Elementary School DMC Train

A new substance is found. The substance is extremely lightweight. Most remarkably, it will expand and fill each of the containers below. Which type of matter is this new substance?

image

  (A) gas

  (B) solid

  (C) liquid

  (D) colloid


The diagram below illustrates the process of photosynthesis. In this process, the plant uses X to make Y. During photosynthesis, the plant releases Z.

image

Which of these correctly lists X, Y, and Z in that order?

  (A) Energy, water, and carbon dioxide

  (B) Oxygen, carbon dioxide, and energy

  (C) Carbon dioxide, glucose, and oxygen

  (D) Glucose, carbon dioxide, and oxygen


Ben found this plant in the woods.

image

Which information will Ben use to classify the plant?

  (A) Its mass and volume

  (B) What kind of soil it grows in

  (C) The shapes of its leaves and flowers

  (D) How deep its roots are in the ground


Which drawing shows a model of a solid floating in a liquid?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The diagram below compares and contrasts the Bald Eagle and the American Robin.

image

According to the Venn diagram, which feature does a Bald Eagle and an American Robin have in common?

  (A) square tail

  (B) sharp talons

  (C) curved beak

  (D) perching feet


The diagram below shows fossils in different layers of rock.

image

Which layer in the diagram has the youngest fossil?

  (A) Layer W

  (B) Layer X

  (C) Layer Y

  (D) Layer Z


An aquatic food web is shown below.

image

A scientist observes that a whale population is decreasing. Which population change is most likely causing the whale population to decrease?

  (A) increasing fish

  (B) decreasing seals

  (C) decreasing squid

  (D) increasing plankton


The graph below shows the average height of children from birth to five years old.

image

At approximately which age is a child most likely 80 cm tall?

  (A) 12 months

  (B) 18 months

  (C) 48 months

  (D) 80 months


A student collected muddy water in a jar from a fast-flowing stream. After two days, the student saw four layers of sediment in the jar, as shown below.

image

Which kind of sediment is heaviest?

  (A) clay

  (B) silt

  (C) sand

  (D) gravel


Look at the diagram of the circuit below.

image

Which statement best describes what will happen if Bulb 2 burns out?

  (A) Bulb 1 will also burn out.

  (B) Bulb 1 will flash on and off.

  (C) Bulb 1 will stay lit and become brighter.

  (D) Bulb 1 will stay lit but will become less bright


Look at the diagram of the bar magnets below.

image

What will happen to the force between the two magnets if they are pulled farther apart?

  (A) The force would be weaker.

  (B) The force would be stronger.

  (C) The force would stay unchanged.

  (D) The force would reverse the poles.


The map below shows the weather conditions for some of the cities in Arizona.

image

What type of front is moving through Arizona?

  (A) cold front

  (B) warm front

  (C) occluded front

  (D) stationary front


The map below shows the weather conditions for some of the cities in Arizona.

image

Which city has snow?

  (A) Flagstaff

  (B) Kingman

  (C) Page

  (D) Phoenix


Students made an electromagnet by wrapping a wire in loops around an iron nail and attaching the wire to a battery, as shown below.

image

The students conducted a test to learn how the number of wire loops affected the number of paper clips held by the electromagnet. The table below shows the results of the test.

image

Based on the information in the table, which of the following is the best conclusion?

  (A) Adding more wire loops makes an electromagnet weaker.

  (B) Adding more wire loops makes an electromagnet stronger.

  (C) Adding more wire loops makes an electromagnet use less electricity.

  (D) Adding more wire loops makes an electromagnet use more electricity.


The picture below shows a place where air currents will form due to the uneven heating of Earth.

image

In which direction will air currents most likely move?

  (A) straight down over the land

  (B) from the land toward the sea

  (C) straight up above the sea

  (D) from the sea toward the land


The landform below is a sea arch.

image

What is responsible for shaping this arch?

  (A) plate tectonics

  (B) earthquakes

  (C) deposition

  (D) erosion


Which drawing below would represent the flag pole's shadow at 5:00 P.M.?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


If each horse is pulling with the same force, in which direction will the rock move?

image

  (A) north

  (B) east

  (C) south

  (D) west


image

Which of these lists only living parts of this ecosystem?

  (A) fox, tree, grass

  (B) sun, steam, cloud

  (C) cloud, grass, rock

  (D) stream, cloud fox


The spoon appears to be broken where it enters the water because

image

  (A) the light is reflected by the water.

