are recorded in the chart below.

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Which of the following correctly lists the piece of foil, the cloth rag, and the plastic bag in order from SHORTEST average floating time to LONGEST average floating time?

  (A) bag -> cloth rag -> foil

  (B) cloth rag -> foil -> bag

  (C) foil -> bag -> cloth rag

  (D) cloth rag -> bag -> foil


The Beaufort Scale is used to classify the strength of the wind. In the scale below, some of the wind's effects are missing. Which of the following describes the effect of a GENTLE BREEZE?

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  (A) Chimney smoke moves straight upwards.

  (B) Buildings are damaged.

  (C) Flags wave slightly on a flagpole.

  (D) Tree branches snap off.


In science and technology class, Lee is learning to light a bulb using a switch, a battery, and some wire. She wants to show her parents how it can be done. When she closes the switch, which bulb will light?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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The term "solid" should be put in the chart in

  (A) place W.

  (B) place X.

  (C) place Y.

  (D) place Z.


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The drawing shows a string instrument with strings of three different diameters. Which statement is true?

  (A) Strings X and Y will vibrate at the same speed.

  (B) String X will vibrate the fastest and produce the highest sound.

  (C) String X will vibrate the slowest and produce the lowest sound.

  (D) Strings Y and Z will produce the same sound.


Benny found the average air temperatures for his town from September to May and put them in this chart. He noticed he did not have the average temperature for March. Based on the chart, what is the best estimate of the average air temperature for his town in March?

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  (A) 33°F

  (B) 41°F

  (C) 56°F

  (D) 65°F


Maya did a survey on eye color of students in her grade. She collected the following data:

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Which eye color is the most common in her grade?

  (A) blue

  (B) green

  (C) hazel

  (D) brown


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Each of the four glasses above contains water. Suppose you tapped the top of each glass with a metal spoon. Which glass would make the sound with the highest pitch?

  (A) glass A

  (B) glass B

  (C) glass C

  (D) glass D


Use the sign to answer the question.

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What is the likely reason for such rules?

  (A) Some materials are not as easily recycled as others.

  (B) The recycling center must limit the amount of recycled materials.

  (C) The recycling center workers do not like to handle some materials.

  (D) Plastics are very harmful to the environment.


Use the picture to answer the question.

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The picture shows a pencil in a container of water. Why does the pencil look as if it is broken?

  (A) because the shiny glass reflects light

  (B) because the water separates the light into many colors

  (C) because the part of the pencil outside the water casts a shadow reflected by the water

  (D) because light rays are bent when they pass from air into water and from water into air


Use the graph to answer the question. Which conclusion can be reached by reading this graph?

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  (A) Every time you move metal paper clips 2 cm from the magnet, 2 more metal paper clips are attracted to it.

  (B) The closer the magnet is to the metal paper clips, the more metal paper clips will be attracted to it.

  (C) More metal paper clips are attracted to the magnet at 3 cm than at 1 cm.

  (D) Magnets should be kept 1 cm from metal paper clips.


The maps below show the weather predictions for March 6, 8, and 10.

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When will this cold front MOST LIKELY reach Washington, D.C.?

  (A) March 8

  (B) March 10

  (C) March 12

  (D) March 17


Use the picture below to answer the question.

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The width of the wingspan of this butterfly is CLOSEST to

  (A) 4.0 cm.

  (B) 4.5 cm.

  (C) 8.0 cm.

  (D) 8.5 cm.


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If a string on a guitar is plucked (pulled back and released), it will make a sound. A sound is produced because the string is

  (A) expanding.

  (B) vibrating.

  (C) becoming warmer.

  (D) shrinking.


At a parade, Josh noticed the various balloons shown on the right.

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Based on his observation, Josh concluded that

  (A) all gases release energy.

  (B) gases form when liquids are heated.

  (C) gases take the shape of their containers.

  (D) all gases provide heat.


Use the picture to answer the question. When both wires are touching the penny, the light bulb will light.

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This is because the penny

  (A) is a good conductor.

  (B) is made of a hard substance.

  (C) is not attracted to a magnet.

  (D) can be melted.


Use the pictures below to answer the question.

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In what order should the pictures be placed to show the life cycle of a tomato plant?

  (A) 4, 5, 2, 1, 3

  (B) 4, 5, 1, 2, 3

  (C) 4, 1, 2, 5, 3

  (D) 5, 4, 1, 2, 3


Use the calendars below to answer the question.

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There is a full moon on September 14. On which date will the next full moon MOST LIKELY occur?

  (A) September 21

  (B) October 1

  (C) October 13

  (D) October 31


Use the chart below to answer the question.

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According to the guide, what should you do if the machine produces mist but the fan does not work?

  (A) Clean the float.

  (B) Remove some water from the tank.

  (C) Plug it in.

  (D) Clean the filter.


Use the organisms listed below to answer the question.

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Which of the organisms do scientists classify as animals?

  (A) lion only

  (B) lion and snail only

  (C) lion, snail, and human only

  (D) lion, snail, human, and rose


In which picture will the magnets attract each other?

  (A)

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  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Which style of doorknob would be easiest for a young child to open?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Rocks can be classified by their physical characteristics. The table below indicates the colors and textures of some rocks.

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Based on the table, a black rock with a fine texture is most likely what kind of rock?

  (A) pumice

  (B) sandstone

  (C) shale

  (D) granite


The picture below shows a circuit.

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What will happen if the second bulb is removed from the circuit?

  (A) Only light 1 will go out.

  (B) All of the other lights will go out.

  (C) All of the other lights will stay on.

  (D) Only lights 3 and 4 will go out.


Jamie wants to put a rack on the wall to store his bicycle. Which pair of brackets below would do the best job of securely holding the bicycle?

  (A)

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  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

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The diagram below shows a food chain.

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What change to this food chain would most likely result in an increase in the mouse population?

  (A) decrease the amount of wheat

  (B) decrease the number of hawks

  (C) increase the number of grasshoppers

  (D) decrease the number of wrens


The picture below shows a crowbar being used to remove a nail from a piece of wood.

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A crowbar can be used as a lever. The arrows with numbers show the directions in which force can be applied to the crowbar. In which direction should force be applied to the crowbar in order to remove the nail from the board?

  (A) direction 1

  (B) direction 2

  (C) direction 3

  (D) direction 4


Which diagram shows the correct orbital relationship between Earth, the Moon, and the Sun?

image

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Below is a picture of the drum that students in a 5th grade class are going to make.

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In order for the students to make music, the material they use for the top of the drum must be

  (A) flexible.

  (B) heavy.

  (C) reflective.

  (D) rough.


The figures below show a light bulb connected to a battery in two different ways.

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When the switch in Figure 1 is closed the bulb will light. A plastic ring is inserted in the circuit as shown in Figure 2. What will happen when the switch is closed in Figure 2?

  (A) The bulb will light just as it did in Figure 1.

  (B) The bulb will be brighter than it was in Figure 1.

  (C) The bulb will light, but will be less bright than it was in Figure 1.

  (D) The bulb will not light at all.


Some stages in the development of a frog are shown below.

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At approximately what day in the development of the frog would you expect it to be in the stage shown below?

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  (A) Day 4

  (B) Day 6

  (C) Day 12

  (D) Day 20


The figure below shows a glass partly filled with water.

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Grace tapped the glass with a metal spoon and heard a sound. Which action would raise the pitch when she taps the glass again with the metal spoon?

  (A) Pour some of the water out of the glass.

  (B) Put more water into the glass.

  (C) Heat the water in the glass.

  (D) Cool the water in the glass.


The diagram below represents the Sun and planets of our solar system.

image

Earth and other planets revolve around the Sun and make up the solar system. Which planet on the above diagram represents Earth?

  (A) G

  (B) H

  (C) K

  (D) N


Which bird's foot below is best for grasping prey?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The picture below shows a sea arch.

image

As erosion from ocean waves continues,what will most likely happen to the hole in this landform?

  (A) It will become larger.

  (B) It will fill with sediment.

  (C) It will remain the same size.

  (D) It will be covered with water.


Stages in the life cycle of a frog are shown below. In which stage can a frog live on land?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The map below shows Atlantic Ocean currents.

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Surface currents in the ocean affect the climate of the land areas nearby. Which of the currents most affects the climate of Massachusetts and its surrounding states?

  (A) Gulf Stream

  (B) Labrador Current

  (C) North Atlantic Drift

  (D) North Equatorial Current


The diagram below represents two bar magnets.

image

Which of the following diagrams shows the effect of magnetic energy on the magnets as the two magnets above are moved closer together?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The picture below shows a bat flying in the dark while making a high-pitched sound.

image

The bat uses sound to find objects in the dark. What serves the same purpose for a pilot flying an airplane?

  (A) engine

  (B) fuel gauge

  (C) landing gear

  (D) radar system


The picture below shows three objects that can be classified in the same group.

image

Which of the following statements is true for all three of these objects?

  (A) They are metals.

  (B) They rust rapidly.

  (C) They weigh the same.

  (D) They are the same color.


Judy's father is building a garage for their car. The picture below shows the frame of the garage.

image

Which of the following is most appropriate to use when measuring the length of a piece of wood for building the frame of the garage?

  (A) a 25-foot tape measure

  (B) an electronic balance

  (C) a yardstick

  (D) a spring scale


The picture below shows a staircase.

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A staircase is most like what type of simple machine?

  (A) lever

  (B) wedge

  (C) inclined plane

  (D) wheel and axle


The pictures below show animals separated into two different groups.

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The animals above are grouped by eating habits. Which of the following animals belongs in Group A?

  (A) squirrel

  (B) sheep

  (C) hawk

  (D) goat


The weather balloon shown below is made to carry instruments for collecting data about the atmosphere.

image

What property of the instruments must be Balloon Cord Instruments considered in order for the balloon to rise?

  (A) height

  (B) shape

  (C) strength

  (D) weight


The picture below shows a flower with a long slender bloom.

image

The size and shape of a bird's beak are related to the type of food that the bird eats. Which of the following beaks is suitable for drinking nectar located deep within flowers such as the one shown above?

  (A)

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  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The picture below shows a compass.

image

Which type of energy causes the needle on this compass to move?

  (A) heat

  (B) light

  (C) magnetic

  (D) sound


The picture below shows a light bulb.

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The bottom of this light bulb is an example of what type of simple machine?

  (A) a lever

  (B) a pulley

  (C) a screw

  (D) a wedge


Moths have mouthparts that allow them to suck nectar from plants. Which of the following is most similar to the mouthparts of a moth?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Structures like the one shown below can be seen on maple trees at certain times of the year.

image

What is the main function of this structure?

  (A) protection

  (B) pollination

  (C) competition

  (D) reproduction


The picture below shows three metal objects.

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Which of the following properties is most similar in all three of these objects?

  (A) hardness

  (B) shape

  (C) sharpness

  (D) weight


The diagram below represents the distribution of trees in an area of a forest.

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When squirrels move into the area, they gather acorns from the one oak tree in this area and hide them in the ground over a wide area. Which of the following best represents this same area of the forest 20 years later?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The drawing below shows a prototype of a bridge. The prototype is made of craft sticks.

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A student designed the bridge to support five toy cars. Which of the following properties of the bridge is most important in the student's design?

  (A) flexibility

  (B) hardness

  (C) strength

  (D) weight


The diagram below shows a cross section of a tree trunk.

image

What are the main functions of wood in a living tree?

  (A) support and reproduction

  (B) water transport and support

  (C) protection and reproduction

  (D) water transport and protection


The public address system shown below uses a microphone, an amplifier, and speakers to make voices louder.

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In this system, which of the following types of energy is used to make a person's voice louder?

  (A) electrical

  (B) heat

  (C) light

  (D) nuclear


Jacob has the two metal cubes pictured below.

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One cube is made of aluminum. The other cube is made of steel. Which of the following characteristics will best help him distinguish between the two cubes?

  (A) shape

  (B) size

  (C) texture

  (D) weight


The picture below shows the water cycle.

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Water on Earth cycles in different forms and in different locations. Which process occurs at the location labeled X on this diagram of the water cycle?

  (A) condensation

  (B) evaporation

  (C) runoff

  (D) transpiration


A common grass is pictured below.

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Which labeled parts of the grass absorb most of the minerals needed by this plant?

  (A) flowers

  (B) leaves

  (C) stems

  (D) roots


Sandra performed an experiment using the setup shown in the diagram below.

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Sandra measured the temperature of the water in the bowl in the early morning and in the late afternoon every day for five days. She observed that the temperature of the water was always higher in the late afternoon. Which of the following types of energy was she measuring?

  (A) heat

  (B) light

  (C) magnetic

  (D) mechanical


Which of the following pictures shows a complex machine?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The map below shows the locations of San Francisco, California, and Boston, Massachusetts, and the direction of the ocean current off each coast.

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Based on the map, how do ocean currents most likely affect the climates of San Francisco and Boston?

  (A) More precipitation falls in San Francisco than in Boston.

  (B) Average wind speeds are greater in San Francisco than in Boston.

  (C) Average summer temperatures are lower in San Francisco than in Boston.

  (D) Storms move from east to west in San Francisco and from west to east in Boston.


The picture below shows a candle in a candleholder.

image

Which of the following problems was this candleholder most likely designed to solve?

  (A) The candle's light is too dim.

  (B) The candle falls over when lit.

  (C) The candle blows out in the wind.

  (D) The candle's wax melts too quickly.


A student is growing a flowering plant next to a lamp in a dark room. Which of the following pictures shows how the plant most likely grows in response to the light from the lamp?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The picture below shows two wooden tables at a furniture store. The tables are not painted or coated.

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A shopper wants to find out if the tables are made from the same type of wood. Which of the following properties of the tables could be used to find this out?

  (A) weight and shape

  (B) weight and hardness

  (C) color and shape

  (D) color and hardness


Four different living things are shown below.

image

Which organism is made up of only one cell?

  (A) an amoeba

  (B) a fl ea

  (C) a fungus

  (D) a plant


The diagram below shows a jet airplane flying east when a gust of wind directly from the west pushes it.

image

Which of the following changes after the wind pushes the plane?

  (A) the weight of the plane

  (B) the speed of the plane

  (C) the direction of the plane

  (D) the pull of gravity on the plane


The drawing below shows the front leg bones of a horse.

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Which fossil leg bones belonged to the most recent ancestor of the horse?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The diagram below shows the direction of a stationary ball after it is hit by another ball.

image

Where should another ball hit Ball R so that Ball R moves along the dotted path?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The diagram below shows the life cycle of a tree.

image

Which stage of the life cycle will most limit the amount of sunlight reaching other plants?

  (A) stage W

  (B) stage X

  (C) stage Y

  (D) stage Z


The diagram below shows the locations and orbits of the Sun, Earth, and the Moon.

image

Which letter represents the Sun?

  (A) letter W

  (B) letter X

  (C) letter Y

  (D) letter Z


The diagram below sorts animals from two different environments.

image

Which group of three animals belongs in the empty section in the diagram?

  (A) shark, tuna, sea turtle

  (B) frog, raccoon, garter snake

  (C) arctic fox, caribou, polar bear

  (D) penguin, hummingbird, ostrich


The picture below shows a large rock that has split into two pieces.

image

Which of the following most likely caused this rock to split?

  (A) water freezing inside a crack in the rock

  (B) rain washing over the rock

  (C) wind blowing sand in a crack in the rock

  (D) waves pounding against the rock


The table below shows examples of different actions.

image

Which example best completes the table?

  (A) a person kicking a soccer ball

  (B) a person plugging in a lamp

  (C) an apple falling toward the ground

  (D) two objects having the same electrical charge


The diagram below shows stages in the life cycle of a bean plant.

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During which stage of the life cycle does the plant start using sunlight to keep growing?

  (A) stage W

  (B) stage X

  (C) stage Y

  (D) stage Z


Which organism is made of a single cell?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Students studied the physical properties of the four metals listed in the table below.

image

The students investigated how magnesium reacted with other materials.

image

In which trials did the properties of magnesium change?

  (A) 1 and 3

  (B) 2 and 4

  (C) 1 and 4

  (D) 2 and 3


Students studied the physical properties of the four metals listed in the table below.

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The students mixed equal volumes of zinc, iron, and magnesium in a beaker.

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The properties of the mixture are best described as having

  (A) a dark gray and shiny appearance

  (B) the ability to conduct electricity and heat

  (C) chemical properties of magnesium only

  (D) chemical properties different from the individual metals


Students studied the physical properties of the four metals listed in the table below.

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The students mixed small pieces of the four metals on a plate.

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The students pulled a magnet through the mixture several times. The magnet attracted and removed small pieces of some metals from the plate. The mass of the metals remaining on the plate was closest to

  (A) 2.0 grams

  (B) 7.0 grams

  (C) 11.0 grams

  (D) 14.0 grams


A student pushed the on/off button of a flashlight to the "on" position and noticed that the light bulb glowed. After 15 minutes, the student noticed that the clear cover of the flashlight was warm. The student pushed the on/off button of the flashlight to the "off" position and the light bulb no longer glowed. After 15 minutes, the clear cover was cool. The student took the flashlight apart to determine its parts, as shown below.

image

When a student turned the on/off button of the flashlight to the "off" position, the light bulb did not glow. The most likely reason that the light bulb did not glow was because moving the on/off button to the "off" position

  (A) opened the circuit, stopping the electrical current

  (B) closed the circuit, stopping the electrical current

  (C) reversed the charge of each end of the batteries

  (D) stopped the batteries from touching each other


Which diagram best represents the reflection of light rays from a plane mirror?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Two students researched how coal, a nonrenewable resource, is used. The students learned that most coal is burned to produce electricity. Some coal is used to make medicines, paint, and steel. The students recorded a list of some of the effects of burning coal.

image

What negative consequence would most likely occur from burning coal?