  (B) the light is absorbed by the water.

  (C) the light is bent by the water.

  (D) the light is dissolved by the water.


Use the information and chart below to answer question X. The students at Hoover Elementary School did a survey of the eye colors of all the fourth graders at their school. The results are shown in the data chart below.

image

What does the chart show about Hoover Elementary School?

  (A) Brown is the most common eye color in each fourth-grade class.

  (B) Green is the least common eye color in both fourth-grade classes.

  (C) Brown is the most common eye color in the fourth grade.

  (D) Blue eyes are more common in boys that in girls in the fourth grade.


Which of these animals does not have a backbone?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


image

According to the evidence in the data table, which material most likely makes up this object?

  (A) iron

  (B) polished wood

  (C) copper

  (D) plastic wrap


image

What happens in stage 2 of a butterfly's life cycle?

  (A) It hatches into a larva.

  (B) It changes its body shape.

  (C) It mates with other butterflies.

  (D) It eats and grows.


image

What part of the water cycle is represented by arrow Y?

  (A) evaporation

  (B) precipitation

  (C) condensation

  (D) runoff


image

A student drew a graph that shows the motion of a car as it traveled down a street. When was the car stopped at a stoplight?

  (A) between 1 and 3 minutes

  (B) between 3 and 5 minutes

  (C) between 5 and 8 minutes

  (D) between 8 and 10 minutes


Eli kept a garden. He wrote online in a blog about the activities in his garden. Read and study Eli's Garden Blog. Then answer questions 1 through 5. Eli's Garden Blog-Monarchs and Milkweed I learned that monarch butterflies lay their eggs only on milkweed plants. The adult butterflies get food from milkweed and other kinds of flowers. I decided to plant milkweeds in my garden this year to see if I could attract monarch butterflies. I found some milkweed seeds and planted them in my garden in the spring. The seeds grew into milkweed plants.

image

Every day I watched for butterflies visiting the plants. One day, I finally saw a monarch! It landed on the flower clusters, and stuck its long tongue into the flowers. There were other butterflies and insects on the milkweed flowers too.

image

I read that monarchs lay their eggs on the undersides of the leaves. I started looking under leaves. After awhile, I found a small greenish egg. The egg matched pictures of monarch eggs I saw in a book about butterflies.

image

A little while later I found my first monarch caterpillar. The caterpillars eat nothing but milkweed leaves and flowers. I've read that they cannot live on any other kind of food.

image

After they have grown big enough, the caterpillars form a skin around themselves. The skin is called a chrysalis. I kept looking carefully for chrysalises, and I found one! It was hanging down from a twig. Inside the chrysalis the caterpillar turns into a butterfly. It is amazing how much their bodies change shape.

image

After they come out of the chrysalis, the adult butterflies fly off. They drink nectar from flowers, find mates, and lay more eggs on milkweed plants. This one landed on another flower in my garden.

image

Meanwhile, my milkweed plants were getting older too. After flowering, they grew seed pods. Later the seed pods cracked open. I could see that the seeds were attached to these amazing bits of fluff. The seeds are sort of like dandelion seeds, but the fluff is longer and silkier. I kept some seeds to plant again next year.

image

Monarch butterflies can fly long distances. This allows them to spread to new areas. How do milkweed plants spread to new areas?

  (A) The seeds stick to butterflies and get carried away.

  (B) The seeds float and are blown by the wind.

  (C) The seeds stick to the fur of animals.

  (D) The seed pods burst open and scatter the seeds.


Use the picture below to answer the question.

image

Which of these lists only living parts of this ecosystem?

  (A) fox, tree, grass

  (B) sun, stream, cloud

  (C) cloud, grass, rock

  (D) stream, cloud, fox


Use the pictures below to answer the question.

image

Mark is using these materials to compare how water flows through three different soils. Which safety rules should he follow while doing the experiment?

  (A) fire safety rules

  (B) glassware safety rules

  (C) electrical safety rules

  (D) plant safety rules


Use the information and data table below to answer the question. The students at Hoover Elementary did a survey of the eye colors of all the fourth graders at their school. The results are shown in the data table below.

image

What does the chart show about Hoover Elementary School?

  (A) Brown is the most common eye color in each fourth-grade class.

  (B) Green is the least common eye color in both fourth-grade classes.

  (C) Brown is the most common eye color in the fourth grade.

  (D) Blue eyes are more common in boys than in girls in the fourth grade.


Eli kept a garden. He wrote online in a blog about the activities in his garden. Read and study Eli's Garden Blog. Then answer questions 1 through 5. Eli's Garden Blog-Monarchs and Milkweed I learned that monarch butterflies lay their eggs only on milkweed plants. The adult butterflies get food from milkweed and other kinds of flowers. I decided to plant milkweeds in my garden this year to see if I could attract monarch butterflies. I found some milkweed seeds and planted them in my garden in the spring. The seeds grew into milkweed plants.

image

Every day I watched for butterflies visiting the plants. One day, I finally saw a monarch! It landed on the flower clusters, and stuck its long tongue into the flowers. There were other butterflies and insects on the milkweed flowers too.

image

I read that monarchs lay their eggs on the undersides of the leaves. I started looking under leaves. After awhile, I found a small greenish egg. The egg matched pictures of monarch eggs I saw in a book about butterflies.

image

A little while later I found my first monarch caterpillar. The caterpillars eat nothing but milkweed leaves and flowers. I've read that they cannot live on any other kind of food.

image

After they have grown big enough, the caterpillars form a skin around themselves. The skin is called a chrysalis. I kept looking carefully for chrysalises, and I found one! It was hanging down from a twig. Inside the chrysalis the caterpillar turns into a butterfly. It is amazing how much their bodies change shape.

image

After they come out of the chrysalis, the adult butterflies fly off. They drink nectar from flowers, find mates, and lay more eggs on milkweed plants. This one landed on another flower in my garden.

image

Meanwhile, my milkweed plants were getting older too. After flowering, they grew seed pods. Later the seed pods cracked open. I could see that the seeds were attached to these amazing bits of fluff. The seeds are sort of like dandelion seeds, but the fluff is longer and silkier. I kept some seeds to plant again next year.

image

Look at the picture of the milkweed plants. Which conclusion is best supported by the picture?

  (A) All the milkweed plants in Eli's garden came from different sets of parents.

  (B) All the milkweed plants in Eli's garden came from the same two parents.

  (C) Milkweed plants become slightly different depending on their parents and how they grow.

  (D) Milkweed plants grow to have exactly the same size, shape, number of leaves, and number of flowers.


Eli kept a garden. He wrote online in a blog about the activities in his garden. Read and study Eli's Garden Blog. Then answer questions 1 through 5. Eli's Garden Blog-Monarchs and Milkweed I learned that monarch butterflies lay their eggs only on milkweed plants. The adult butterflies get food from milkweed and other kinds of flowers. I decided to plant milkweeds in my garden this year to see if I could attract monarch butterflies. I found some milkweed seeds and planted them in my garden in the spring. The seeds grew into milkweed plants.

image

Every day I watched for butterflies visiting the plants. One day, I finally saw a monarch! It landed on the flower clusters, and stuck its long tongue into the flowers. There were other butterflies and insects on the milkweed flowers too.

image

I read that monarchs lay their eggs on the undersides of the leaves. I started looking under leaves. After awhile, I found a small greenish egg. The egg matched pictures of monarch eggs I saw in a book about butterflies.

image

A little while later I found my first monarch caterpillar. The caterpillars eat nothing but milkweed leaves and flowers. I've read that they cannot live on any other kind of food.

image

After they have grown big enough, the caterpillars form a skin around themselves. The skin is called a chrysalis. I kept looking carefully for chrysalises, and I found one! It was hanging down from a twig. Inside the chrysalis the caterpillar turns into a butterfly. It is amazing how much their bodies change shape.

image

After they come out of the chrysalis, the adult butterflies fly off. They drink nectar from flowers, find mates, and lay more eggs on milkweed plants. This one landed on another flower in my garden.

image

Meanwhile, my milkweed plants were getting older too. After flowering, they grew seed pods. Later the seed pods cracked open. I could see that the seeds were attached to these amazing bits of fluff. The seeds are sort of like dandelion seeds, but the fluff is longer and silkier. I kept some seeds to plant again next year.

image

Eli's neighbor has a box elder tree. Under the box elder tree, Eli finds many box elder bugs. The picture shows stages of a box elder bug's life cycle. Eli sees many of these stages in his neighbor's garden.

image

How are the life cycles of box elder bugs and monarch butterflies the same?