  (A) a decrease in river water pollution

  (B) a decrease in gases that warm the air

  (C) an increase in river water temperatures

  (D) an increase in the amount of air pollution


Two students researched how coal, a nonrenewable resource, is used. The students learned that most coal is burned to produce electricity. Some coal is used to make medicines, paint, and steel. The students recorded a list of some of the effects of burning coal.

image

The most common use of coal is to

  (A) fertilize crops

  (B) fuel automobiles

  (C) generate energy

  (D) heat the atmosphere


A student pushed the on/off button of a flashlight to the "on" position and noticed that the light bulb glowed. After 15 minutes, the student noticed that the clear cover of the flashlight was warm. The student pushed the on/off button of the flashlight to the "off" position and the light bulb no longer glowed. After 15 minutes, the clear cover was cool. The student took the flashlight apart to determine its parts, as shown below.

image

The student put the pieces of the flashlight together and moved the on/off switch to the "on" position. The flashlight bulb glowed dimly. What is the most likely reason that the flashlight bulb glowed dimly?

  (A) The batteries were placed in the wrong direction.

  (B) The copper wire blocked the electrical current.

  (C) The stored energy in the batteries decreased.

  (D) The electrical circuit was open.


A tennis player hit a tennis ball into the air, giving the ball a speed of 30 meters per second. The data table below shows the time the ball was in the air and the speed of the ball as it went up and down.

image

The student hits the ball a second time, but twice as hard. Which statement best describes what happens to the ball?

  (A) Gravity acts on the ball half as much.

  (B) Gravity acts on the ball twice as much.

  (C) The ball travels half as high in 3 seconds.

  (D) The ball travels twice as high in 3 seconds.


A student crumpled a dry paper towel and taped it to the bottom of the inside of a cup. Then, the student pushed the cup upside down into a pan of water. When the student removed the cup from the water, the paper towel was still dry.

image

Which statement best explains why the paper towel remained dry?

  (A) The cup was made of plastic.

  (B) The paper towel has a certain mass.

  (C) The paper towel has a certain volume.

  (D) The cup contained air with the paper towel.


Students observed a creek during a field trip to a local nature center. A nature center guide explained that natural processes had formed the creek and reshaped the surface of Earth along the creek.

image

The students observed a fossil in a layer of rock by the creek. The fossil was the shell of a giant oyster that once lived in salt water.

image

The giant oyster fossil was found near the creek because many years ago

  (A) the giant oyster moved onto the land around the creek

  (B) a storm moved the fossil from the ocean to the creek

  (C) the water flowed from the ocean to the creek

  (D) the land around the creek was under water


The Chinese mitten crab is a species of crab brought to the United States accidentally. The crabs bother watermen by tearing nets.

image

What other behavior of the Chinese mitten crab also causes trouble for local watermen?

  (A) The crabs swim very fast.

  (B) The crabs reproduce slowly.

  (C) The crabs live for many years.

  (D) The crabs eat large amounts of shrimp.\


Invasion of the Vines: A Fine Solution Creates a Vine Problem

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Along the beaches of North Carolina and South Carolina, a harmless-looking vine is stirring up a surprising amount of trouble. At first glance, beach vitex does not appear to be a problematic plant. It has grayish green leaves all year round and lush purple flowers in the spring. It smells spicy. This climbing plant used to be welcome wherever it grew. In the mid-1980s, scientists brought beach vitex, Vitex rotundifolia, from Korea to the United States. They hoped the plant would keep beach sand from blowing away. Beach vitex, which grows wild on ocean beaches in Korea, seemed like the perfect plant for the Carolina beaches. People thought its sprawling roots would stabilize the sand, and it didn't mind salty water, or even being dried out completely. Beach vitex was for sale in greenhouses throughout the Carolinas, so that people from the area could buy it and plant it themselves. But the alarming trouble with beach vitex is that it grows too quickly, at least in the Carolinas. It tends to crowd out the slower-growing native plants. A beach vitex plant just sprouting at the beginning of summer is a sprawling plant by summer's end. The vines send out long runners, which are stems of the plant that snake out along the ground. These runners root into the sand, forming a dense mat of branches that extends outward in all directions. Scientists are alarmed because they would like the natural plants that have grown on the Carolina coasts to continue to be there for years to come. The way plants and animals work together is very complicated. When native plants grow well, the birds, insects, and other animals that have learned to get along with these plants can continue to build their homes, raise young, and prosper. The people who brought the beach vitex to the Carolinas thought they were solving a problem. But they did not know that beach vitex would grow so well in its new environment. Even today, people are not entirely certain that the plant keeps the sand in place, as it does in Korea. What they are sure of is that beach vitex is killing other plants. Planting beach vitex has a negative consequence on beaches by

  (A) increasing growth toward the ocean

  (B) decreasing the habitat of native plants

  (C) increasing habitats for beach organisms

  (D) decreasing the amount of sand blowing away


Invasion of the Vines: A Fine Solution Creates a Vine Problem

image

Along the beaches of North Carolina and South Carolina, a harmless-looking vine is stirring up a surprising amount of trouble. At first glance, beach vitex does not appear to be a problematic plant. It has grayish green leaves all year round and lush purple flowers in the spring. It smells spicy. This climbing plant used to be welcome wherever it grew. In the mid-1980s, scientists brought beach vitex, Vitex rotundifolia, from Korea to the United States. They hoped the plant would keep beach sand from blowing away. Beach vitex, which grows wild on ocean beaches in Korea, seemed like the perfect plant for the Carolina beaches. People thought its sprawling roots would stabilize the sand, and it didn't mind salty water, or even being dried out completely. Beach vitex was for sale in greenhouses throughout the Carolinas, so that people from the area could buy it and plant it themselves. But the alarming trouble with beach vitex is that it grows too quickly, at least in the Carolinas. It tends to crowd out the slower-growing native plants. A beach vitex plant just sprouting at the beginning of summer is a sprawling plant by summer's end. The vines send out long runners, which are stems of the plant that snake out along the ground. These runners root into the sand, forming a dense mat of branches that extends outward in all directions. Scientists are alarmed because they would like the natural plants that have grown on the Carolina coasts to continue to be there for years to come. The way plants and animals work together is very complicated. When native plants grow well, the birds, insects, and other animals that have learned to get along with these plants can continue to build their homes, raise young, and prosper. The people who brought the beach vitex to the Carolinas thought they were solving a problem. But they did not know that beach vitex would grow so well in its new environment. Even today, people are not entirely certain that the plant keeps the sand in place, as it does in Korea. What they are sure of is that beach vitex is killing other plants. Which feature of beach vitex most likely enables it to survive and grow near the ocean?

  (A) spicy smell

  (B) purple flowers

  (C) ability to grow in salty soil

  (D) ability to grow leaves all year


Invasion of the Vines: A Fine Solution Creates a Vine Problem

image

Along the beaches of North Carolina and South Carolina, a harmless-looking vine is stirring up a surprising amount of trouble. At first glance, beach vitex does not appear to be a problematic plant. It has grayish green leaves all year round and lush purple flowers in the spring. It smells spicy. This climbing plant used to be welcome wherever it grew. In the mid-1980s, scientists brought beach vitex, Vitex rotundifolia, from Korea to the United States. They hoped the plant would keep beach sand from blowing away. Beach vitex, which grows wild on ocean beaches in Korea, seemed like the perfect plant for the Carolina beaches. People thought its sprawling roots would stabilize the sand, and it didn't mind salty water, or even being dried out completely. Beach vitex was for sale in greenhouses throughout the Carolinas, so that people from the area could buy it and plant it themselves. But the alarming trouble with beach vitex is that it grows too quickly, at least in the Carolinas. It tends to crowd out the slower-growing native plants. A beach vitex plant just sprouting at the beginning of summer is a sprawling plant by summer's end. The vines send out long runners, which are stems of the plant that snake out along the ground. These runners root into the sand, forming a dense mat of branches that extends outward in all directions. Scientists are alarmed because they would like the natural plants that have grown on the Carolina coasts to continue to be there for years to come. The way plants and animals work together is very complicated. When native plants grow well, the birds, insects, and other animals that have learned to get along with these plants can continue to build their homes, raise young, and prosper. The people who brought the beach vitex to the Carolinas thought they were solving a problem. But they did not know that beach vitex would grow so well in its new environment. Even today, people are not entirely certain that the plant keeps the sand in place, as it does in Korea. What they are sure of is that beach vitex is killing other plants. The environmental factor that most likely caused people to plant beach vitex along the coast of the Carolinas was

  (A) summer temperature

  (B) thunderstorms

  (C) sand erosion

  (D) water quality


A student used the information from the table below to identify an unknown mineral.

image

Which properties would best determine the identity of the mineral?

  (A) color and luster

  (B) color and streak

  (C) hardness and luster

  (D) streak and hardness


Snowflake Chemistry Environmental factors determine the shape of a snowflake. Three environmental factors are dirt particles in the air, the temperature of the air, and the height of a snowflake in the atmosphere when the snowflake forms. Evidence shows that when the air around a snowflake is very cold, the tips of the snowflake are very sharp.

image

To become a snowflake, a drop of water in a lake

  (A) condenses -> freezes -> evaporates

  (B) freezes -> precipitates -> evaporates

  (C) precipitates -> freezes -> condenses

  (D) evaporates -> condenses -> freezes


Snowflake Chemistry Environmental factors determine the shape of a snowflake. Three environmental factors are dirt particles in the air, the temperature of the air, and the height of a snowflake in the atmosphere when the snowflake forms. Evidence shows that when the air around a snowflake is very cold, the tips of the snowflake are very sharp.

image

Snow is an important part of the water cycle on Earth because snow

  (A) stores freshwater

  (B) keeps the ground cold

  (C) may form when clouds are not present

  (D) melts when temperatures are above 0°C


Snowflake Chemistry Environmental factors determine the shape of a snowflake. Three environmental factors are dirt particles in the air, the temperature of the air, and the height of a snowflake in the atmosphere when the snowflake forms. Evidence shows that when the air around a snowflake is very cold, the tips of the snowflake are very sharp.

image

Compared with a handful of snow, an ice cube

  (A) is attracted by magnets

  (B) conducts electricity

  (C) conducts heat

  (D) is harder


The times the sun rises and sets on the same day in three regions of Maryland are recorded in the data table below.

image

Which of the following statements is an accurate conclusion based on the information in the data table?

  (A) The sun rises earliest in Eastern Maryland; the sun sets latest in Eastern Maryland.

  (B) The sun rises earliest in Western Maryland; the sun sets latest in Eastern Maryland.

  (C) The sun rises earliest in Eastern Maryland; the sun sets latest in Western Maryland.

  (D) The sun rises earliest in Western Maryland; the sun sets latest in Western Maryland.


A tennis player hit a tennis ball into the air, giving the ball a speed of 30 meters per second. The data table below shows the time the ball was in the air and the speed of the ball as it went up and down.

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In what direction does the force of gravity act on the ball?

  (A) upward

  (B) downward

  (C) toward the left

  (D) toward the right


A tennis player hit a tennis ball into the air, giving the ball a speed of 30 meters per second. The data table below shows the time the ball was in the air and the speed of the ball as it went up and down.

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What best describes the speed of the ball from 0 seconds to 6 seconds?

  (A) It increases.

  (B) It decreases.

  (C) It decreases, then increases.

  (D) It increases, then decreases.


The car shown in the diagram traveled from the start line to the finish line. Each mark on the number line represents 10 meters.

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How did the position of the car change from the start line to the finish line?

  (A) The car traveled 10 meters east.

  (B) The car traveled 40 meters west.

  (C) The car traveled 40 meters east.

  (D) The car traveled 10 meters west.


A student observed single-celled organisms and cells found in multicellular organisms. The student drew the diagrams below.

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One reason cells in multicellular organisms vary in appearance is

  (A) cells take in different amounts of carbon dioxide

  (B) cells absorb nutrients and sunlight

  (C) cells grow and repair themselves

  (D) cells perform different roles


A student observed single-celled organisms and cells found in multicellular organisms. The student drew the diagrams below.

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Bacteria that break down dead materials are

  (A) consumers

  (B) decomposers

  (C) producers

  (D) scavengers


A teacher placed four types of plates on four beakers of very hot water. The teacher then placed one small, equal-sized piece of butter on each plate. The students measured the amount of time each piece of butter took to melt.

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On which plate did the piece of butter most likely melt fastest?

  (A) foam

  (B) metal

  (C) paper

  (D) plastic


Model Cars Students used a model car kit to construct different model cars.

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The students separated some of the model car parts into two groups according to a physical property, as shown in the diagram below.

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The physical property the students most likely used to separate the model car parts was

  (A) strength

  (B) hardness

  (C) ability to conduct electricity

  (D) ability to be attracted by a magnet


Model Cars Students used a model car kit to construct different model cars.

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All of the pieces in the model car kit occupy space and have

  (A) a definite amount of mass

  (B) an equal amount of mass

  (C) the same hardness

  (D) the same volume


The beaches along the face of Calvert Cliffs in southern Maryland attract many fossil hunters each year. At high tide the beach is covered with water, but at low tide fossil hunters can search the face of the cliff and often discover fossils. Fossils at Calvert Cliffs

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Fossils found at Calvert Cliffs were formed millions of years ago when

  (A) animal bones left minerals in soil

  (B) animal teeth dissolved in the ocean

  (C) sea shells were covered by sediments

  (D) sea shells were broken down into smaller pieces


The beaches along the face of Calvert Cliffs in southern Maryland attract many fossil hunters each year. At high tide the beach is covered with water, but at low tide fossil hunters can search the face of the cliff and often discover fossils. Fossils at Calvert Cliffs

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The discovery of a whale's tooth high on one of the Calvert Cliffs indicates that, millions of years ago, the cliffs were most likely covered by

  (A) a glacier

  (B) an ocean

  (C) a mountain

  (D) a rainforest


Irrigation is the delivery of water by some way other than nature. Farmers often irrigate crops when rainfall does not provide enough water for the crops to survive.

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Which irrigated crop occupies the greatest area?

  (A) rice

  (B) soybean

  (C) cotton

  (D) wheat


Turtle Travels Out From the Sand A clutch of eggs lies hidden more than two feet below a sandy beach. Inside each one, there may be a baby green sea turtle. From the Sand to Sea The hatchling's journey to the water is a race for survival. She is no bigger than a walnut. Crabs and night herons snatch up some of the other hatchlings on the beach. This young turtle makes it to the water. To the Open Ocean The turtle's journey through the open ocean may last several years. Scientists think green sea turtle hatchlings float with mats of sargassum. This seaweed provides a hiding place as well as food. The hatchling may snack on shrimp, small jellyfish and snails that drift in and around the seaweed. Unfortunately, the sea also contains plastic and trash that people throw away. Eating them could be a deadly mistake for the turtle. There are many other dangers in the sea, too. Predators such as sharks swim below the small turtle. Large birds fly above. Growing Up Green The sea turtle's new home is the warm waters along Florida's east coast. With her larger shell, she is safer in the near-shore waters than she was as a hatchling. Eating seagrass and algae has turned her body fat a green color. In fact, this is how green sea turtles get their name! Return Now the adult turtle sets out on a new adventure. She must return to the beach where she was born to lay her eggs. Scientists are still learning how sea turtles find their way through the ocean. They think the turtles may sense changes in Earth's magnetic field. That may help the turtles create a kind of mental map. The Next Generation Out of the water, she struggles to move on land. She reaches a place where high tides will not wash away her eggs. Then she starts to dig. She lays more than 100 leathery white eggs. She packs sand over them. Then she uses her flippers to toss sand to cover her nest. After about two months in the nests, new green sea turtles will hatch. They will begin their own journeys. Seawalls are sometimes built along shorelines.

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Seawalls negatively affect the ability of turtles to survive because a seawall

  (A) protects the turtles from predators

  (B) protects the sand along the shoreline

  (C) destroys the beach near the turtle eggs

  (D) blocks the beach where the turtle eggs hatch


A pony is standing directly in front of a plane mirror. Which drawing best shows the image of the pony in the plane mirror?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


A block of concrete can be broken into smaller pieces, then into the material from which concrete is made, as shown in the diagram below.

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Concrete is a mixture because it can be

  (A) separated into different substances

  (B) crushed into smaller pieces

  (C) sorted into different colors

  (D) formed into a large block


A car traveled a total distance of 100 meters from Point P to Point T.

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The car traveled the farthest between which two points?

  (A) P and Q

  (B) Q and R

  (C) R and S

  (D) S and T


Bactrian camels live in the deserts of Asia and have many traits that allow them to survive in this environment.

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Information about Bactrian camels is listed below. • Mammals • Plant eaters • Two humps • Long necks • Thick, shaggy coats • Nostrils that close • Wide, toed hooves • Bushy eyebrows • Live in deserts that are cold in the winter and hot in the summer Camels shed their thick, shaggy coats in the spring. This ability helps camels survive in an environment that is

  (A) dry

  (B) hot

  (C) rainy

  (D) windy


Bactrian camels live in the deserts of Asia and have many traits that allow them to survive in this environment.

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Information about Bactrian camels is listed below. • Mammals • Plant eaters • Two humps • Long necks • Thick, shaggy coats • Nostrils that close • Wide, toed hooves • Bushy eyebrows • Live in deserts that are cold in the winter and hot in the summer Some of the food that Bactrian camels eat is stored as fat in the two humps. The stored fat is used later as a source of

  (A) cells

  (B) energy

  (C) traits

  (D) warmth


A student observed single-celled organisms and cells found in multicellular organisms. The student drew the diagrams below.

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Food taken in by animals may be directly used to

  (A) provide oxygen

  (B) improve balance

  (C) repair damaged cells

  (D) protect cells from diseases


The picture shows a block of wood floating in freshwater.

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If this block were placed in salt water from the ocean, which picture shows what would happen?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


This is a drawing of a bird's foot.

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Where would you be MOST likely to find such a bird?

  (A) a forest

  (B) a meadow

  (C) a cornfield

  (D) a desert

  (E) a lake


Which of the boxes X, Y, or Z has the LEAST mass?

image

  (A) X

  (B) Y

  (C) Z

  (D) All three boxes have the same mass.


The pictures show a bean plant at different stages of growth. (The pictures are not drawn on the same scale.)

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In what order do these stages take place?

  (A) 2, 1, 3, 4

  (B) 2, 4, 1, 3

  (C) 3, 2, 1, 4

  (D) 4, 2, 3, 1

  (E) 4, 3, 2, 1


Which picture shows plants commonly found in a desert?

  (A)

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  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

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Each of the three magnets shown has been dipped into the substance below it. Which of the substances could be coffee?