  (A) Their life cycles contain the same number of stages.

  (B) Their life cycles both include metamorphosis.

  (C) The young insects grow and develop before becoming adults.

  (D) The young insects have the same body structures as the adults.


Eli kept a garden. He wrote online in a blog about the activities in his garden. Read and study Eli's Garden Blog. Then answer questions 1 through 5. Eli's Garden Blog-Monarchs and Milkweed I learned that monarch butterflies lay their eggs only on milkweed plants. The adult butterflies get food from milkweed and other kinds of flowers. I decided to plant milkweeds in my garden this year to see if I could attract monarch butterflies. I found some milkweed seeds and planted them in my garden in the spring. The seeds grew into milkweed plants.

image

Every day I watched for butterflies visiting the plants. One day, I finally saw a monarch! It landed on the flower clusters, and stuck its long tongue into the flowers. There were other butterflies and insects on the milkweed flowers too.

image

I read that monarchs lay their eggs on the undersides of the leaves. I started looking under leaves. After awhile, I found a small greenish egg. The egg matched pictures of monarch eggs I saw in a book about butterflies.

image

A little while later I found my first monarch caterpillar. The caterpillars eat nothing but milkweed leaves and flowers. I've read that they cannot live on any other kind of food.

image

After they have grown big enough, the caterpillars form a skin around themselves. The skin is called a chrysalis. I kept looking carefully for chrysalises, and I found one! It was hanging down from a twig. Inside the chrysalis the caterpillar turns into a butterfly. It is amazing how much their bodies change shape.

image

After they come out of the chrysalis, the adult butterflies fly off. They drink nectar from flowers, find mates, and lay more eggs on milkweed plants. This one landed on another flower in my garden.

image

Meanwhile, my milkweed plants were getting older too. After flowering, they grew seed pods. Later the seed pods cracked open. I could see that the seeds were attached to these amazing bits of fluff. The seeds are sort of like dandelion seeds, but the fluff is longer and silkier. I kept some seeds to plant again next year.

image

Eli has strawberry plants in his garden. He watches his strawberry plants reproduce using stems called runners as shown in the diagram.

image

Which statement best compares the way Eli's strawberry plants and milkweed plants reproduce?

  (A) The milkweed plants have only two stages in their life cycle, while the strawberry plants pass through many different stages as they grow.

  (B) The milkweed plants have offspring that may be slightly different than their parents, while the offspring of the strawberry plants will be just like their parents.

  (C) Young milkweed plants have to grow bigger before they can reproduce, while young strawberry plants do not have to grow.

  (D) Young milkweed plants will grow up to be exactly like their parents, while young strawberry plants may become very different than their parents.


Elaine wants to measure the volume of a large pitcher of lemonade. Which units should Elaine use?

  (A) liters

  (B) grams

  (C) meters

  (D) degrees


Use the data table to answer the question.

image

Four friends raced in the 100-meter dash. How many of the friends ran faster than 5 meters per second?

  (A) one

  (B) two

  (C) three

  (D) four


Use the picture of an atom below to answer the question.

image

Which statement best describes the part of the atom that is shown by the arrow?

  (A) It is an electron, and it has a negative charge.

  (B) It is an electron, and it has a positive charge.

  (C) It is a proton, and it has a negative charge.

  (D) It is a proton, and it has a positive charge.


Use the diagram to answer the question.

image

Which arrow indicates the location of the cell membrane?

  (A) arrow A

  (B) arrow B

  (C) arrow C

  (D) arrow D


Use this diagram to answer the question.

image

Which statement best describes the diagram?

  (A) Earth is rotating around the Sun.

  (B) The Sun is rotating around Earth.

  (C) Earth is revolving around the Sun.

  (D) The Sun is revolving around Earth.


Use the weather map below to help you answer the question. Weather Map

image

Which symbol on the map shows a cold front?

  (A) H

  (B) L

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Suppose it is March 5. A friend of yours is going on a trip to Chicago on March 8. The maps show the weather predictions for March 6, 7, and 8.

image

In which direction is the cold front moving?

  (A) north

  (B) south

  (C) east

  (D) west


Yolanda dropped a ball from a height of one foot above the ground. She measured how high it bounced and recorded this data in the chart below. She then dropped the ball from other heights, measured how high the ball bounced, and recorded the data in the chart. The chart contains all of the data that Yolanda collected.

image

Based on the data in the chart, predict how high the ball will bounce when Yolanda drops it from a height of 5 feet.