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  (A) A only

  (B) B only

  (C) C only

  (D) A and B only


The picture shows Dick and his friends playing with a string-telephone. Sally is speaking. Dick and Tom are trying to listen. Which of them can hear her speak?

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  (A) Both of them can hear equally clearly.

  (B) Neither of them can hear.

  (C) Only Tom can hear clearly.

  (D) Only Dick can hear clearly.

  (E) Both of them hear equally faintly.


Which part of the plant takes in the MOST water?

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  (A) Part A

  (B) Part B

  (C) Part C

  (D) Part D


The picture shows the three main layers of the Earth.

image

Where is it the hottest?

  (A) Layer A

  (B) Layer B

  (C) Layer C

  (D) All three layers are the same temperature.


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The teeth that people use for grinding their food are labeled in the picture as

  (A) 1 only

  (B) 3 only

  (C) 1 and 2

  (D) 3 and 4


Lily found four rocks of the same material in a riverbed. They had different shapes and sizes. Which rock has most likely been carried the farthest down the river?

  (A)

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  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

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Look at this diagram.

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The saltiest water is in the

  (A) Great Ocean

  (B) Mountain Pond

  (C) Old River

  (D) Small Streams


The pictures show a light bulb connected to a battery. Which bulb will light?

  (A)

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  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


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The table above shows some weather information for four different towns during a 24-hour period. In which town did it most likely snow?

  (A) Town A

  (B) Town B

  (C) Town C

  (D) Town D


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The picture above shows a pond and some of the organisms that live in and around the pond. They all depend on each other for food. The tadpole most likely gets its food from which of the following?

  (A) sun

  (B) fish

  (C) duckweed plant

  (D) heron


Seaweed that grows in the ocean is not often found growing in rock pools - holes in the rocks that fill with ocean water at high tide. Four students want to know if seaweed does not grow in rock pools because the water is too salty. They each set up an experiment to test this idea. The pictures below show their experimental set-ups. Which set-up is best for testing the idea that seaweed cannot grow in very salty ocean water?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Which of these animals is most likely to live in the desert?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


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The pictures above show three different powders seen through a magnifying lens. Which of these are most likely mixtures?

  (A) Powders 1 and 2 only

  (B) Powders 1 and 3 only

  (C) Powders 2 and 3 only

  (D) Powders 1, 2 and 3


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Which statement about the food chain shown above is correct?

  (A) Voles eat grasshoppers and grass.

  (B) Grasshoppers eat grass and voles.

  (C) Snake eat voles.

  (D) Snakes eat grass.


Look at the four pictures.

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Which pictures show non-living things?

  (A) trees and fire

  (B) fire and river

  (C) river and seeds

  (D) seeds and trees


Tom has three objects that are the same shape and size. Tome puts the three objects in a beaker of water. He observes that X floats, but Y and Z both sink.

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What can he tell about the weight of object X compared to Y and Z?

  (A) X is lighter than Y or Z.

  (B) X is heavier than Y or Z.

  (C) X is lighter than Y and heavier than Z.

  (D) X is heavier than Y and lighter than Z.


Susie has three ice cubes of different sizes. She places each ice cube into an identical beaker containing the same volume of water, as shown in the diagram.

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What happens to the ice cubes when they are placed in the water?

  (A) Cubes 1, 2, and 3 will sink.

  (B) Cubes 1, 2, and 3 will float.

  (C) Cube 1 will float, and cubes 2 and 3 will sink.

  (D) Cubes 1 and 2 will float, and cube 3 will sink.


The table below shows the distance from the sun of four planets of the solar systems.

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Which of these planets is closest to the sun?

  (A) Earth

  (B) Mars

  (C) Mercury

  (D) Saturn


The following picture shows a light bulb connected to a battery in an electrical circuit. Which of the following objects connected to Points 1 and 2 will allow the bulb to glow?

image

  (A) iron nail

  (B) plastic spoon

  (C) rubber band

  (D) wooden stick


A piece of ice placed in a glass of water. which picture best shows the position of the ice in the water?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

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A hedgehog is a small spiny animal. When it is frightened it rolls into a ball.

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How does this behavior help the hedgehog?

  (A) The hedgehog can roll away quickly.

  (B) The hedgehog looks larger rolled up.

  (C) The hedgehog is harder to see in a ball.

  (D) The hedgehog's soft body parts are covered.


Nick rides on a seesaw with his sister Kate and then with his brother Leon, Nick is the same weight as Kate, but Leon is twice the weight of Nick.

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Which figure shows where the children should sit so that Nick can balance first with Kate and then with Leon?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


A river flowing over a waterfall has a lot of energy.

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Which of the following is made from waterfall energy?

  (A) hot water

  (B) solar power

  (C) electricity

  (D) drinking water


A bird that lives on a pond is most likely to have which of these foot structures?

  (A)

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  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


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Melissa found some tadpoles and fish in a pond as shown above. How did the tadpoles get there?

  (A) They hatched from eggs laid by fish in the pond.

  (B) They formed from mud at the bottom of the pond.

  (C) They were made from materials dissolved in pond water.

  (D) They developed from eggs laid by frogs in the pond.


Four different thermometers were used to measure the temperature of water in four different beakers. Which thermometer reading belongs to the hottest water?

  (A)

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  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The diagram below shows a food chain.

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Which predator-prey relationship is correct?

  (A) fish (predator)-seal (prey)

  (B) green algae (predator)-krill (prey)

  (C) fish (predator)-krill (prey)

  (D) seal (predator)-killer whale (prey)


Stephanie has a balance and four cubes (1,2,3,4). The cubes are made of different materials. She puts two cubes at a time on the balance and observes the following results.

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What can she conclude about the weight of cube 2?

  (A) It is heavier than cubes 1, 3, and 4.

  (B) It is heaver than cube 1 but lighter than cubes 3 and 4.

  (C) It is heavier than cube 3 but lighter than cubes 1 and 4.

  (D) It is heavier than cube 4 but lighter than cubes 1 and 3.


A spotlight shines on a girl on a stage.

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The shadow would be seen along which line?

  (A) A

  (B) B

  (C) C

  (D) D


Look at the figures below.

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Which figure best demonstrates a magnetic force?

  (A) Figure 1

  (B) Figure 2

  (C) Figure 3


The Olympic Rainforest On a field trip through the Olympic Rainforest, Jamie wrote down everything she saw in her field journal. Here are Jamie's notes:

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Jamie made the following partial food web for the Olympic Rainforest.

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Where does the energy to support the life in the Olympic Rainforest come from?

  (A) The insects

  (B) The trees

  (C) The Sun


The Olympic Rainforest On a field trip through the Olympic Rainforest, Jamie wrote down everything she saw in her field journal. Here are Jamie's notes:

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Jamie made the following partial food web for the Olympic Rainforest.

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How does the tree in Jamie's diagram help this ecosystem?

  (A) By removing oxygen from the air.

  (B) By releasing water into the ground

  (C) By giving shelter and food to animals


Hold That Soil After a rain storm, Margo saw a lot of soil on the sidewalks. Sidewalks next to grassy areas stayed much cleaner. Sidewalks next to areas without grass were covered with soil. Margo did the following investigation to see if grass would help protect soil from being washed away. Margo used grass sod (a layer of grass with its roots in soil) in her investigation. Prediction: Water will wash away less soil from the plastic box with grass sod compared to the plastic box with only soil. Materials: 2 plastic boxes with drain holes 2 clear round pans 2 pieces of grass sod 2 water pitchers water 2 meter sticks 6 wooden support blocks

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Procedure: 1. Place one piece of grass sod into a plastic box with a drain hole as shown in the Investigation Set-up diagram. 2. Remove the soil from the other piece of grass sod and place the removed soil into the second plastic box as shown in the Investigative Set-up diagram. 3. From a height of 75 cm, pour 1 liter of water into each plastic box. 4. Let the soil that collects in each round pan settle for 15 minutes. 5. Measure the depth of the soil at the bottom of each clear round pan. Record this data in the table. 6. Repeat steps 3-5 two more times. Data:

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What variable was kept the same (controlled) in this investigation?

  (A) Amount of grass in each plastic box

  (B) Depth of soil in each clear round pan

  (C) Volume of water poured into each plastic box


Hold That Soil After a rain storm, Margo saw a lot of soil on the sidewalks. Sidewalks next to grassy areas stayed much cleaner. Sidewalks next to areas without grass were covered with soil. Margo did the following investigation to see if grass would help protect soil from being washed away. Margo used grass sod (a layer of grass with its roots in soil) in her investigation. Prediction: Water will wash away less soil from the plastic box with grass sod compared to the plastic box with only soil. Materials: 2 plastic boxes with drain holes 2 clear round pans 2 pieces of grass sod 2 water pitchers water 2 meter sticks 6 wooden support blocks

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Procedure: 1. Place one piece of grass sod into a plastic box with a drain hole as shown in the Investigation Set-up diagram. 2. Remove the soil from the other piece of grass sod and place the removed soil into the second plastic box as shown in the Investigative Set-up diagram. 3. From a height of 75 cm, pour 1 liter of water into each plastic box. 4. Let the soil that collects in each round pan settle for 15 minutes. 5. Measure the depth of the soil at the bottom of each clear round pan. Record this data in the table. 6. Repeat steps 3-5 two more times. Data:

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Which variable was the changed (manipulated) variable in this investigation?

  (A) Amount of soil in each plastic box

  (B) Amount of grass in each plastic box

  (C) Amount of water poured into each plastic box


Hold That Soil After a rain storm, Margo saw a lot of soil on the sidewalks. Sidewalks next to grassy areas stayed much cleaner. Sidewalks next to areas without grass were covered with soil. Margo did the following investigation to see if grass would help protect soil from being washed away. Margo used grass sod (a layer of grass with its roots in soil) in her investigation. Prediction: Water will wash away less soil from the plastic box with grass sod compared to the plastic box with only soil. Materials: 2 plastic boxes with drain holes 2 clear round pans 2 pieces of grass sod 2 water pitchers water 2 meter sticks 6 wooden support blocks

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Procedure: 1. Place one piece of grass sod into a plastic box with a drain hole as shown in the Investigation Set-up diagram. 2. Remove the soil from the other piece of grass sod and place the removed soil into the second plastic box as shown in the Investigative Set-up diagram. 3. From a height of 75 cm, pour 1 liter of water into each plastic box. 4. Let the soil that collects in each round pan settle for 15 minutes. 5. Measure the depth of the soil at the bottom of each clear round pan. Record this data in the table. 6. Repeat steps 3-5 two more times. Data:

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Based on the results of Margo's investigation, what might happen to a stream ecosystem if people removed all the plants from a hillside next to the stream?

  (A) More water would flow into the stream ecosystem.

  (B) More soil would be washed into the stream ecosystem.

  (C) More oxygen would be carried into the stream ecosystem.


Hold That Soil After a rain storm, Margo saw a lot of soil on the sidewalks. Sidewalks next to grassy areas stayed much cleaner. Sidewalks next to areas without grass were covered with soil. Margo did the following investigation to see if grass would help protect soil from being washed away. Margo used grass sod (a layer of grass with its roots in soil) in her investigation. Prediction: Water will wash away less soil from the plastic box with grass sod compared to the plastic box with only soil. Materials: 2 plastic boxes with drain holes 2 clear round pans 2 pieces of grass sod 2 water pitchers water 2 meter sticks 6 wooden support blocks

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Procedure: 1. Place one piece of grass sod into a plastic box with a drain hole as shown in the Investigation Set-up diagram. 2. Remove the soil from the other piece of grass sod and place the removed soil into the second plastic box as shown in the Investigative Set-up diagram. 3. From a height of 75 cm, pour 1 liter of water into each plastic box. 4. Let the soil that collects in each round pan settle for 15 minutes. 5. Measure the depth of the soil at the bottom of each clear round pan. Record this data in the table. 6. Repeat steps 3-5 two more times. Data:

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Which of the following parts of soil would most likely be carried into the clear round pans by the poured water the fastest?

  (A) Small parts of the soil such as dirt

  (B) Medium parts of the soil such as sand

  (C) Large parts of the soil such as gravel


Hold That Soil After a rain storm, Margo saw a lot of soil on the sidewalks. Sidewalks next to grassy areas stayed much cleaner. Sidewalks next to areas without grass were covered with soil. Margo did the following investigation to see if grass would help protect soil from being washed away. Margo used grass sod (a layer of grass with its roots in soil) in her investigation. Prediction: Water will wash away less soil from the plastic box with grass sod compared to the plastic box with only soil. Materials: 2 plastic boxes with drain holes 2 clear round pans 2 pieces of grass sod 2 water pitchers water 2 meter sticks 6 wooden support blocks

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Procedure: 1. Place one piece of grass sod into a plastic box with a drain hole as shown in the Investigation Set-up diagram. 2. Remove the soil from the other piece of grass sod and place the removed soil into the second plastic box as shown in the Investigative Set-up diagram. 3. From a height of 75 cm, pour 1 liter of water into each plastic box. 4. Let the soil that collects in each round pan settle for 15 minutes. 5. Measure the depth of the soil at the bottom of each clear round pan. Record this data in the table. 6. Repeat steps 3-5 two more times. Data:

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Which forces cause the movement of soil in the plastic boxes?

  (A) The forces caused by air rising

  (B) The forces caused by wind blowing

  (C) The forces caused by water flowing


Hold That Soil After a rain storm, Margo saw a lot of soil on the sidewalks. Sidewalks next to grassy areas stayed much cleaner. Sidewalks next to areas without grass were covered with soil. Margo did the following investigation to see if grass would help protect soil from being washed away. Margo used grass sod (a layer of grass with its roots in soil) in her investigation. Prediction: Water will wash away less soil from the plastic box with grass sod compared to the plastic box with only soil. Materials: 2 plastic boxes with drain holes 2 clear round pans 2 pieces of grass sod 2 water pitchers water 2 meter sticks 6 wooden support blocks

image

Procedure: 1. Place one piece of grass sod into a plastic box with a drain hole as shown in the Investigation Set-up diagram. 2. Remove the soil from the other piece of grass sod and place the removed soil into the second plastic box as shown in the Investigative Set-up diagram. 3. From a height of 75 cm, pour 1 liter of water into each plastic box. 4. Let the soil that collects in each round pan settle for 15 minutes. 5. Measure the depth of the soil at the bottom of each clear round pan. Record this data in the table. 6. Repeat steps 3-5 two more times. Data:

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What form of energy allows the water to wash away the soil in the plastic boxes?

  (A) Sound energy

  (B) Energy of motion

  (C) Electrical energy


Hold That Soil After a rain storm, Margo saw a lot of soil on the sidewalks. Sidewalks next to grassy areas stayed much cleaner. Sidewalks next to areas without grass were covered with soil. Margo did the following investigation to see if grass would help protect soil from being washed away. Margo used grass sod (a layer of grass with its roots in soil) in her investigation. Prediction: Water will wash away less soil from the plastic box with grass sod compared to the plastic box with only soil. Materials: 2 plastic boxes with drain holes 2 clear round pans 2 pieces of grass sod 2 water pitchers water 2 meter sticks 6 wooden support blocks

image

Procedure: 1. Place one piece of grass sod into a plastic box with a drain hole as shown in the Investigation Set-up diagram. 2. Remove the soil from the other piece of grass sod and place the removed soil into the second plastic box as shown in the Investigative Set-up diagram. 3. From a height of 75 cm, pour 1 liter of water into each plastic box. 4. Let the soil that collects in each round pan settle for 15 minutes. 5. Measure the depth of the soil at the bottom of each clear round pan. Record this data in the table. 6. Repeat steps 3-5 two more times. Data:

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The Hubble Telescope is ten times more powerful that any telescope on Earth. How is this invention helpful to scientists?

  (A) The telescope provides a way to see the different layers inside Earth.

  (B) The telescope provides a way to collect light energy from the sun.

  (C) The telescope provides a way to see objects that are very far away.


Weather Wonders Ian and Emma planned a trip to four cities in the state of Washington. They expected different types of weather while on their trip. The map below shows the four cities they visited.

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They found the average yearly precipitation for each of the four cities. They recorded their results in the table below.

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Water evaporates as wind blows across the Pacific Ocean. Which of the following changes takes place during this evaporation process?

  (A) Gas to liquid

  (B) Liquid to gas

  (C) Solid to gas


Better Boiling Joel heard that cold water will begin boiling (bubbling at the surface) faster than hot water when heated the same. He and his father did the following investigation. Question: How does the starting temperature of water affect the time for the water to begin boiling? Prediction: The lower the water's starting temperature, the quicker the water will begin boiling. Materials: empty cans of the same size labeled A, B, C large pan stove burner water: same amounts of ice water, cold water from the faucet, and hot water from the faucet thermometer stopwatch

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Procedure: 1. Set up the large pan and cans of water as shown in the Investigation Setup diagram. 2. Measure and record the starting temperature of the water in each can. 3. Place the pan on the stove burner, and turn the burner on to medium heat. 4. Measure and record the time for the water to begin boiling in each can as Trial 1. 5. Turn the burner off, and let the pan cool. 6. Repeat steps 1 through 5 two more times as Trials 2 and 3. 7. Find and record the average starting temperature and average time for the water to boil in each can. Data:

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Which of the following liquids had the greatest amount of energy before being heated?

  (A) Hot water

  (B) Ice water

  (C) Cold water


Weather Wonders Ian and Emma planned a trip to four cities in the state of Washington. They expected different types of weather while on their trip. The map below shows the four cities they visited.

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They found the average yearly precipitation for each of the four cities. They recorded their results in the table below.

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Emma made the tool below to help her measure the wind at the beach.

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What would Emma be able to measure using this tool?

  (A) Wind temperature

  (B) Wind direction

  (C) Wind speed


Weather Wonders Ian and Emma planned a trip to four cities in the state of Washington. They expected different types of weather while on their trip. The map below shows the four cities they visited.

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They found the average yearly precipitation for each of the four cities. They recorded their results in the table below.

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In Spokane, days are usually hotter in the summer and colder in the winter than are days in Seattle. Which of the following reasons explains this difference?

  (A) Seattle is farther east than Spokane.

  (B) Seattle is next to a large body of water.

  (C) Seattle has more rainfall than Spokane.


Weather Wonders Ian and Emma planned a trip to four cities in the state of Washington. They expected different types of weather while on their trip. The map below shows the four cities they visited.

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They found the average yearly precipitation for each of the four cities. They recorded their results in the table below.

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he grass in each of the four cities is sometimes wet in the morning, even on days without rain. What is the source of the water on the grass?

  (A) Water evaporates from the grass.

  (B) Water in the air condenses on the grass.

  (C) Water on the grass is absorbed by the soil.


Better Boiling Joel heard that cold water will begin boiling (bubbling at the surface) faster than hot water when heated the same. He and his father did the following investigation. Question: How does the starting temperature of water affect the time for the water to begin boiling? Prediction: The lower the water's starting temperature, the quicker the water will begin boiling. Materials: empty cans of the same size labeled A, B, C large pan stove burner water: same amounts of ice water, cold water from the faucet, and hot water from the faucet thermometer stopwatch

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Procedure: 1. Set up the large pan and cans of water as shown in the Investigation Setup diagram. 2. Measure and record the starting temperature of the water in each can. 3. Place the pan on the stove burner, and turn the burner on to medium heat. 4. Measure and record the time for the water to begin boiling in each can as Trial 1. 5. Turn the burner off, and let the pan cool. 6. Repeat steps 1 through 5 two more times as Trials 2 and 3. 7. Find and record the average starting temperature and average time for the water to boil in each can. Data:

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Which variable was the changed (manipulated) variable in this investigation?

  (A) Type of pan used

  (B) Size of the can used

  (C) Starting temperature of the water


Better Boiling Joel heard that cold water will begin boiling (bubbling at the surface) faster than hot water when heated the same. He and his father did the following investigation. Question: How does the starting temperature of water affect the time for the water to begin boiling? Prediction: The lower the water's starting temperature, the quicker the water will begin boiling. Materials: empty cans of the same size labeled A, B, C large pan stove burner water: same amounts of ice water, cold water from the faucet, and hot water from the faucet thermometer stopwatch

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Procedure: 1. Set up the large pan and cans of water as shown in the Investigation Setup diagram. 2. Measure and record the starting temperature of the water in each can. 3. Place the pan on the stove burner, and turn the burner on to medium heat. 4. Measure and record the time for the water to begin boiling in each can as Trial 1. 5. Turn the burner off, and let the pan cool. 6. Repeat steps 1 through 5 two more times as Trials 2 and 3. 7. Find and record the average starting temperature and average time for the water to boil in each can. Data:

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Which of the following variables was kept the same (controlled) in this investigation?

  (A) Amount of water in each can

  (B) Type of water in each can

  (C) Placement of cans on pan


Better Boiling Joel heard that cold water will begin boiling (bubbling at the surface) faster than hot water when heated the same. He and his father did the following investigation. Question: How does the starting temperature of water affect the time for the water to begin boiling? Prediction: The lower the water's starting temperature, the quicker the water will begin boiling. Materials: empty cans of the same size labeled A, B, C large pan stove burner water: same amounts of ice water, cold water from the faucet, and hot water from the faucet thermometer stopwatch

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Procedure: 1. Set up the large pan and cans of water as shown in the Investigation Setup diagram. 2. Measure and record the starting temperature of the water in each can. 3. Place the pan on the stove burner, and turn the burner on to medium heat. 4. Measure and record the time for the water to begin boiling in each can as Trial 1. 5. Turn the burner off, and let the pan cool. 6. Repeat steps 1 through 5 two more times as Trials 2 and 3. 7. Find and record the average starting temperature and average time for the water to boil in each can. Data:

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Why did Joel repeat the investigation two more times?

  (A) To be sure the time to boil was correct

  (B) To fill out his data table with results

  (C) To make the results fit his prediction


Use the following information to answer the question. The state tree for Washington is the Western Hemlock. The Western Hemlock tree is an important part of many forest ecosystems in Washington State. The seeds of a hemlock tree can be found in the cones made by the tree as shown in the Western Hemlock Tree diagram below.

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Trees and their plants need energy from the Sun to live. What form of energy does the tree get from the Sun?

  (A) Light energy

  (B) Electrical energy

  (C) Chemical energy


Directions: Use the following information to answer the question. During the summer, Maddie and Dayton visited a lake with a beach. They noticed the soil felt warmer than the water on their feet. They did the following investigation. Question: What is the effect of the type of Earth material (soil or water) on the temperature of the material when heated with a lamp? Prediction: Water will increase in temperature more than soil. Materials: Earth materials: soil and water plastic containers lamps thermometer metric ruler white paper timer

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Procedure: 1. Pour soil into one plastic container and the same amount of water into the other. 2. Place the lamps and white paper as shown in the Investigation Setup diagram. 3. Be sure the lamps are the same type and are 30 centimeters (cm) above the plastic containers. 4. Measure and record the starting temperatures of the soil and of the water 1 cm below the surface. 5. Turn on the lamps for 15 minutes. 6. Measure and record the temperatures of the soil and of the water 1 cm below the surface as Trial 1. 7. Repeat steps 1 through 6 two times as Trials 2 and 3. 8. Find and record the average ending temperatures.

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Why did Maddie and Dayton investigate with a model instead of measuring the temperatures of the soil on the beach and the water in the lake?

  (A) Thermometers are easy to use in a model.

  (B) Light energy can be controlled in a model.

  (C) Temperatures of Earth materials can be changed in a model.


Directions: Use the following information to answer the question. During the summer, Maddie and Dayton visited a lake with a beach. They noticed the soil felt warmer than the water on their feet. They did the following investigation. Question: What is the effect of the type of Earth material (soil or water) on the temperature of the material when heated with a lamp? Prediction: Water will increase in temperature more than soil. Materials: Earth materials: soil and water plastic containers lamps thermometer metric ruler white paper timer

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Procedure: 1. Pour soil into one plastic container and the same amount of water into the other. 2. Place the lamps and white paper as shown in the Investigation Setup diagram. 3. Be sure the lamps are the same type and are 30 centimeters (cm) above the plastic containers. 4. Measure and record the starting temperatures of the soil and of the water 1 cm below the surface. 5. Turn on the lamps for 15 minutes. 6. Measure and record the temperatures of the soil and of the water 1 cm below the surface as Trial 1. 7. Repeat steps 1 through 6 two times as Trials 2 and 3. 8. Find and record the average ending temperatures.

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How does energy change forms as the energy travels from the lamp to the Earth materials in the plastic containers?

  (A) Electrical energy -> energy of motion -> heat energy

  (B) Electrical energy -> heat energy -> sound energy

  (C) Electrical energy -> light energy -> heat energy


Use the following information to answer the question. The state tree for Washington is the Western Hemlock. The Western Hemlock tree is an important part of many forest ecosystems in Washington State. The seeds of a hemlock tree can be found in the cones made by the tree as shown in the Western Hemlock Tree diagram below.

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What is a property of soil that helps the Western Hemlock tree to live?

  (A) Soil contains food the tree can use.

  (B) Soil contains many worms the tree can use.

  (C) Soil contains mineral nutrients the tree can use.


Use the following information to answer the question. The state tree for Washington is the Western Hemlock. The Western Hemlock tree is an important part of many forest ecosystems in Washington State. The seeds of a hemlock tree can be found in the cones made by the tree as shown in the Western Hemlock Tree diagram below.

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Trees develop growth rings every year as shown in the diagram below. A small space between rings means the tree did not grow very much during that year.

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What might be a reason a tree grew little during the years of small-spaced rings?

  (A) There were many squirrels that ate the seeds.

  (B) There were hot summers with very little rain.

  (C) The tree had very few cones in these years.


Use the following information to answer the question. The state tree for Washington is the Western Hemlock. The Western Hemlock tree is an important part of many forest ecosystems in Washington State. The seeds of a hemlock tree can be found in the cones made by the tree as shown in the Western Hemlock Tree diagram below.

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If Western Hemlock trees grew faster, people could harvest more wood to use. Which question could help solve the problem of making a tree grow faster?

  (A) What is the best soil for Western Hemlock trees?

  (B) Which types of animals live in Western Hemlock trees?

  (C) What time of year do Western Hemlock trees produce cones?


Use the following information to answer the question. The state tree for Washington is the Western Hemlock. The Western Hemlock tree is an important part of many forest ecosystems in Washington State. The seeds of a hemlock tree can be found in the cones made by the tree as shown in the Western Hemlock Tree diagram below.

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The Western Hemlock tree would most likely be classified with which group of plants?

  (A) Celery, tomato, broccoli

  (B) Pine, cedar, oak

  (C) Raspberry, daisy, dandelion


Directions: Use the following information to answer the question. During the summer, Maddie and Dayton visited a lake with a beach. They noticed the soil felt warmer than the water on their feet. They did the following investigation. Question: What is the effect of the type of Earth material (soil or water) on the temperature of the material when heated with a lamp? Prediction: Water will increase in temperature more than soil. Materials: Earth materials: soil and water plastic containers lamps thermometer metric ruler white paper timer

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Procedure: 1. Pour soil into one plastic container and the same amount of water into the other. 2. Place the lamps and white paper as shown in the Investigation Setup diagram. 3. Be sure the lamps are the same type and are 30 centimeters (cm) above the plastic containers. 4. Measure and record the starting temperatures of the soil and of the water 1 cm below the surface. 5. Turn on the lamps for 15 minutes. 6. Measure and record the temperatures of the soil and of the water 1 cm below the surface as Trial 1. 7. Repeat steps 1 through 6 two times as Trials 2 and 3. 8. Find and record the average ending temperatures.

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Which variable was the changed (manipulated) variable in this investigation?

  (A) The type of Earth materials that were tested

  (B) The final temperature of each Earth material used

  (C) The amount of time each Earth material was heated


Directions: Use the following information to answer the question. During the summer, Maddie and Dayton visited a lake with a beach. They noticed the soil felt warmer than the water on their feet. They did the following investigation. Question: What is the effect of the type of Earth material (soil or water) on the temperature of the material when heated with a lamp? Prediction: Water will increase in temperature more than soil. Materials: Earth materials: soil and water plastic containers lamps thermometer metric ruler white paper timer

image

Procedure: 1. Pour soil into one plastic container and the same amount of water into the other. 2. Place the lamps and white paper as shown in the Investigation Setup diagram. 3. Be sure the lamps are the same type and are 30 centimeters (cm) above the plastic containers. 4. Measure and record the starting temperatures of the soil and of the water 1 cm below the surface. 5. Turn on the lamps for 15 minutes. 6. Measure and record the temperatures of the soil and of the water 1 cm below the surface as Trial 1. 7. Repeat steps 1 through 6 two times as Trials 2 and 3. 8. Find and record the average ending temperatures.

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Which variable was the measured (responding) variable in this investigation?

  (A) The temperature of the air after 15 minutes

  (B) The temperature of the lamps after 15 minutes

  (C) The temperature of the Earth materials after 15 minutes


Compost Pile Directions: Use the following information to answer the question. Simon's school has an area for a compost pile. A compost pile contains plant waste that can be decomposed. Compost is used in the garden. The diagram below shows the location of Simon's compost pile at his school.

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How could the compost pile benefit the garden?

  (A) Compost could add nutrients to the soil.

  (B) Compost could remove energy from the plants.

  (C) Compost could stop sunlight from reaching the plants.


Compost Pile Directions: Use the following information to answer the question. Simon's school has an area for a compost pile. A compost pile contains plant waste that can be decomposed. Compost is used in the garden. The diagram below shows the location of Simon's compost pile at his school.

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Which of the following is food energy for the decomposers in the compost pile?

  (A) Heat

  (B) Water

  (C) Leaves


Compost Pile Directions: Use the following information to answer the question. Simon's school has an area for a compost pile. A compost pile contains plant waste that can be decomposed. Compost is used in the garden. The diagram below shows the location of Simon's compost pile at his school.

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Which one of these problems can be solved by putting waste in the compost pile?

  (A) Disposing of empty pop cans

  (B) Disposing of plastic containers

  (C) Disposing of leftover vegetables


Living plants and fish are show below.

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These plants are providing the fish with

  (A) water.

  (B) light.

  (C) oxygen.

  (D) carbon dioxide.


The tracks below were made by a dinosaur.

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Scientists can conclude by studying these tracks that this dinosaur

  (A) could not fly.

  (B) could not swim.

  (C) walked using one leg.

  (D) walked using two legs.


The picture below shows the melting of an ice cube.

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The ice cube changed because it

  (A) cooled.

  (B) warmed.

  (C) hardened.

  (D) evaporated.


Which tool would a scientist use to study the shape of fish eggs?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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An extinct animal called a mammoth is shown below.

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Which statement is an observation about the mammoth?

  (A) The mammoth was related to the elephant.

  (B) The mammoth was a slow-moving animal.

  (C) The mammoth's tusks were used for protection.

  (D) The mammoth's tusks were curved and pointed


Which bird foot is best for swimming?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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The picture below shows a small, shelled animal.

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Which tool should be used to measure the mass of this shelled animal?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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Which model correctly shows energy flow in a food chain?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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The picture below shows an energy pyramid.

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What will most likely happen to the foxes and the wolves if the rabbits are removed?

  (A) The foxes will eat more wolves.

  (B) The foxes will eat fewer wolves.

  (C) There will be more foxes and wolves.

  (D) There will be fewer foxes and wolves.


A student moved an unknown material from a small glass container to a larger glass container. The student recorded observations made before and after the material was moved.

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Which of the following is most likely the unknown material?

  (A) air

  (B) milk

  (C) rock

  (D) juice


A drawing of a metric ruler is shown below.

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A student has four rubber bands. Which rubber band is about 4 cm long?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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A student watches two birds building a nest near the top of a tree. Which tool would the student find most helpful for watching the birds?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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A food chain is shown below.

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Which type of organism will most likely increase if the krill population decreases?

  (A) plankton

  (B) small fish

  (C) salmon

  (D) eagle


In which container will the liquid water most likely change into a gas fastest?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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The drawing below shows a volcano.

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Which statement is an inference based on the drawing?

  (A) The volcano is shaped like a cone.

  (B) The volcano has stopped erupting.

  (C) There is magma inside the volcano.

  (D) There are trees at the base of the volcano


The drawing below shows fossils in three rock layers.

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Based on the drawing, which type of fossil most likely represents the oldest type of organism?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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Iron filings and bar magnets were placed on a sheet of paper. The following diagram shows the pattern made on the paper.

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At which location is the magnetic field the strongest?

  (A) 1

  (B) 2

  (C) 3

  (D) 4


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Which gas is forming in the test tube shown above?

  (A) carbon dioxide

  (B) hydrogen

  (C) oxygen

  (D) nitrogen


The diagram below shows a simple food web.

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Which animal is classified as an omnivore?

  (A) red fox

  (B) deer

  (C) black bear

  (D) rabbit


Students are gathering materials and building an electrical circuit.

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Which material will allow electricity to flow between the battery and the light bulb?

  (A) copper wire

  (B) wooden rod

  (C) cotton string

  (D) rubber tube


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What is responsible for shaping this arch?

  (A) plate tectonics

  (B) earthquakes

  (C) deposition

  (D) erosion


A scientist uses an instrument to observe the pattern of molecules in a substance. The picture below shows what the scientist sees.

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What state of matter is the scientist most likely observing?

  (A) gas

  (B) liquid

  (C) vapor

  (D) solid


A student wants to see the xylem of a plant stem. Which instrument should the student use?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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A group of students observed the following tree while hiking through a hilly area.

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What is the most likely cause for the angle of growth of this tree?

  (A) The tree is reaching toward the afternoon sunlight.

  (B) Water rolling down the hill uprooted the tree.

  (C) Large rocks hit the tree when they rolled down the hill.

  (D) Strong uphill winds have pushed against the tree.


A student added a small ball to a graduated cylinder containing 10 milliliters of water.

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What is the volume of the ball?

  (A) 5 mL

  (B) 10 mL

  (C) 15 mL

  (D) 20 mL


The chart below shows the results of an experiment designed to study how exercise affects heart rate.

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Which of the following statements is the best conclusion for this experiment?

  (A) Exercise triples a person's heart rate.

  (B) Exercise decreases a person's heart rate.

  (C) Heart rate is not affected by exercise.

  (D) Heart rate is increased by exercise.


The diagram below shows a mixture.

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Which of the following pieces of equipment should be used to separate this mixture?

  (A) magnet

  (B) balance

  (C) funnel

  (D) hot plate


The organisms shown below live in or near bodies of water. Some are classified as vertebrates and some as invertebrates.

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Which organism is classified as an invertebrate?

  (A) crab

  (B) fish

  (C) manatee

  (D) turtle


A student observed the Moon on a Tuesday. She drew a picture of its shape in her journal, as shown below.

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Approximately how long will the student have to wait before she can see the Moon with this same shape and position again?

  (A) 7 days

  (B) 14 days

  (C) 28 days

  (D) 365 days


In which of the following locations is new soil likely to form at the slowest rate over time?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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Stacie wants to make an electromagnet using a copper wire wrapped around an iron bar, as shown below.

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To make the bar an electromagnet, what should Stacie do next?

  (A) connect the wire to a bulb

  (B) heat the wire around the bar

  (C) send a current through the wire

  (D) touch the ends of the wire together


A pond is pictured below in two different seasons.

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Which of the following has caused the changes in the pond from A to B?

  (A) The pond water has lost heat energy.

  (B) The pond water temperature has increased.

  (C) Warm water has risen to the top of the pond.

  (D) All of the water has evaporated from the pond.


Which of the following objects is an example of a simple machine?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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The picture below shows aweather instrument.

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What is this weather instrument designed to measure?

  (A) air temperature

  (B) rainfall amount

  (C) snowfall amount

  (D) wind speed


The table below lists some weather conditions for one day in Worcester, Massachusetts.

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Based on the information in the table, which of the following types of precipitation most likely occurred on this day?

  (A) hail

  (B) rain

  (C) sleet

  (D) snow


The diagram below shows four stages in the life cycle of the mosquito.

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During which stage in its life cycle is the mosquito able to mate and reproduce?

  (A) egg

  (B) larva

  (C) pupa

  (D) adult


The picture below shows a plant growing in a closed room under a single light.

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The plant is moved to the table in the back of the room and the light remains in the same place. Which of the following will change the most?