  (A) The ball will bounce about 19 inches high.

  (B) The ball will bounce about 27 inches high.

  (C) The ball will bounce about 33 inches high.

  (D) The ball will bounce about 39 inches high.


Which of the following tools would best help you learn more about the objects in the box?

image

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


image

Mary wants to find the average width of a fourth grader's hand. Which is the best unit of measurement for her to use?

  (A) grams

  (B) meters

  (C) centimeters

  (D) kilometers


Use the information below to answer the question. The two boxes are the same size. • Box A is made of white plastic. • Box B is made of black plastic.

image

Five hundred milliliters (500 ml) of cold water was poured into each box. Then the boxes were covered and placed in the sun. The water temperature was recorded every five minutes. The results are shown in the table below.

image

Suppose that Box A was left in the sun for 25 minutes. What do you predict the temperature of the water in Box A would be?

  (A) about 0°C

  (B) about 7°C

  (C) about 8°C

  (D) about 10°C


Tasha has the two objects drawn below. One is a metal ring on a stick and one is a metal ball on a stick. The ball can just squeeze through the ring.

image

If Tasha heats the metal ball, she will probably notice that

  (A) the ball will contract and pass through the ring more easily.

  (B) the ball will gain mass and become heavier.

  (C) the ball will expand and not fit through the ring.

  (D) the ball will be magnetized and be attracted to the ring.


The graph below shows the average temperatures for four months in 1998, and the average temperatures for the same city for the same months in 1999.

image

During which month were the average temperatures for 1998 and 1999 the farthest apart?

  (A) February

  (B) March

  (C) April

  (D) May


If the Sun's light no longer reached the habitat pictured below, which would probably happen FIRST?

image

  (A) Grass would die.

  (B) The lake would dry up.

  (C) The number of fish in the lake would increase.

  (D) Large animals would grow even larger.


image

Monique is taking a train to Boston. Her train is stopped at the station. She is facing the direction the train will be moving. All she can see from her window is the train next to her. That train is also going to Boston and leaves first. As the other train leaves, it seems to Monique as if

  (A) she is moving forward.

  (B) she is moving backward.

  (C) the other train is moving backward.

  (D) the train station is moving.


Use the information below to answer the question. When students from the local school helped clean the city park, they found a lot of litter floating on top of a pond. They wondered if more litter had sunk below the surface of the water. Back in the classroom, they conducted an experiment to see how long different types of litter would float. They ran three trials. The average floating time is recorded in the chart.

image

Based on the chart, which floated for the LEAST amount of time?

  (A) piece of foil

  (B) bottle cap

  (C) peach pit

  (D) cloth rag


For his school project, Greg measured the height of a plant over an 8-week period. The graph of his results is shown on the right.

image

If the trend continues, which is the BEST prediction of the height of the plant at week 10?

  (A) 5 cm

  (B) 8 cm

  (C) 11 cm

  (D) 20 cm


Use the picture to the right to answer the question. After Nita connected a copper wire from one terminal of a battery to the other, the wire became very hot. Why did the wire get hot?

image

  (A) The circuit was not complete.

  (B) Air around the wire became electrified.

  (C) Chemical energy in the battery produced vibrations.

  (D) Electrical energy was changed into heat energy.


Which fastener would be BEST to use to fasten together wood for a bookcase so that the fastener will be flush with the wood?

image

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The diagram below shows a weather thermometer.

image

Which of the following is most likely to occur at the temperature shown?

  (A) rain

  (B) fog

  (C) hail

  (D) snow


Which of the following diagrams shows a magnet being attracted to another magnet?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The diagram below shows the life cycle of a moth.

image

Which stage is missing from this life cycle of the moth?

  (A) egg

  (B) caterpillar

  (C) pupa

  (D) adult


Which of the following diagrams indicates the correct motion of the parts?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Use the picture below to answer the question.

image

A student wrote the notes shown above while learning about an animal. What animal was the student studying?

  (A) raccoon

  (B) cricket

  (C) lizard

  (D) frog


The picture below shows a drum made from a wooden bowl with rubber stretched across the top.

image

What could be done to raise the pitch of the sound from this drum?

  (A) tighten the rubber skin of the drum

  (B) cover the drum with a blanket

  (C) strike the drum harder

  (D) use thicker rubber to make the drum skin


Three animals shown below are reptiles and one is a mammal. Which animal is a mammal?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The table below shows corn seeds that have been placed in various positions to germinate.

image

When a corn seed germinates (begins to grow), the root always emerges first. The arrows indicate the direction of the root growth on days 1- 4. Which statement best describes the growth of the roots on Day 4?

  (A) All the roots are growing downward.

  (B) The roots are growing in the direction in which the seed was placed.

  (C) Half the roots are growing upward, and half are growing downward.

  (D) The roots are growing in the same direction in which they grew on Day 2.


Which of the objects shown below is a simple machine?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The diagram below shows precipitation forming in a large cloud.

image

The ice pellets grow larger each time they rise and fall through the cloud. What type of precipitation is this process producing?

  (A) hail

  (B) rain

  (C) sleet

  (D) snow


The diagram below shows two boards.

image

Morgan needs to fasten two boards together but she has no tools. Which of the following items can be used to fasten the boards together tightly without using tools?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The leaves of which plant below show the best structural adaptation for protecting the plant from predators?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Marcus designed a television stand like the one shown below for his family.

image

His father is worried that the stand could tip over. Look at the measurements in the drawing. How can Marcus improve the design so the stand would be less likely to tip over?

  (A) make the base wider

  (B) make the stand taller

  (C) make the top narrower

  (D) use a different material


A student has designed a cabinet that he can use to store his books, as shown below.

image

To give him more storage space, what can he most easily change in his design?

  (A) use a different type of wood

  (B) move the hinges so the doors open to the outside

  (C) put doors on the top and the bottom of the cabinet as well as the front

  (D) use wood glue instead of mechanical fasteners to attach the different pieces


The picture below shows the Sun, a stick, and the stick's shadow.

image

On a clear day at 10:00 A.M., the stick casts a shadow as shown in the picture. At 3:00 P.M., what will happen to the shadow made by the stick?

  (A) It will disappear.

  (B) It will look the same as it did at 10:00 A.M.

  (C) It will be in the same position, but shorter.

  (D) It will be in a different position.


A diagram of a lever is shown below.

image

A lever such as the one shown above is used to move heavy objects. By pushing down on the lever, you can lift the rock without too much strength. Which would be the most practical to use as a lever?

  (A)

image

a plastic pipe that is -inch in diameter and 8 feet long

  (B)

image

a piece of wood that is 2" x 4" wide and 8 feet long

  (C)

image

a length of 1/2-inch rope that is 8 feet long

  (D)

image

an 8-foot length of steel that weighs 200 pounds


The diagram below shows a compass and a magnet.

image

A magnet is held near a compass as shown above. Which shows how the compass would look if the magnet's poles were reversed?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The picture below shows flowering plants.

image

If all the flowers are picked off the plants above, the plants will not be able to

  (A) grow taller.

  (B) produce seeds.

  (C) make their own food.

  (D) absorb nutrients from the soil.


The picture below shows a nail being attracted by object X.

image

The nail moves toward object X, but the wood block does not. What kind of energy causes only the nail to move toward object X?

  (A) light

  (B) heat

  (C) electric

  (D) magnetic


The picture below shows the Sun shining on an open jar with some water in it.

image

Justin put the jar of water on a picnic table outside in the sunlight. Which of the following pictures shows what Justin would observe after all of the water had turned into a gas?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The picture below shows a group of toys on the floor.

image

Which property of this set appears to be the same?

  (A) length

  (B) pattern

  (C) shape

  (D) volume


A student created the table of materials shown below.

image

Which of the materials in the table is listed incorrectly?

  (A) silk

  (B) clay

  (C) plastic

  (D) wood


The table below shows the average monthly temperatures for Massachusetts over a 30-year period.

image

The average temperature for April is missing. Which is the best estimate of the average temperature for April?

  (A) 1°C

  (B) 10°C

  (C) 16°C

  (D) 20°C


In which case would it take the most effort to make points 1 and 2 on the magnets touch each other?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The picture below shows a duck swimming in a lake.

image

A student sees a mirror image of a duck in the water of the lake. What causes this mirror image?