  (A) the direction the plant grows

  (B) the nutrients the plant needs

  (C) the shape of the plant's leaves

  (D) the color of the plant's flowers


The picture below shows a farmer plowing a field.

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The farmer is plowing dead plants into the farmland soil. How does this improve the soil?

  (A) The dead plants add nutrients to the soil.

  (B) The dead plants bring oxygen to the soil.

  (C) The dead plants absorb toxins from the soil.

  (D) The dead plants reduce the carbon dioxide in the soil.


The Mohs scale for minerals is shown below.

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An unidentified mineral scratches fluorite but not quartz. According to the Mohs scale, what could be the unidentified mineral?

  (A) apatite

  (B) calcite

  (C) diamond

  (D) topaz


Which of the following sets of pictures shows the phases of the Moon in the order they would be observed?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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Which of the following shows two objects that are both conductors of electricity?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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The picture below shows a dandelion plant.

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Which of the following is an important function of the taproot of a dandelion plant?

  (A) to hold the plant in place

  (B) to take in air for the plant

  (C) to produce seeds for the plant

  (D) to protect the plant against insects


The diagram below shows a clock radio with four labeled parts.

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Which part of the radio is designed to transform electrical energy into sound energy?

  (A) digital display

  (B) plastic case

  (C) speaker

  (D) tuner


Adele wants to fasten two pieces of wood together, as shown below.

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Which of the following tools would be best for Adele to use to turn the fastener?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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Four reptiles are shown below.

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Which of the following questions about an animal's physical characteristics is best to use when deciding whether an animal is a reptile?

  (A) How big is it?

  (B) Does it have scales?

  (C) Does it have a shell?

  (D) How many legs does it have?


Three bar magnets are placed inside a plastic tube. Which of the following pictures best shows how the three bar magnets will move after being placed inside the tube?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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Wildebeests are herbivores that live in very large herds in Africa. The map below shows how wildebeest herds typically move around in an area during the year.

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Which of the following reasons best explains why the wildebeest herds move around in the area each year?

  (A) to find more food

  (B) to escape a thunderstorm

  (C) to develop stronger muscles

  (D) to follow other animal species


Erosion, transportation, and deposition change the surface of Earth.

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Which number in the diagram represents a landform made by the deposition of eroded sediment?

  (A) 1

  (B) 2

  (C) 3

  (D) 4


Different materials are attracted by magnets.

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Which items are attracted by a magnet?

  (A) copper cylinder and iron nail

  (B) steel paper clip and iron nail

  (C) steel paper clip and copper cylinder

  (D) aluminum washer and steel paper clip


A car and a truck move on a road in the same direction at the same speed. Both vehicles slow down with the same stopping force.

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Which statement best explains why the truck needs more distance to stop?

  (A) The truck is longer.

  (B) The truck has more mass.

  (C) The truck has larger wheels.

  (D) The truck has a larger engine.


The Little Dipper is a group of stars. During the night, the Little Dipper appears to change positions in the sky.

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Which of these statements best explains why the Little Dipper appears to change positions in the night sky?

  (A) Earth rotates on its axis.

  (B) Earth revolves around the stars.

  (C) The Little Dipper moves around the sun.

  (D) The stars in the Little Dipper move in the sky.


Some metal tools used for cooking have wooden handles.

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Which property of wood makes it a good material for the handle on a cooking tool?

  (A) Wood is a natural material.

  (B) Wood is unaffected by metal.

  (C) Wood does not conduct heat well.

  (D) Wood does not conduct electricity well.


Use the information below to answer the question. The diagram below shows water moving through the environment.

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Which of these statements best describes the purpose of the arrows in the diagram?

  (A) The arrows show how clouds form.

  (B) The arrows show how erosion occurs.

  (C) The arrows show the processes of the water cycle.

  (D) The arrows show the movement of water to the ocean.


Use the information below to answer the question. The diagram below shows water moving through the environment.

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Which number in the diagram represents condensation?

  (A) 1

  (B) 2

  (C) 3

  (D) 4


Use the information below to answer the question. The diagram below shows water moving through the environment.

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Which of these statements describes a change to the surface of Earth that is caused by water moving through the environment?

  (A) Water transports soil.

  (B) Dew forms on grass.

  (C) Ocean tides follow a pattern.

  (D) Tropical storms remain over the ocean.


Maryland air quality is reported daily using the color codes from the data table below.

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Which group of people would most likely be affected when the color code is yellow?

  (A) adults who exercise regularly

  (B) athletes in good physical shape

  (C) teenagers who play soccer and football

  (D) young children with breathing problems


A student travels in a car from home to school. The locations of the student's home and the school are shown on the map below.

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How far and in what direction does the student travel from home to school?

  (A) 3 kilometers north and 7 kilometers east

  (B) 5 kilometers north and 3 kilometers east

  (C) 3 kilometers south and 5 kilometers west

  (D) 5 kilometers south and 7 kilometers west


The drawing below is of three separate bar magnets. The north and south poles of each magnet are labeled.

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Which arrangement shows that the three magnets would attract one another, end to end?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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A student pushed a toy car from Point W to Point X in 3 seconds.

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Which statement best describes the distance the car traveled?

  (A) The car traveled 2 meters.

  (B) The car traveled 2.5 meters.

  (C) The car traveled for 3 seconds.

  (D) The car traveled 3 meters per second.


A student measures the mass and volume of a balloon before filling the balloon with air. The student then fills the balloon with air and measures the mass and volume again.

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Which set of properties best explains how the mass and volume in the inflated balloon are different from the mass and volume in the deflated balloon?

  (A) less mass, less volume

  (B) less mass, more volume

  (C) more mass, less volume

  (D) more mass, more volume


The data table below compares three features of four plants. The four plants are in the same plant family.

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What feature must a plant have to be grouped into this plant family?

  (A) purple flowers

  (B) square stems

  (C) a height less than 90 centimeters

  (D) a height greater than 90 centimeters


Students are studying types of circuits. Which circuit below will cause the light bulb to produce light?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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Multicellular organisms are composed of cells that vary in appearance.

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What is the most likely reason cells in organisms have different shapes?

  (A) to work at similar rates

  (B) to perform similar roles

  (C) to work at different rates

  (D) to perform different roles


Magnets are often repelled by each other. Which pair of magnets will repel each other with the greatest force?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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A student had a mineral sample that was gray in color and had a hardness of 6. The mineral made a white streak when scraped on a ceramic plate.

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According to the table above, the mineral sample was most likely

  (A) hematite

  (B) magnetite

  (C) garnet

  (D) feldspar


The diagram below shows the life cycle of a tree.

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During what stage in this life cycle are seeds produced?

  (A) stage W

  (B) stage X

  (C) stage Y

  (D) stage Z


The table shown below describes an organism.

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Which organism is described in the table?

  (A) algae

  (B) fish

  (C) human

  (D) mushroom


The diagram below shows three different ways that a sugar cube can undergo a physical change.

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Which characteristic of the sugar cube does not change?

  (A) shape

  (B) state

  (C) weight

  (D) texture


A student is putting a glass jar upside down into a tank of water.

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What happens when the student pushes the glass jar straight down into the water?

  (A) The jar cracks.

  (B) The jar fills with water.

  (C) Air leaves the jar.

  (D) Air prevents the jar from filling with water.


The table below shows the rise and fall of the deer population in Arizona between 1905 and 1935.

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What most likely caused the deer population to change between 1915 and 1920?

  (A) very little rainfall

  (B) many deer starving

  (C) removal of predators

  (D) more deer being hunted


The diagram below shows a part of the solar system.

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Object X is most likely

  (A) a star.

  (B) a moon.

  (C) a planet.

  (D) a sun.


The diagram below shows the same grain of sand moving up the side of a desert sand dune.

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What causes the grain of sand to move in this pattern?

  (A) earthquakes

  (B) volcanoes

  (C) water

  (D) wind


Which organism is made of one cell?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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The picture below shows a fossil of an animal

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Where did this animal live?

  (A) in the ground

  (B) in the trees

  (C) in the desert

  (D) in the ocean


The diagram below shows a food chain.

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Which organism is the best choice for W in the food chain?

  (A) bacteria

  (B) grass

  (C) mouse

  (D) fox


Which of the following is a correct parent-offspring pair?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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Which two items shown above can be used together to determine the direction of the wind?

  (A) the ruler and the compass

  (B) the pinwheel and the ruler

  (C) the compass and the pinwheel

  (D) the thermometer and the compass


The picture below shows the life cycle of a gypsy moth.

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During which stage of its life cycle is the gypsy moth most likely to cause damage to crops?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

image

  (D)

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Look at the beaver tail in the picture above. This tail is adapted to help the beaver move swiftly through the water when swimming. Which of the following foot structures most likely belongs to the beaver?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

image

  (D)

image


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The picture above shows a typical classroom setup. Why would shadows be difficult to see in this room?

  (A) Shadows do not occur in buildings.

  (B) Ceiling lights do not produce shadows.

  (C) There are multiple light sources in the classroom.

  (D) The windows are on only one side of the room.


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Which of the following best describes the forces being used by the dog?

  (A) The dog is pulling on the ground and pulling on the rope.

  (B) The dog is pulling on the ground and pushing on the rope.

  (C) The dog is pushing off the ground and pulling on the rope.

  (D) The dog is pushing off the ground and pushing on the rope.


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Which combination of simple machines is the worker using to move these boxes into the truck?

  (A) gears and inclined plane

  (B) lever and wheel and axle

  (C) pulley and inclined plane

  (D) inclined plane and wheel and axle


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Which city on the map is least likely to experience snowfall during the winter months?

  (A) Portland

  (B) Cincinnati

  (C) Louisville

  (D) Naples


Tyrone taped a list of things to do on his mirror so he would not forget to do them. The list included the following tasks:

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Based on Tyrone's list, what is he trying to accomplish by performing these tasks?

  (A) reduce waste

  (B) reuse materials

  (C) recycle resources

  (D) renew energy sources


Using the diagram below and what you know about Earth, answer the question.

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After Earth completes one full rotation (spin) on its axis, how much time has passed?

  (A) one 24-hour day

  (B) one 7-day week

  (C) one full month

  (D) one full year


Which graph represents an object that is decreasing in speed?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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A student put five ring magnets on a pencil. The magnets are labeled 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5.

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Which two magnets are attracting each other?

  (A) 1 and 2

  (B) 2 and 3

  (C) 3 and 4

  (D) 4 and 5


The diagram below shows a bulb and a wire attached to a battery.

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Why would this bulb be lit?

  (A) The battery is out of energy.

  (B) The bulb is out of energy.

  (C) The circuit is opened.

  (D) The circuit is closed.


The diagram below shows a person rolling a barrel into the back of a truck.

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What simple machine is the person using to help roll the barrel?

  (A) balance

  (B) pulley

  (C) lever

  (D) inclined plane


The diagram below shows several objects.

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Which objects in the picture are nonliving?

  (A) tree and rope

  (B) tire and rope

  (C) grass and tire

  (D) grass and tree


The diagram below shows the growth of a tree.

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This diagram represents a

  (A) food chain

  (B) food supply

  (C) life span

  (D) life cycle


Two seeds are shown in the diagram below.

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How are these seeds most likely dispersed?

  (A) by wind

  (B) in water

  (C) on an animal's fur

  (D) eaten by animals


The chart below shows three properties of five objects.

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What color is the round object that has a rough surface?

  (A) blue

  (B) green

  (C) red

  (D) yellow


A group of students wants to record the change in temperature of a container of water every 2 minutes for a period of 10 minutes. Which table will best organize these data?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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The diagram below shows a view of Earth.

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The arrows represent Earth's

  (A) gravity

  (B) weather

  (C) revolution

  (D) rotation


Base your answers on the diagram below and on your knowledge of science. The diagram shows four identical marbles and a graduated cylinder containing 43 mL of water.

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A student puts two marbles in the cylinder and the water level rises from 43 mL to 45 mL. The student then puts the other two marbles in the graduated cylinder. What will the water level be when all four marbles are in the graduated cylinder?

  (A) 43 mL

  (B) 45 mL

  (C) 47 mL

  (D) 49 mL


Base your answers on the diagram below and on your knowledge of science. The diagram shows four identical marbles and a graduated cylinder containing 43 mL of water.

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Which property of the marbles causes the water level to rise when they are put in the graduated cylinder?

  (A) color

  (B) shape

  (C) texture

  (D) volume


An incomplete electric circuit is shown below. The lightbulb is not lit.

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Which object placed at X would complete the circuit and light the bulb?

  (A) magnet

  (B) battery

  (C) metal nail

  (D) second lightbulb


Which diagram shows the order of the stages in the butterfly's life cycle?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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The diagram below shows an area of land that changed after many years.

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Which process changed the shape of the rock layers over time?

  (A) condensation

  (B) evaporation

  (C) erosion

  (D) magnetism


The pulley and lever shown below use mechanical energy to move an object.

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The pulley and lever are examples of

  (A) circuits

  (B) magnets

  (C) measurement tools

  (D) simple machines


Base your answers on the diagram below and on your knowledge of science. The diagram shows some organisms living together.

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The baby birds in the nest are competing for

  (A) food

  (B) mates

  (C) predators

  (D) camouflage


Base your answers on the diagram below and on your knowledge of science. The diagram shows some organisms living together.

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Which two organisms in this diagram are producers?

  (A) blue jay and woodpecker

  (B) beetle and squirrel

  (C) worm and leaves

  (D) tree and grass


The photograph below shows a cactus plant covered with sharp spines.

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How do the sharp spines on the cactus help it to survive?

  (A) They absorb sunlight.

  (B) They provide support for the plant.

  (C) They keep animals away from the plant.

  (D) They carry food to the flower.


The graph below shows information about several animals.

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What is the best title for this graph?

  (A) Life Cycles of Some Animals

  (B) Life Spans of Some Animals

  (C) Life Processes of Some Animals

  (D) Life Functions of Some Animals


Base your answers on the food chain below and on your knowledge of science

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If the number of frogs decreases, which population will most likely increase?

  (A) crickets

  (B) hawks

  (C) snakes

  (D) plants


Base your answers on the food chain below and on your knowledge of science

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Two predators shown in the diagram are

  (A) hawks and snakes

  (B) hawks and plants

  (C) frogs and crickets

  (D) frogs and plants


Two candles, A and B, were the same size. Candle B was lit and burned for an hour. After the hour, the candles were measured, as shown in the diagram below.

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How many centimeters shorter is candle B after it burned for an hour?

  (A) 2 cm

  (B) 3 cm

  (C) 4 cm

  (D) 5 cm


The diagram below shows Earth rotating.

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What is the total number of complete rotations that Earth makes in 2 weeks?

  (A) 1

  (B) 2

  (C) 7

  (D) 14


Two plants of the same species and size were planted in identical pots of soil. One pot was placed in a window and the other was placed on a table. Both plants were given the same amount of water and nutrients. The diagram below shows the two plants after 1 month.

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The plant in the window grew bigger because it received more

  (A) light

  (B) air

  (C) water

  (D) nutrients


The diagram below shows the beaks of three different birds. Birds use their beaks to obtain food.

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The differences in the birds' beaks are examples of

  (A) migrations

  (B) hibernations

  (C) physical adaptations

  (D) seasonal changes


Two tanks with fish are shown below. Parent fish are in tank 1. The fish in tank 2 are labeled A, B, C, and D.

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Which fish in tank 2 is most likely the offspring of the two parent fish in tank 1?

  (A) A

  (B) B

  (C) C

  (D) D


The four diagrams below show two magnets, X and Z. They are different distances apart in each diagram. In which diagram will magnet Z have the strongest attraction to magnet X?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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The photograph below shows burdock seeds. The seeds are inside a structure with thin, sharp hooks.

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These seeds will most likely be dispersed when they

  (A) are eaten by animals

  (B) attach to an animal's fur

  (C) germinate in the soil

  (D) develop in the water


Base your answers on the food chain below and on your knowledge of science.

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If the number of frogs suddenly increases, which population will most likely decrease first?

  (A) hawks

  (B) snakes

  (C) crickets

  (D) plants


Base your answers on the food chain below and on your knowledge of science.

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What is the main source of energy for all the organisms in this food chain?

  (A) Sun

  (B) plants

  (C) frogs

  (D) hawks


The data table below shows some average monthly air temperatures for a city in New York State. The average air temperature for the month of April is not shown.

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Based on the data, what would the average air temperature probably have been in April?

  (A) 28°F

  (B) 34°F

  (C) 46°F

  (D) 60°F


The diagram below shows a person using a tool to lift a box.

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Which tool is being used?

  (A) inclined plane

  (B) lever

  (C) magnet

  (D) pulley


The diagrams below show side views of an area of land near the ocean. The diagrams show how this area changed over a period of time.

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The changes to the land shown in the diagram were most likely caused by

  (A) erosion and deposition

  (B) erosion and magnetism

  (C) gravity and evaporation

  (D) gravity and condensation


The diagram below shows the path of a soccer ball as it travels from start to finish. The arrow represents a force acting on the ball.

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Which force is represented by the arrow?

  (A) magnetism

  (B) gravity

  (C) electricity

  (D) friction


Base your answers on the food chain below and on your knowledge of science. Four organisms in the food chain are labeled A, B, C, and D.

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Which organism in this food chain is both predator and prey?

  (A) A

  (B) B

  (C) C

  (D) D


Base your answers on the food chain below and on your knowledge of science. Four organisms in the food chain are labeled A, B, C, and D.

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If the population of organism A decreases, the population of organism B would most likely

  (A) decrease

  (B) increase

  (C) remain the same


The diagram below shows a flower that contains a sweet liquid called nectar.

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Four birds, labeled A, B, C, and D, are shown below. The birds eat different foods.

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Which bird's beak will make it easiest to get nectar out of the flower?

  (A) A

  (B) B

  (C) C

  (D) D


Base your answer on the diagram of a flowering plant below and on your knowledge of science. Four structures that help the plant to survive, grow, and reproduce are labeled.

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Which structure takes in water and nutrients from the soil?

  (A) flower

  (B) leaf

  (C) roots

  (D) stem


Base your answer on the diagram of a flowering plant below and on your knowledge of science. Four structures that help the plant to survive, grow, and reproduce are labeled.

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Which structure produces seeds for reproduction?

  (A) flower

  (B) leaf

  (C) roots

  (D) stem


The diagram below shows Earth revolving around the Sun. Letters A and B show two locations in Earth's orbit around the Sun.

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It takes Earth one year to revolve around the Sun. How long will it take for Earth to travel from point A to point B?

  (A) 1 month

  (B) 3 months

  (C) 6 months

  (D) 9 months


The diagram below shows a pencil being measured with paper clips.

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What is the length of the pencil in paper clips?

  (A) 4.0

  (B) 4.5

  (C) 5.0

  (D) 5.5


An air hose extends above and below the surface of the water.

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Which statement explains why the air hose looks broken at the surface of the water?

  (A) Light is refracted as it moves from air to water.

  (B) Light is reflected as it moves from air to water.

  (C) Light is absorbed as it moves from air to water.

  (D) Light is destroyed as it moves from air to water.


A teacher put a beaker of water on a hot plate. The beaker is shown before and after the hot plate is turned on.

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What is the evidence that water is changing state?

  (A) The hot plate is turned on.

  (B) The temperature increases.

  (C) The water bubbles and the steam is visible.

  (D) The mass of water in the beaker increases.


Electric energy flows through the wire filament in a light bulb. The energy flow causes the wire to glow and give off light.

image

Which type of energy produces this light?

  (A) sound

  (B) gravity

  (C) thermal

  (D) magnetic


Use the following table to answer the question.

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A student created this table for a report on animals that can be found in Ohio. Which animals give birth to live young?

  (A) hawk and black bear

  (B) beaver and black bear

  (C) hawk and potato beetle

  (D) beaver and potato beetle


The diagram shows the position of Earth [E] now.

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Where will Earth be in six months?

  (A) near position 1

  (B) near position 2

  (C) near position 3

  (D) near position 4


Use the following food web to answer the question.

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In this food web, which organism captures the sun's energy?

  (A) plant

  (B) hawk

  (C) mouse

  (D) grasshopper


Which diagram correctly shows the orbits of Earth [E] and the moon [M] around the sun [S]?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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Students are investigating the amount of rain their school receives during one spring. They have a rain gauge to measure how much rain falls each week.

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Where should they place the rain gauge to collect the most accurate data?

  (A) underneath a gutter along a roof

  (B) hanging from the branch of a tree

  (C) on the ground next to the building

  (D) on top of a fence post in an open area


Use the information below to answer the question. Sand dunes often have a wavy surface.

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What creates this kind of surface?

  (A) raindrops falling on the sand

  (B) wind blowing across the surface of the dune

  (C) tracks left in the sand as animals look for food

  (D) vibrations caused by earthquakes under the dune


A group of students separated the objects in the list into two groups. * Candle * Coin * Crayon * Match * Nail * Pencil * Tack * Wire The table shows how the students grouped the objects.

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According to this information, what physical characteristics did the students use to group the objects?

  (A) melts/does not melt

  (B) wood/not wood

  (C) metal/not metal

  (D) sharp/not sharp


Four students are each given the following materials: brick, iron nail, rubber band, salt water, dry wooden stick The teacher tells each student to sort the materials into two groups: those that conduct electricity and those that do not.

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Which student correctly sorted the materials by the ability to conduct electricity?

  (A) student 1

  (B) student 2

  (C) student 3

  (D) student 4


Use the following pictures to answer the question.

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How do these plants slow soil erosion caused by heavy rains?

  (A) Plants absorb water from the wet soil.

  (B) Plant roots hold soil particles together.

  (C) Plant leaves release water from the soil into the air.

  (D) Plants decrease moisture evaporation from the soil.


Use the following information and picture of a beetle to answer the question.

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The use of which tool allows the student to easily observe the beetle's legs as it is walking across the desk?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

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A student is collecting data about the wind. The picture shows a windsock attached to a flagpole on a windy day.

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According to the information in the picture, the wind is coming from which direction?

  (A) from the east

  (B) from the west

  (C) from the north

  (D) from the south


Some students added 500 milliliters of water to equal amounts of four different samples of soil. In this investigation, which sample of soil held the most water?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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The pictures below show how the monarch butterfly uses the milkweed plant.

image

Which picture shows the stage at which the monarch butterfly helps the milkweed plant reproduce?

  (A) Q

  (B) R

  (C) S

  (D) T


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According to the table shown above, elk most likely compete with which organisms for food?

  (A) Bobcats

  (B) Bighorn sheep

  (C) Bacteria

  (D) Bronze frogs


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A student plays the cymbals in a band. When the cymbals are hit together, a loud sound is produced. The force of the cymbals hitting each other produces sound because -

  (A) metal conducts heat

  (B) energy is absorbed

  (C) metal is magnetic

  (D) air vibrates


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Which of the following features is best modeled in the diagram above?

  (A) Island

  (B) Glacier

  (C) River

  (D) Volcano


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The picture shows the label for a new product. Based on the label, the reader can conclude that the tablets -

  (A) were made for children

  (B) have different flavors

  (C) are easy to chew

  (D) have a pleasant taste


Look at the advertisement below. It shows how much calcium a person needs for growing strong bones and teeth.

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In which of these age groups do a person's teeth and bones most likely grow the most?

  (A) 1-3

  (B) 4-8

  (C) 9-18


Look at the bar graph below. It shows the total amount of rainfall in three different cities for one year.

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Which city had the driest year?

  (A) R

  (B) S

  (C) T


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Ten hours ago the towel shown above was wet. Now it is dry. This is the result of -

  (A) respiration

  (B) evaporation

  (C) precipitation


Look at the picture of the tree rings R, S, and T below. Each tree ring shows how much the tree grew in one year.

image

Which tree ring shows the least amount of growth for the year?

  (A) R

  (B) S

  (C) T


A teacher showed the science class a globe like the one below.

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What can be learned about Earth by studying a globe like this?

  (A) The actual size of Earth

  (B) The location of landmasses on Earth

  (C) The distance between Earth and the sun


Look at the plants below.

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What is the most likely reason Plant 1 looks different from Plant 2?

  (A) Plant 1 received more oxygen.

  (B) Plant 1 received more water.

  (C) Plant 1 received fewer minerals.


Look at the thermometer below.

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What is the temperature reading on this thermometer?

  (A) 34°C

  (B) 25°C

  (C) 22°C


image

Which graph BEST shows how many of each fish are in the tank?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

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Salamanders have a tail, smooth skin, and feet with no claws. Which of these animals is a salamander?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Which diagram shows a back-and-forth motion?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


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The drawing compares the size of four different birds. How would you arrange the birds in order from smallest to largest?

  (A) Cardinal, sparrow, crow, dove

  (B) Sparrow, cardinal, crow, dove

  (C) Crow, cardinal, dove, sparrow

  (D) Sparrow, cardinal, dove, crow


Which of these graduated cylinders contains 16 mL of water?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


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Which word tells how a lasagna noodle looks compared to a spaghetti noodle?

  (A) Longer

  (B) Lighter

  (C) Smaller

  (D) Wider


An experiment tests how many minutes students take to finish their lunches in the school cafeteria. The chart shows the average times for grades 3, 4, 5, and 6.

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At which grade level do the students spend MOST of the 30-minute lunch period eating their lunches?

  (A) Grade 3

  (B) Grade 4

  (C) Grade 5

  (D) Grade 6


Which picture shows the way that two magnets will attract?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


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The picture shows a limestone building block. Which of these best shows that the limestone was formed from ocean sediments?

  (A) The position of the fossils

  (B) The number of fossils

  (C) The type of fossils

  (D) The size of the fossils


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The motion of Earth around the Sun most affects the -

  (A) timing of tides

  (B) length of a month

  (C) cycle of the seasons

  (D) phases of the Moon


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Many species of ocean organisms live in coral reefs. The map shows that most coral reefs are found near the equator. What does the location of coral reefs suggest about coral organisms?

  (A) Corals need warm seawater to survive.

  (B) Corals mostly live around volcanic islands.

  (C) Ocean currents keep corals from migrating.

  (D) Most ocean waters are too deep for corals.


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How is the use of sound waves helpful to this whale?

  (A) It helps the whale locate food.

  (B) It makes the water warmer.

  (C) It makes it easier to obtain oxygen.

  (D) It signals fish to move out of the whale's path


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The shale layers in the drawing were broken and separated by movement along the fault. What also most likely occurred as these rock layers moved along the fault?

  (A) Formation of deep caves

  (B) Erosion of lower layers

  (C) Volcanic eruption

  (D) Earthquake


A class prepared some electric circuits using a battery, connecting wires, and three light bulbs. Which of these circuits can make the three bulbs light?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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Which of these would fit best in area 3 of this Venn diagram?

  (A) Rocky surface

  (B) Active volcanoes

  (C) Liquid water present

  (D) Oxygen in atmosphere


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Which of these is probably the slowest fish?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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Which of these animals is most likely to form a fossil?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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Which of these cells most likely came from a plant?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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A student holds a model of Earth that can rotate on a stick. Another student shines a flashlight on the model as it turns. This model is MOST likely used to show -

  (A) high and low tides

  (B) seasons changing

  (C) day and night

  (D) phases of the Moon


Which of these contains the coldest water?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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These living things are in a pond food chain. Which of these are producers?

  (A) Algae

  (B) Dragonflies

  (C) Frogs

  (D) Snakes


Which animal looked MOST like its parents when it hatched?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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A student looks at a leaf and writes down how it looks. Which of these BEST matches the leaf the student looked at?

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  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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Which picture BEST shows a learned behavior in a dog?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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Which of the following is one nonliving part in the habitat of a bluebird?

  (A) Insects they eat

  (B) Air they breathe

  (C) Hawks that eat them

  (D) Plants they use for nests


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Which of these is the BEST title for the picture?

  (A) How Magnets Attract

  (B) Using the Sense of Touch

  (C) How to Measure Distance

  (D) Using a Magnetic Compass


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Which is one way the young male cardinal will change as it grows up?

  (A) It will grow more toes.

  (B) Its tail feathers will become shorter.

  (C) It will grow a pointed crest.

  (D) Its beak will become long and narrow.


Which picture shows an animal that is most likely found in Virginia forests?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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Layer A probably formed in an ocean. Which of these is the best clue that layer A formed in an ocean?

  (A) The thickness of the layer

  (B) The type of fossils in the layer

  (C) The position of the layer

  (D) The density of the layer


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What is the mass of this mineral?

  (A) 5 grams

  (B) 10 grams

  (C) 15 grams

  (D) 20 grams


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The phases of the Moon occur in a certain order. Three phases are shown here. Which is the next phase in the sequence?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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Which of these is the best tool to use when measuring the water depth at the edge of a pond?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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The map shows how gypsy moths have spread across Virginia over the years. Based on the map, gypsy moths -

  (A) live in every state in the United States

  (B) will be in all of Virginia by 2010

  (C) first came to Virginia in 1960

  (D) stopped spreading in 1996


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Although the mushroom looks like a plant, it is in a different kingdom. The main difference between the fungi kingdom and the plant kingdom is that fungi -

  (A) use chlorophyll to make sugar

  (B) have special tissues

  (C) absorb nutrients from other organisms

  (D) depend on the Sun for energy


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Based on the chart, between which two weeks did the growth pattern of the puppy change?

  (A) 8-9 weeks

  (B) 9-10 weeks

  (C) 10-11 weeks

  (D) 11-12 weeks


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A person pushes a box as shown. What is the push most likely to change?

  (A) The size of the box

  (B) The mass of the box

  (C) The color of the box

  (D) The position of the box


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Which shows one way that energy flows to birds in this food web?

  (A) Rodents -> insects -> birds

  (B) Insects -> plants -> birds

  (C) Snakes -> rodents -> birds

  (D) Plants -> rodents -> birds


Which of these animals has a different body support system than the others?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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Which number on the diagram shows the wavelength?

  (A) 1

  (B) 2

  (C) 3

  (D) 4


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What units would you use to measure the length of this pencil?

  (A) Grams

  (B) Kilometers

  (C) Centimeters

  (D) Liters


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A sand dune is shown. Which of these causes sand dunes to form?

  (A) Winds blowing

  (B) Plants growing

  (C) Animals digging

  (D) Temperatures rising


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What is the mass of the bottle shown in the picture?

  (A) 47 grams

  (B) 53 grams

  (C) 103 grams

  (D) 150 grams


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In picture 4, what will take the place of the flowers in picture 3?

  (A) Buds

  (B) Fruit

  (C) Leaves

  (D) Roots


Students in a class count their pets. All together, they have seven cats, nine dogs, and three fish. Which graph shows the correct number of pets?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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Which machine uses a wheel and axle?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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The picture shows a jar with its lid. What kind of simple machine is a jar lid?

  (A) Ramp

  (B) Pulley

  (C) Screw

  (D) Wedge


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Four students measured the distance a ball was kicked. The distances are shown in the table. Which student measured a distance that was much greater than the other measurements?

  (A) Student 1

  (B) Student 2

  (C) Student 3

  (D) Student 4


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Compared to the lawn mower tire, the tractor tire is -

  (A) smaller

  (B) thinner

  (C) lighter

  (D) rougher


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A plant is put in a pot of soil and placed under a table. The plant is given water every week, but it stops growing. The plant MOST likely needs -

  (A) more light

  (B) thicker soil

  (C) cleaner air

  (D) more space


Which of these animals is BEST able to live in water?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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Which of the following BEST shows the order of events in the life cycle of a bean plant?

  (A) 2, 3, 4, 1

  (B) 3, 4, 2, 1

  (C) 1, 2, 4, 3

  (D) 1, 4, 3, 2


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Based on the food web, which of these is a producer?

  (A) Eagle

  (B) Grass

  (C) Rabbit

  (D) Sparrow


Which of these correctly shows how light acts when it hits a mirror?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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A student counted the number of Canada geese that have lived on a pond for the past five years. Based on the graph, how many geese will probably live on the pond in year 6?

  (A) 60

  (B) 65

  (C) 70

  (D) 75


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What does a weather vane show?

  (A) Wind direction

  (B) Air temperature

  (C) Cloud cover

  (D) Air pressure


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Which of these is the BEST title for the group of objects shown?

  (A) Heavy Objects

  (B) Rough Objects

  (C) Wooden Objects

  (D) Magnetic Objects


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Students used thermometers to compare temperatures around their school. Which of these is MOST likely the reason it was cooler under a tree than on the playground?

  (A) The tree blocked the cold wind.

  (B) A student blocked the wind.

  (C) Tree leaves blocked some of the sunlight.

  (D) A cloud blocked the Sun.


Which of these trees stays green all year?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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Which of these BEST describes this leaf?

  (A) Long

  (B) Square-shaped

  (C) Round

  (D) Star-shaped


Which of these is a compound machine that is a lever and a wedge working together?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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Based on the picture of this dog, an observation can be made that this animal -

  (A) runs fast

  (B) barks loudly

  (C) jumps high

  (D) has spots


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Which of these may have caused the boulders to break away from the cliff?

  (A) Weathering

  (B) Evaporating

  (C) Depositing

  (D) Grinding


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What is the mass of the frog?

  (A) 39 grams (g)

  (B) 40 grams (g)

  (C) 41 grams (g)

  (D) 42 grams (g)


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A container was filled with ice cubes. The container was left outside until the ice cubes melted. Based on the picture, how much water came from the melted ice cubes?

  (A) 3 milliliters

  (B) 5 milliliters

  (C) 7 milliliters

  (D) 10 milliliters


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This picture BEST shows how -

  (A) animals use plants for food

  (B) animals use plants for homes

  (C) plants get in the way of animals

  (D) plants keep animals warm in winter


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Which of these simple machines does this model represent?

  (A) A screw

  (B) A wedge

  (C) A lever

  (D) A pulley


A student is blindfolded and given several objects to feel. Which of these would he describe as hard and smooth?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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The process shown would be classified as -

  (A) precipitation

  (B) condensation

  (C) transpiration

  (D) evaporation


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In a flower, what most likely happens when pollen from the stamen gets into the ovary?

  (A) The plant dies.

  (B) A seed develops.

  (C) The flower closes.

  (D) The sepals fall off.


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Which geographic region of Virginia has the least impact on the water quality of Chesapeake Bay?

  (A) Coastal Plain

  (B) Piedmont

  (C) Blue Ridge Mountains

  (D) Appalachian Plateau


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A fifth-grade class constructed this circuit. Which of these objects most likely made the light glow when connected to points X and Y?

  (A) Plastic straw

  (B) Cotton string

  (C) Aluminum foil

  (D) Rubber eraser


In which chart are all the organisms sorted correctly?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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In this picture, the iron filings show the shape of the magnetic -

  (A) axis

  (B) core

  (C) field

  (D) pole


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Bits of paper are attracted to the surface of this balloon. What attracts the paper pieces to the balloon?

  (A) Friction

  (B) Magnetism

  (C) Potential energy

  (D) Static electricity


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Which explains why the fork looks different under water?

  (A) Light is refracted at an angle.

  (B) The wavelength of light lengthens.

  (C) Light cannot pass through the glass.

  (D) The amount of light increases when going through water.


Which of these makes a sound with the slowest vibration?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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A student designed an investigation to test the effect of light color on plant growth. What was the manipulated (independent) variable in the investigation?

  (A) Color of light bulb

  (B) Height of plant

  (C) Hours of light

  (D) Size of pot


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On a graph, students recorded how quickly bacteria reproduced over two hours. If the rate of reproduction stayed the same, how many bacteria would be present after 2.5 hours?

  (A) 8

  (B) 16

  (C) 32

  (D) 64


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Gallium is a metal that melts at about 30°C. If a person, whose body temperature is 37°C, held a cube of gallium for five minutes, what will most likely happen to the gallium?

  (A) It will change to a gas.

  (B) It will change to a liquid.

  (C) It will become a solution.

  (D) It will become a mixture.


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According to the picture, which of these is an inference rather than an observation?

  (A) This animal has hair.

  (B) This animal has a tail.

  (C) This animal is arching its back.

  (D) This animal is frightened.


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Which line graph best shows the data in the table?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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Which energy transformation most likely occurs in a steam iron?

  (A) Electrical energy changes to heat energy.

  (B) Electrical energy changes to sound energy.

  (C) Mechanical energy changes to heat energy.

  (D) Mechanical energy changes to light energy.