  (A) black light

  (B) refracted light

  (C) reflected light

  (D) absorbed light


The picture below shows a sundial.

image

On a sunny day, the gnomon makes a slow-moving shadow on the surface of the sundial. What does a sundial show?

  (A) humidity

  (B) temperature

  (C) time of day

  (D) direction of wind


A glacier moving down a mountain valley is pictured below.

image

Glaciers are frozen, slow-moving rivers of ice that can move about three feet per day down mountain valleys. How does a glacier help create new soil?

  (A) by carrying living plant material to the ocean

  (B) by scraping small particles off large rocks

  (C) by melting rocks along its path down the valley

  (D) by freezing small particles of soil to form large rocks


The diagram below shows some of the layers of rocks found in the Grand Canyon. Scientists find these layers of rock useful for studying fossils.

image

What type of rock is shown labeled in these layers?

  (A) extrusive

  (B) igneous

  (C) metamorphic

  (D) sedimentary


The picture below shows a mineral sample being tested with a metal file.

image

Which property of a mineral is most likely tested in this way?

  (A) color

  (B) hardness

  (C) luster

  (D) streak


The diagram below shows an incomplete circuit due to a break in the wire at point X.

image

A student is testing materials to see if they conduct electricity. The student places. each item shown at position X, making sure the object is in contact with the loose end of each wire. Which item will electricity flow through, causing the bulb to light?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The diagram below shows a bar resting on a fulcrum with one end under a 100 lb. box.

image

In order for the bar to be used to lift the box, which of the following is the most important property of the bar?

  (A) dark color

  (B) high flexibility

  (C) high strength

  (D) light weight


The diagram below shows a food chain.

image

Which of the following is classified as a producer?

  (A) 1

  (B) 2

  (C) 3

  (D) 4


The picture below shows a solid wooden board that is one inch thick.

image

Which of the following tools used alone will safely make a hole completely through this board?

  (A) drill

  (B) hammer

  (C) knife

  (D) screwdriver


The picture below shows a leaf from a sugar maple tree.

image

Which of the following tree leaves is most likely from a tree that is closely related to the sugar maple?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The diagram below shows how a type of rock is formed over time.

image

This diagram represents the formation of which of the following types of rock?

  (A) igneous

  (B) metamorphic

  (C) sedimentary

  (D) volcanic


A healthy red-flowered tulip plant is shown below.

image

Which of the following would occur first as a result of a drought?

  (A) The tulip's leaves would wilt.

  (B) The tulip's flowers would turn blue.

  (C) The tulip's stems would grow longer.

  (D) The tulip would produce more flowers.


The picture below shows a pair of scissors.

image

Scissors are an example of a complex machine. Which of the following simple machines are combined to make scissors?

  (A) lever and gear

  (B) gear and pulley

  (C) lever and wedge

  (D) wedge and pulley


Which glass contains only a gas?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The picture below shows a seesaw.

image

A seesaw on a playground is an example of what type of simple machine?

  (A) lever

  (B) screw

  (C) wedge

  (D) wheel and axle


The drawing below shows a student blowing across the open top of a bottle that is half full of water.

image

When the student blows across the bottle of water, a sound is made. Which of the following directly causes this sound?

  (A) Air vibrates inside of the bottle.

  (B) Warm air heats the inside of the bottle.

  (C) Air moves away from the outside of the bottle.

  (D) Warm air touches cold water inside of the bottle.


The diagram below shows a birdhouse attached to an aluminum pole.

image

To be able to support the birdhouse, which of the following features of the pole is most important?

  (A) its color

  (B) its length

  (C) its thickness

  (D) its temperature


The sandpiper is a type of shore bird. In the fall, one species of sandpiper migrates from Canada to South America. The birds stay in South America through the winter. The arrow in the map below shows the migration route.

image

Which of the following statements best explains why the sandpiper migrates to South America?

  (A) There is less rain in South America during the winter.

  (B) There is more food available in South America during the winter.

  (C) There are more sandpiper predators in South America during the winter.

  (D) There is less sandpiper habitat available in South America during the winter.


The picture below shows a lemur.

image

Lemurs are mammals that live high up in the trees of tropical forests. Lemurs eat fruit and insects. Which of the following adaptations most helps lemurs to live in tropical trees?

  (A) Lemurs have soft, gray fur that keeps them warm in cool weather.

  (B) Lemurs have strong, long tails that can be curled around branches.

  (C) Lemurs have small, black eyes that allow them to see well at night.