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Which part of an automobile is transparent?

  (A) Door Handle

  (B) Side Mirror

  (C) Hubcap

  (D) Windshield


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Which statement is supported by the data on this map?

  (A) Emporia is colder than Bedford at the time of these measurements.

  (B) Bedford is the hottest city in the state of Virginia.

  (C) LaCrosse will become cooler over the next few days.

  (D) Richmond, Farmville, and LaCrosse are all colder than Emporia.


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Based on information in the diagram, about how tall is the tree?

  (A) 10 feet

  (B) 20 feet

  (C) 40 feet

  (D) 80 feet


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Which of these will most likely happen to the balloon as the chemicals react?

  (A) It will float.

  (B) It will break.

  (C) It will inflate.

  (D) It will change color.


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The great horned owl has a sharp beak and claws used for catching prey and tearing meat. It has good eyesight to see in low light. Which of these most likely describes the niche of the great horned owl?

  (A) Hunts small animals at night

  (B) Grazes on grass during the day

  (C) Comes out at dusk to sweep the sky for insects

  (D) Comes out at dawn to get worms from the ground


A bicycle is a system of parts that work together.

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Not every part of the bicycle is needed for it to move. Some parts make it easier or safer to ride. Which of the following parts is needed to make the bicycle move?

  (A) brakes

  (B) handlebars

  (C) seat

  (D) wheels


Look at the picture below.

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Where would you find the saltiest water?

  (A) river

  (B) ocean

  (C) mountain lake

  (D) snow covered mountains


A scientist wanted to see if the amount of garbage that Americans threw away changed over time. He collected information and then showed his results in the graph below.

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Based on this graph, what could the scientist say about the amount of garbage that each person threw away?

  (A) It increased over time.

  (B) It decreased over time.

  (C) It increased the most in 1980.

  (D) It decreased the most in 1990.


Maria checked the outside temperature before and after school. According to the thermometers below, how much did the temperature change during the day?

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  (A) It increased by 2° C.

  (B) It increased by 14° C.

  (C) It decreased by 2° C.

  (D) It decreased by 14° C.


The picture below shows an ocean bay food chain.

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Sea otters move into the ocean bay. They eat all the sea urchins. This change will cause the

  (A) kelp to have less food.

  (B) crabs to have more food.

  (C) sea ducks to have less food.

  (D) arctic foxes to have more food.


The picture below shows a model of the rock cycle.

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During which part of the rock cycle does water break rocks apart?

  (A) part 1

  (B) part 2

  (C) part 3

  (D) part 4


The picture below shows water droplets on the outside of a glass that contains water.

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Which action would most likely cause water from the air to form water droplets on the outside of the glass?

  (A) A glass containing hot water is placed in a cold room.

  (B) A glass containing cold water is placed in a cold room.

  (C) A glass containing hot water is placed in a warm room.

  (D) A glass containing cold water is placed in a warm room.


A student is investigating how a fossil can form. The student followed the directions as shown.

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Which type of fossil did the student most likely make during the investigation?

  (A) a cast fossil

  (B) a track fossil

  (C) an imprint fossil

  (D) a preserved fossil


A pond area food chain is shown.

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The pond area experiences a drought. There is less water in the pond where the frogs live. What will most likely happen first if the water level in the pond continues to decrease?

  (A) There will be more frogs.

  (B) There will be fewer hawks.

  (C) There will be taller grasses.

  (D) There will be smaller grasshoppers.


Lituya Bay is along the coast of Alaska.

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In 1958, there were three major events that occurred one after another. During the events, many trees surrounding Lituya Bay were knocked down by large amounts of ocean water. Which set of events most likely caused the change around Lituya Bay?

  (A) earthquake -> landslide -> tsunami

  (B) landslide -> avalanche -> earthquake

  (C) avalanche -> volcanic -> activity flood

  (D) tsunami -> landslide -> volcanic activity


A teacher puts a wax candle in a jar. Then, the teacher heats the jar as shown.

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After a few minutes of heating, the candle has melted. Which statement best describes the melted candle?

  (A) It is a solid because it fills the jar.

  (B) It is a liquid because it fills the jar.

  (C) It is a solid because it takes the shape of the jar.

  (D) It is a liquid because it takes the shape of the jar.


A student made a snowball and left it on a shelf outside. The next day, the student observed the snowball.

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Which statement best explains a change in the snowball?

  (A) The air temperature increased, causing part of a solid to become a liquid.

  (B) The air temperature decreased, causing part of a solid to become a liquid.

  (C) The air temperature increased, causing part of a liquid to become a solid.

  (D) The air temperature decreased, causing part of a liquid to become a solid.


Scientists can classify leaves by the patterns of their veins.

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Based on the pattern of its veins, the unknown leaf is most likely which type of leaf?

  (A) parallel

  (B) pinnate

  (C) palmate

  (D) reticulate


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Which of the following is shown above?

  (A) electromagnet

  (B) electric motor

  (C) electric generator

  (D) transformer


The picture below shows a place where air currents will form due to the uneven heating of Earth.

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In which direction will air currents most likely move?

  (A) straight down over the land

  (B) from the land toward the sea

  (C) straight up above the sea

  (D) from the sea toward the lan


The chart below shows a part of Mohs hardness scale for minerals.

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A student is testing an unknown mineral for hardness. The unknown mineral is tested against fluorite, but neither mineral scratches the other. Which of the following conclusions can the student accurately make?

  (A) The unknown mineral and apatite will not scratch each other.

  (B) The unknown mineral and calcite will not scratch each other.

  (C) The unknown mineral will scratch apatite.

  (D) The unknown mineral will scratch calcite.


A student will measure and record the growth of two flowering plants every other day for 10 days.

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According to the diagram, which question is being tested?

  (A) Do flowering plants grow better when watered with salt water?

  (B) How much fertilizer do flowering plants need?

  (C) Does fertilizer added to the soil lead to taller flowering plants?

  (D) How tall do flowering plants grow?


A radiometer is a device with fins that spin when light energy strikes them. A picture of a radiometer is shown below. As part of an experiment, a light source was placed 50 centimeters (cm) from a radiometer. The light source gave off four different-colored lights for 30 seconds (s) each. After each color of light was turned off, the amount of time the fins on the radiometer spun was recorded. The results are shown in the table below.

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Which color of light provided the greatest amount of light energy according to the data in the table?

  (A) red

  (B) green

  (C) blue

  (D) white


Mr. Washington mixed iron filings with sand. Then, he asked his students to separate the iron filings from the sand. Which of the following is the best tool to use to separate the iron filings from the sand?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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An athlete is choosing a material for his eyeglass frames. He wants a material that will not be easily damaged when he plays sports. The table below shows some characteristics of four different materials.

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Which material would be best for the athlete to choose for his eyeglass frames?

  (A) material 1

  (B) material 2

  (C) material 3

  (D) material 4


Two geese mate and raise their goslings (baby geese) each year. The table below shows the number of goslings that survive each year over a five-year period.

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Which of the following statements best explains why a different number of goslings survives each year?

  (A) The goslings develop different adaptations each year.

  (B) Different environmental conditions affect the goslings each year.

  (C) Some goslings inherit more traits from one parent than from the other.

  (D) The environmental conditions affect the parent geese more than the goslings.


Emperor penguins are specialized birds that eat fish. Emperor penguins have developed many special characteristics that help them survive in the ocean environment. The picture below shows two emperor penguins swimming in the ocean.

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Which of the following characteristics most helps the emperor penguins survive in an ocean environment?

  (A) having very little sense of smell

  (B) having a very weak sense of taste

  (C) having large feathers that absorb water

  (D) having small wings that move like flippers


The map below shows global wind patterns. The east coast of the United States is marked with a star.

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Global winds blow in the directions shown on the map. Winds blowing from the east coast of the United States have the most effect on the weather in which of the following regions?

  (A) Africa

  (B) Asia

  (C) Europe

  (D) South America


The picture below shows a drum.

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What could be done to the drum head to make the drum have a higher pitch?

  (A) Cover the drum head with a piece of plastic.

  (B) Put a thicker drum head on the drum.

  (C) Hit the drum head with more force.

  (D) Tighten the drum head.


The picture below shows a balloon filled with air.

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A teacher carefully pops the balloon with a pin. The students pick up the pieces of the balloon and compare them. Which of the following properties of the pieces should be most similar?

  (A) color

  (B) shape

  (C) size

  (D) weight


The diagram below shows a project that a student made to test an electrical circuit. Part of the electrical circuit is underneath the board.

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When the student connects the two nails using a wire, the bulb lights up. Which of the following must be underneath the board?

  (A) a magnet and a switch

  (B) a switch and some wires

  (C) a magnet and a power source

  (D) a power source and some wires


Manuel is building a model to show how water from melting glaciers moves through the ocean. He puts clay, water, and ice cubes into a plastic bin. He places a heat lamp next to the bin. His model is shown in the diagram below.

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Which of the following would most likely help Manuel show how water from melting glaciers moves in his model?

  (A) using colored water to represent the water in the ocean

  (B) using colored water to make the ice cubes that represent the glaciers

  (C) using different colors of clay to represent dry land and the bottom of the ocean

  (D) using different colors of light to represent sunlight shining on the glaciers and dry land


Prairie dogs dig burrows beneath grasslands. The picture below shows a prairie dog near the opening to its burrow.

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In which of the following ways do the burrows affect the grassland ecosystem?

  (A) The dirt from the burrows makes the grasslands drier.

  (B) The burrows provide shelter for other grassland animals.

  (C) The burrows cause the grasslands to flood more often.

  (D) The burrows cause more trees to grow in the grassland environment.


Use the information below to answer the question. The sun appears to rise in the east and set in the west each day. During the day, the sun is so bright that other objects in space are rarely visible. At night, other objects in space, such as planets and stars, are often visible. The data table below contains information about the planets in our solar system.

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Which of these changes on Earth would be likely if Earth were farther from the sun?

  (A) lower temperatures

  (B) higher temperatures

  (C) more hours in the day

  (D) fewer days in the year


Use the information below to answer the question. The sun appears to rise in the east and set in the west each day. During the day, the sun is so bright that other objects in space are rarely visible. At night, other objects in space, such as planets and stars, are often visible. The data table below contains information about the planets in our solar system.

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Which of these actions is responsible for the sun appearing to rise and set?

  (A) Earth rotating on its axis

  (B) the sun rotating on its axis

  (C) Earth revolving around the sun

  (D) the sun revolving around Earth


Use the information below to answer the question. The sun appears to rise in the east and set in the west each day. During the day, the sun is so bright that other objects in space are rarely visible. At night, other objects in space, such as planets and stars, are often visible. The data table below contains information about the planets in our solar system.

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Why is one year on Earth 365 days and one year on Mercury 88 days?

  (A) Earth is larger than Mercury.

  (B) Earth is smaller than Mercury.

  (C) Earth is closer than Mercury to the sun.

  (D) Earth is farther than Mercury from the sun.


A teacher told four students to each measure the mass of a closed container of water. The students took turns measuring the mass. Their data are shown in the table below.

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Which statement best explains why there are four different measurements?

  (A) The balance was new.

  (B) Each measurement was done at a different time.

  (C) Each student used a different process to find mass.

  (D) Movement caused the container to lose or gain mass.


Use the information below to answer the question. Seawater contains a number of different salts. The water can be separated by a process alled distillation. A simple distillation setup is shown below.

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The water in the flask evaporates. Water vapor (gas) rises, leaving the salt in the flask. The water vapor is cooled in the condensing tube and drips into the beaker. Salt water and fresh water are both found on the surface of Earth. What feature of water is most important to life on Earth?

  (A) the ability to dissolve salt

  (B) the ability to change shape

  (C) the ability to exist in the atmosphere

  (D) the ability to exist as a solid, liquid, or gas


Use the information below to answer the question. Science students observed the physical properties of different materials. They recorded their observations in the data table below.

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The students then combined baking soda with some of the materials. Their observations are in the data table below.

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Students measured the mass of a 100-milliliter beaker filled with sand and the mass of a 100-milliliter beaker filled with glass marbles. The beaker of sand had more mass than the beaker of glass marbles. Why did the beaker of sand have more mass than the beaker of glass marbles?

  (A) The sand is harder than the glass marbles.

  (B) The sand has more matter than the glass marbles.

  (C) The glass marbles are smooth, and the sand is rough.

  (D) The glass marbles are round, and the sand has different shapes.


Use the information below to answer the question. Science students observed the physical properties of different materials. They recorded their observations in the data table below.

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The students then combined baking soda with some of the materials. Their observations are in the data table below.

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What happened to the properties of the baking soda and the salt after the two materials were mixed together?

  (A) The properties of the baking soda and salt changed.

  (B) The properties of the baking soda and salt did not change.

  (C) The properties of the baking soda changed, but the properties of the salt did not change.

  (D) The properties of the baking soda did not change, but the properties of salt changed.


Use the information below to answer the question. Science students observed the physical properties of different materials. They recorded their observations in the data table below.

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The students then combined baking soda with some of the materials. Their observations are in the data table below.

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The students were given a mixture of salt, sand, glass marbles, and steel marbles. Which material in the mixture would be attracted by a magnet?

  (A) salt

  (B) sand

  (C) glass marbles

  (D) steel marbles


Use the information below to answer the question. Large populations of sea nettles have been observed during the summer in parts of the Chesapeake Bay. The Chesapeake Bay is a mixture of salt water and fresh water. During the summer, the bay has a moderately high salt content. The amount of salt in the water, the salinity, depends on the amount of fresh water that flows into the bay. Additionally, some studies suggest that human activities have caused an increase in the sea nettle population.

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Sea nettles need small amounts of nutrients to survive and reproduce. Sea nettle populations increase quickly when excess nitrogen pollutes the water in which the sea nettles live. A sea nettle reproduces by laying thousands of eggs.

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How would excess nitrogen most likely affect the other organisms in this food web?

  (A) The striped bass (fish) population would increase immediately.

  (B) The menhaden (fish) population would decrease slowly.

  (C) The copepod population would increase quickly.

  (D) The algae population would decrease slowly.


Use the information below to answer the question. Large populations of sea nettles have been observed during the summer in parts of the Chesapeake Bay. The Chesapeake Bay is a mixture of salt water and fresh water. During the summer, the bay has a moderately high salt content. The amount of salt in the water, the salinity, depends on the amount of fresh water that flows into the bay. Additionally, some studies suggest that human activities have caused an increase in the sea nettle population.

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Scientists have recorded the temperature and salinity data of the Chesapeake Bay every day for many years. Using these data, scientists will most likely be able to predict

  (A) the depth of the water in the bay

  (B) the exact number of sea nettles in the bay

  (C) the number of fish in the bay that eat sea nettles

  (D) the weather patterns in the bay that affect sea nettles


Use the information below to answer the question. Two students met at a local park. Student 1 lives farther from the park than does Student 2. Both students left their houses at 10:00 A.M. and arrived at the park at 10:20 A.M. While at the park, the students played on the swings, slide, and merry-go-round.

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Each student has a different mass, yet they both reached the same height while swinging. Which of these statements explains why the students reached the same height while swinging?

  (A) The students had the same speed while on the swing.

  (B) The students used different amounts of force while swinging.

  (C) The students were on the swing for the same amount of time.

  (D) The students used the same amounts of force while swinging.


Use the information below to answer the question. A scientist studied an estuary, the area where fresh water from a river empties into salty ocean water. The scientist classified nine estuary organisms into the three groups shown below.

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The physical features of an animal are described in the table below.

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Which animal best fits this description?

  (A) blue crab

  (B) hard clam

  (C) laughing gull

  (D) sallow sedge


Use the information below to answer the question. A scientist studied an estuary, the area where fresh water from a river empties into salty ocean water. The scientist classified nine estuary organisms into the three groups shown below.

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Some young fish develop in estuaries. While these fish develop, they hide in water plants. When the fish reach a certain age, they leave for the ocean. If the water plants were removed from the estuary, the young fish would

  (A) decrease in number

  (B) move to a new estuary

  (C) find another food source

  (D) swim to the ocean earlier


Use the information below to answer the question. Sunlight enters a room through an open window. The sunlight shines on the wood table, area rug on the floor, and the plane mirror and metal spoon on the table. A spot of light appears on the wall opposite the window.

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Which object in the room is the best conductor of heat?

  (A) the area rug

  (B) the wood table

  (C) the plane mirror

  (D) the metal spoon


Use the information below to answer the question. Sunlight enters a room through an open window. The sunlight shines on the wood table, area rug on the floor, and the plane mirror and metal spoon on the table. A spot of light appears on the wall opposite the window.

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Which tool should be used to measure the length of the table?

  (A) a balance

  (B) a stopwatch

  (C) a spring scale

  (D) a centimeter ruler


Use the information below to answer the question. Students investigated the reaction that occurs when mixing baking soda and vinegar. The procedure for the investigation is shown below. The students recorded their observations in the data tables below the diagram.

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Which observation shows that a chemical reaction took place when the baking soda was mixed with the vinegar?

  (A) The flask stays cool.

  (B) The liquid is cloudy at first.

  (C) The bubbles form in the liquid.

  (D) The liquid becomes clear over time.


Use the information below to answer the question. Students investigated the reaction that occurs when mixing baking soda and vinegar. The procedure for the investigation is shown below. The students recorded their observations in the data tables below the diagram.

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The students conducted the same investigation, but doubled the amount of baking soda and the amount of vinegar used. What change in the results did the students most likely observe?

  (A) The flask became warm.

  (B) The balloon inflated more.

  (C) The vinegar remained cloudy.

  (D) The baking soda did not dissolve.


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Why is plastic a good material to use to insulate icebergs?

  (A) Plastic is expensive.

  (B) Plastic conducts electricity well.

  (C) Plastic does not conduct heat well.

  (D) Plastic increases friction with the water.


Use the information and pictures below to answer the question. Wild ponies have lived on Assateague Island for about 300 years. The ponies have become well adapted to the harsh environment, including extreme temperatures in summer and winter. The ponies mainly eat salty marsh grasses and grow thick fur in winter. Domestic horses are larger than the ponies. An Assateague pony drinks twice as much fresh water as a domestic horse does. Other organisms on the island include rodents, birds, small foxes, marsh grasses, mussels, and deer.

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The ponies drink so much more fresh water than domestic horses in other habitats that the ponies appear fat. What is the most likely reason the ponies drink so much fresh water?

  (A) Their thin fur makes them lose water.

  (B) They have many predators on the island.

  (C) Their food contains a large amount of salt.

  (D) They have small bodies that lose water quickly.


Use the information and pictures below to answer the question. Wild ponies have lived on Assateague Island for about 300 years. The ponies have become well adapted to the harsh environment, including extreme temperatures in summer and winter. The ponies mainly eat salty marsh grasses and grow thick fur in winter. Domestic horses are larger than the ponies. An Assateague pony drinks twice as much fresh water as a domestic horse does. Other organisms on the island include rodents, birds, small foxes, marsh grasses, mussels, and deer.

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During the summer, flies and ticks bite the ponies. The cattle egret is a bird that sometimes eats the flies and ticks from the ponies. This relationship between the pony and the egret helps

  (A) only the pony

  (B) the flies and ticks

  (C) only the cattle egret

  (D) the pony and the cattle egret


Use the information below to answer the question. Students placed 250 milliliters of water in three identical containers. Container 1 had a tightly sealed lid and was placed on a classroom counter. Container 2 had no lid and was placed on a classroom table. Container 3 had no lid and was placed on a table outside in the shade. The students measured the amount of water in each container at the end of each day for four days. Their results are shown in the data table below.

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What question is this investigation designed to answer?

  (A) How do water levels affect evaporation?

  (B) Which container best holds evaporating water?

  (C) Does evaporation of water affect the atmosphere?

  (D) In which environment does water evaporate the fastest?


Use the information and diagram below to answer the question. A troglobite is any animal that lives in dark caves. These animals have special features that help them live in cool, dark places, like the caves in western Maryland. Many cave millipedes, a type of troglobite, have long antennae that feel vibrations. Northern cave fish, another troglobite, have very little skin coloring and cannot see. Animals in caves eat bat waste, material from dead plants, and animals that wash into the cave.

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Which feature of a cave millipede helps it find food?

  (A) antennae

  (B) eyes

  (C) legs

  (D) wings


A circuit made of wires, a light bulb, a switch, and a battery is shown below.

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What change is needed for the light bulb to glow?

  (A) Point 2 needs the switch opened.

  (B) Point 1 needs a connection across the space.

  (C) Point 3 needs a connection across the space.

  (D) Point 4 needs to connect the wire to the bottom of the bulb.


The diagram below shows an incomplete circuit.

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Which action, using Wire Z, completes the circuit so the buzzer will sound?

  (A) Connect 1 to the positive end of battery; connect 2 to the bottom ofthe buzzer.

  (B) Connect 1 to the negative end of battery; connect 2 to the bottom of the buzzer.

  (C) Connect 1 to the positive end of battery; connect 2 to the negative end of battery.

  (D) Connect 1 to the top of the buzzer; connect 2 to the bottom of the buzzer.


Use the information below to answer the question. A teacher gave students four rock samples. The students listed their observations about each rock sample in the data table below.

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Which feature of Rock 3 is evidence that the rock formed near a forest?

  (A) leaf fossils

  (B) easily scratched

  (C) sharp, rough edges

  (D) clear and white particles


Use the information below to answer the question. A teacher gave students four rock samples. The students listed their observations about each rock sample in the data table below.

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Which of these statements best explains why the edges of Rock 4 are smooth?

  (A) Fire burned the rock.

  (B) Mud covered the rock.

  (C) The rock tumbled in a river.

  (D) The rock melted in a volcano.


Use the information below to answer the question. A teacher conducted an investigation that demonstrated changes in matter. Three beakers were used in the investigation. Each empty beaker had a mass of 400 grams. Beaker W and Beaker X each contained 25 grams of sugar. Beaker Z contained 500 milliliters of water at 60° Celsius.

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The teacher poured the sugar from Beaker W into Beaker Z. The teacher stirred the sugar and water until the sugar was not visible. Next, the teacher slowly heated the sugar in Beaker X on a hot plate. Within a few minutes, the sugar melted. The melted sugar turned brown and began to smoke. Finally, the melted sugar turned black and became a solid. The volume of the solid sugar in Beaker W and Beaker X was equal. Which statement best explains this equal volume?

  (A) The same amount of the solid sugar occupies the same amount of space.

  (B) Dividing a sample of the solid sugar increases the amount of the solid sugar.

  (C) The amount of matter in the solid sugar stays the same but the space the solid sugar occupies changes.

  (D) The same amount of space may be occupied by different amounts of the same type of solid sugar.


Use the information below to answer the question. A teacher conducted an investigation that demonstrated changes in matter. Three beakers were used in the investigation. Each empty beaker had a mass of 400 grams. Beaker W and Beaker X each contained 25 grams of sugar. Beaker Z contained 500 milliliters of water at 60° Celsius.

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The teacher poured the sugar from Beaker W into Beaker Z. The teacher stirred the sugar and water until the sugar was not visible. Next, the teacher slowly heated the sugar in Beaker X on a hot plate. Within a few minutes, the sugar melted. The melted sugar turned brown and began to smoke. Finally, the melted sugar turned black and became a solid. What property of the water most likely changed after the teacher added the sugar?

  (A) color

  (B) flavor

  (C) hardness

  (D) odor


The mass of a jar and lid with white marbles and black marbles is 1,500 grams. The mass of the marbles alone is 0.5 the total mass of the jar, lid, and marbles.

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Which statement best explains the difference between the mass of the jar with the marbles and the total mass of only the marbles?

  (A) The mass of the jar and lid is equal to the mass of the marbles alone.

  (B) The mass of the jar and lid is equal to the mass of the white marbles.

  (C) The mass of the white marbles is less than the mass of the black marbles.

  (D) The mass of the white marbles is more than the mass of the black marbles.


Use the passage below to answer the question. Making Fresh Water from Salt Water Although most water on Earth is salt water, humans can only live by drinking fresh water. Fresh water can be produced from salt water by separating the salt from the water. One method of separating salt from water is distillation. During distillation, salt water is heated until the liquid changes to a vapor, or gas. When the water turns to a vapor, the salt is left behind. When the vapor cools and changes to a liquid, it is fresh water. The steps for making a simple distillation device are described below: 1. Pour salt water in a bowl 2. Place an empty cup upright in the middle of the bowl of salt water 3. Cover the bowl and cup with plastic wrap. 4. Place a small rock on the plastic wrap directly over the cup so the plastic wrap is pushed down slightly. 5. Place the bowl in a sunny location. The distillation device is pictured below:

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Sunlight causes water to evaporate. The vapor collects in droplets on the inside of the plastic wrap and rolls toward the lowest part of the plastic wrap, where the rock pushes it down. The droplets drip into the cup, filling it with fresh water. The salt stays in the bowl. The teacher gives a student permission to taste the salt water before the distillation, and again, after several hours of distillation. The student notices that the salt water tastes saltier after several hours. Which statement best explains this observation?

  (A) The heat from the sun increased the flavor of the salt.

  (B) The light from the sun turned some of the water into salt.

  (C) The mass of salt increased to replace the lost water mass.

  (D) The same amount of salt was present in a smaller volume of water.


Use the passage below to answer the question. Making Fresh Water from Salt Water Although most water on Earth is salt water, humans can only live by drinking fresh water. Fresh water can be produced from salt water by separating the salt from the water. One method of separating salt from water is distillation. During distillation, salt water is heated until the liquid changes to a vapor, or gas. When the water turns to a vapor, the salt is left behind. When the vapor cools and changes to a liquid, it is fresh water. The steps for making a simple distillation device are described below: 1. Pour salt water in a bowl 2. Place an empty cup upright in the middle of the bowl of salt water 3. Cover the bowl and cup with plastic wrap. 4. Place a small rock on the plastic wrap directly over the cup so the plastic wrap is pushed down slightly. 5. Place the bowl in a sunny location. The distillation device is pictured below:

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Sunlight causes water to evaporate. The vapor collects in droplets on the inside of the plastic wrap and rolls toward the lowest part of the plastic wrap, where the rock pushes it down. The droplets drip into the cup, filling it with fresh water. The salt stays in the bowl. Five students distilled equal masses of salt water in identical distillation devices. After several hours, the students measured a different amount of fresh water in each of the cups. What is the best explanation for the different amounts of water in each of the cups?

  (A) Equal amounts of salt were present in the water.

  (B) Some of the distillation devices were in the shade.

  (C) Each student timed the distillation process differently.

  (D) Each student measured the temperature of the water incorrectly.


Use the information below to answer the question. A hiker walks from the upper rim to the bottom of a large canyon. At the bottom of the canyon, the hiker camps for the night. The map below shows the trail the hiker used.

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At 9:00 P.M., the hiker is in camp and observes that the constellation Orion appears to be directly overhead. At 3 A.M., the constellation does not appear directly overhead. What best explains the change of location in the sky for the constellation Orion?

  (A) Earth rotated on its axis.

  (B) Earth revolved around the sun.

  (C) The constellation orbited Earth.

  (D) The constellation moved in the sky.


Use the information below to answer the question. The data table below shows information a student collected.

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Snakes, tortoises, and alligators are examples of reptiles. Most reptiles live on land and have scales. Reptiles were the first animals to develop the ability to lay hard-shelled eggs. Based on this information and the data table, which animal is most likely a reptile?

  (A) Animal 1

  (B) Animal 2

  (C) Animal 3

  (D) Animal 4


Use the information below to answer the question. Students examined plants and animals that live in and near the Chesapeake Bay. The students identified some features of these organisms, as seen in the table below.

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Underwater plants are needed for the Chesapeake Bay habitat to be healthy. Eelgrass is one of the most common underwater plants in the bay area. Which of these methods is the most likely way that thousands of eelgrass seeds are spread naturally throughout the bay area?

  (A) The constant motion of the waves transports the seeds.

  (B) Fish eat the seeds and spit them out at another location.

  (C) The seeds stick to bobcat fur and fall in the water as the bobcat swims.

  (D) Birds gather the seeds on their feet and drop them in the water while flying.


Use the information below to answer the question. Students examined plants and animals that live in and near the Chesapeake Bay. The students identified some features of these organisms, as seen in the table below.

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The students discover that mute swans eat mainly bay grass. What role do mute swans have in the Chesapeake Bay area?

  (A) consumer

  (B) decomposer

  (C) producer

  (D) scavenger


Use the information below to answer the question. Some rocks contain small amounts of iron. These rocks have magnetic properties. The iron particles act like tiny magnets that are attracted by the two oppositely charged magnetic poles of Earth.

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A student used two horseshoe magnets in an investigation.

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Why did the two magnets come together in Position 2?

  (A) The like poles of the magnets were attracted to each other.

  (B) The like poles of the magnets were repelled by each other.

  (C) The opposite poles of the magnets attracted each other.

  (D) The opposite poles of the magnets repelled each other.


Use the information and table below to answer the question. A group of students investigated natural resources and the products humans make from these natural resources. The students recorded their findings in the table below.

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Which product is made mainly from a nonrenewable resource?

  (A) a paper bag

  (B) a wool sweater

  (C) a cardboard box

  (D) a plastic wrapper


Use the information and diagram below to answer the question. Two students built different electrical circuits using the materials below.

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The students replaced the switch in a closed circuit with four different objects. Which of the following objects conducted electricity and made the light bulb glow?

  (A) a glass slide

  (B) a rubber band

  (C) a copper penny

  (D) a wooden toothpick


Use the information and diagram below to answer the question. Two students built different electrical circuits using the materials below.

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The students observed that removing the switch in a closed circuit and adding a plastic spoon or a piece of string did not make the light bulb glow. The students concluded that the plastic spoon and the piece of string

  (A) conducted heat

  (B) did not conduct heat

  (C) conducted electricity

  (D) did not conduct electricity


A student wants to build an electric buzzer. The diagram below shows the buzzer design.

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When the button is pushed, the two ovals connect and the electrical current from the battery flows through the circuit, producing a sound. What material should be used to make the ovals?

  (A) glass

  (B) metal

  (C) rubber

  (D) wood


Use the information below to answer the question. Mount Rushmore is located in the Black Hills of South Dakota. The heads of four former presidents-George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Abraham Lincoln-are carved into Mount Rushmore as a monument.The monument rises to 1,745 meters above sea level. Mount Rushmore is granite, one of the most common rocks on Earth, and took millions of years to form. The sculptor chose to carve the monument in granite because granite erodes at a rate of about 2 centimeters every 10,000 years.

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Coral, clam, and starfish fossils are common in South Dakota. These fossils are evidence that South Dakota was once

  (A) a forest area

  (B) covered by water

  (C) flooded by spring rains

  (D) at the edge of a tectonic plate


Use the information below to answer the question. Mount Rushmore is located in the Black Hills of South Dakota. The heads of four former presidents-George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Abraham Lincoln-are carved into Mount Rushmore as a monument.The monument rises to 1,745 meters above sea level. Mount Rushmore is granite, one of the most common rocks on Earth, and took millions of years to form. The sculptor chose to carve the monument in granite because granite erodes at a rate of about 2 centimeters every 10,000 years.

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Over the next 20,000 years, Mount Rushmore will most likely

  (A) melt because of volcanic explosions

  (B) erode because of water and wind

  (C) crumble because of hurricanes

  (D) freeze because of glaciers


Use the information below to answer the question. A hiker walks from the upper rim to the bottom of a large canyon. At the bottom of the canyon, the hiker camps for the night. The map below shows the trail the hiker used.

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While walking along the trail, the hiker sees a fossil that looks like a shell. Which statement best explains the presence of this fossil in the canyon?

  (A) Lava formed the fossil.

  (B) Wind carved a rock to look like a shell.

  (C) The area was covered by a glacier in the past.

  (D) The area was covered by liquid water in the past.


Use the information below to answer the question. A hiker walks from the upper rim to the bottom of a large canyon. At the bottom of the canyon, the hiker camps for the night. The map below shows the trail the hiker used.

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A large river flows along the bottom of the canyon. The vertical distance between the upper rim of the canyon and the river is 1,743 meters. What process is most responsible for the depth of the canyon?

  (A) One large flood moved the rock layers.

  (B) Hot magma melted a path through the rock layers.

  (C) Many strong tornadoes eroded the rock layers over time.

  (D) Flowing water eroded the rock layers slowly over many years.


Use the information below to answer the question. A student purchased a science kit that contained these materials: 2 bar magnets, iron filings, 3 pairs of plastic-coated metal wires, 2 batteries, 1 light bulb, 1 base for a light bulb, and 2 electronic clips. The materials are shown in the diagram below.

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The student used some of the supplies in the science kit to build a circuit. Which circuit would cause the light bulb to glow?

  (A)

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  (B)

image

  (C)

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  (D)

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Use the information and table below to answer the question. Carbon is a pure element that is able to form different materials. The table below compares three forms of carbon.

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Which set of physical properties best describes a diamond?

  (A) flexible, soft

  (B) strong, not flexible

  (C) strong, attracted by a magnet

  (D) flexible, not attracted by a magne


Use the information below to answer the question. Students studied the natural resources of Maryland. The students recorded their findings in the data table below.

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Trees and bushes are renewable natural resources. What is a positive result of planting trees and bushes along streams and rivers?

  (A) Trees and bushes increase fish habitats.

  (B) Trees and bushes reduce erosion of soil.

  (C) Trees and bushes increase water temperatures.

  (D) Trees and bushes reduce the population of rodents.


Use the information and data table below to answer the question. Students tested several samples of rocks and minerals. The students used the table below to identify the samples.

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One of the samples the students tested was pink, was nonmetallic, had a hardness of 4, and produced a white streak. The sample was most likely

  (A) bauxite

  (B) calcite

  (C) talc

  (D) zorite


Use the information and data table below to answer the question. Students tested several samples of rocks and minerals. The students used the table below to identify the samples.

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Rocks made of many minerals have

  (A) a certain color and luster

  (B) a certain size and shape

  (C) various physical properties

  (D) only one physical property


Use the information below to answer the question. A flashlight and a toy boat are placed on a table in front of a plane mirror. Each object is the same distance from the mirror. A large book is placed halfway between the flashlight and the boat. The diagram below shows a top view of the objects on the table.

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This book is placed flat on the table.

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The title of the book, when it is reflected in the plane mirror, will look like

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

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Use the information and data table below to answer the question. A student performed an investigation on green single-celled organisms called Euglena. Two samples of Euglena were placed in two different containers of water taken from the same source. One sample of Euglena was kept in a dark area. The other sample of Euglena was kept in a lighted area. The student recorded the observations in the table below.

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Which statement best compares the needs of the single-celled Euglena to the needs of multicellular organisms?

  (A) Both Euglena and multicellular organisms need energy to survive.

  (B) Neither Euglena nor multicellular organisms need energy to survive.

  (C) Euglena need energy to survive, but multicellular organisms do not need energy to survive.

  (D) Euglena do not need energy to survive, but multicellular organisms do need energy to survive.


This diagram shows the sun, some planets, and a moon.

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The closest star to Earth is

  (A) Mercury

  (B) the moon

  (C) the sun

  (D) Venus


Use the information and diagram below to answer the question. A student built a model of Earth and the moon. The student used the items listed below to make the model. • flashlight (the sun) • small foam ball (the moon) • large foam ball with a wooden rod through center (Earth with axis) • rubber band placed around the middle of the large foam ball (the equator of Earth) The student used the model to show the different positions of Earth and the moon as they move around the sun. The student recorded their observations and numbered the positions of Earth on the drawing below.

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The diagram below represents the movement of Earth on its axis.

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Which of these four cities will receive sunlight first each day?

  (A) San Francisco

  (B) Phoenix

  (C) Chicago

  (D) Baltimore


Use the information and diagram below to answer the question. A student built a model of Earth and the moon. The student used the items listed below to make the model. • flashlight (the sun) • small foam ball (the moon) • large foam ball with a wooden rod through center (Earth with axis) • rubber band placed around the middle of the large foam ball (the equator of Earth) The student used the model to show the different positions of Earth and the moon as they move around the sun. The student recorded their observations and numbered the positions of Earth on the drawing below.

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One rotation of Earth on its axis takes

  (A) 1 day

  (B) 1 week

  (C) 1 month

  (D) 1 year