  (D) Lemurs have sharp, razor-like teeth that can be used to tear apart food.


The diagram below shows the life cycle of a salamander.

image

Which behavior of a salamander changes the most from a larva to an adult?

  (A) The adult can stay in water longer than a larva.

  (B) The adult can eat smaller food than a larva.

  (C) The adult can find food on land more easily than a larva.

  (D) The adult can communicate with other adults better than a larva.


The picture below shows a beaker and a hollow metal sphere.

image

A student doing an investigation observes that a hollow metal sphere floats in cold water but sinks in warm water, as shown below.

image

Which question does the student's investigation best answer?

  (A) Why does the temperature of water increase?

  (B) How much water is required for metal to float?

  (C) At what temperature does water turn into a gas?

  (D) How does heating change the properties of water?


A model of a part of our solar system is shown below.

image

What does the dotted line in the model represent?

  (A) the orbit of the Moon

  (B) the phases of the Moon

  (C) the seasons on Earth

  (D) the North Pole on Earth


A student rubs two balloons on a sweater and hangs the balloons from pieces of string. The balloons move apart from each other, as shown in the diagram below.

image

What causes the balloons to move apart?

  (A) having opposite magnetic poles

  (B) being attracted to magnets

  (C) having the same electrical charges

  (D) being made from rubber


A student measured the volume of 100 grams of water at four temperatures. The results are shown in the graph below.

image

The student observed that the volume of the water was greater at 30°F than at other temperatures. What else was different about the water at 30°F?

  (A) the taste of the water

  (B) the state of matter of the water

  (C) the temperature at which ice melts

  (D) the material that makes up the water


The pictures below show a fossil of an ancient relative of the present-day flea. It is eight times larger than the present-day flea.

image

Which statement best describes the animals that the ancient flea used as a food source?

  (A) The animals were immune to the ancient flea.

  (B) The animals were larger.

  (C) The animals were smaller.

  (D) The animals were a different color from the ancient flea.


A child received a toy train set. Magnets are used to connect the engine and the freight cars. The train moves on a flat track. A diagram of the train set is shown below.

image

Which object does a magnet attract?

  (A) iron nail

  (B) rubber ball

  (C) plastic cart

  (D) wooden box


A child received a toy train set. Magnets are used to connect the engine and the freight cars. The train moves on a flat track. A diagram of the train set is shown below.

image

The child pushed and released the train. The train eventually slowed. The force responsible for the train slowing was

  (A) electrical

  (B) friction

  (C) gravity

  (D) magnetic


A group of students in Baltimore, Maryland, determined the average high temperature for each month during the school year.

image

Which two months shown in the graph had the lowest average temperatures?

  (A) September and June

  (B) November and December

  (C) January and February

  (D) October and May


Four students made the electric circuit shown below. Each student then tried to explain why the light bulb did not glow.

image

Which student best explained why the light bulb did not glow?

  (A) Student 1

  (B) Student 2

  (C) Student 3

  (D) Student 4


A teacher gave students two mixtures. Each mixture was made of two materials. The teacher asked the students to investigate the properties of the mixtures and to separate the materials in each mixture. The teacher provided the data table below.

image

The teacher set up an investigation using three wires, a light bulb, a battery, and Mixture 1 as shown below. When the teacher connected the wires to the battery, the light bulb glowed.

image

Mixture 1 is best described as

  (A) strong

  (B) magnetic

  (C) heat conductor

  (D) electricity conductor


A teacher gave students two mixtures. Each mixture was made of two materials. The teacher asked the students to investigate the properties of the mixtures and to separate the materials in each mixture. The teacher provided the data table below.

image

The students heated Mixture 1 on a hot plate. What happened to the water as Mixture 1 was heated?

  (A) The water condensed.

  (B) The water evaporated.

  (C) The water became a solid.

  (D) The water became a liquid.


Dolphins that are found in oceans live either near coastlines or in deeper waters offshore. Dolphins that live near a coastline have larger flippers and smaller bodies than dolphins that live in deeper waters.

image

Dolphins use food to

  (A) find mates

  (B) locate shelter

  (C) obtain energy

  (D) eliminate waste


Birds of Maryland Scientists have identified more than 400 species of birds that live in Maryland. These birds are found in different habitats, such as cities, forests, and near ocean shores. During a class project, students studied the six species of birds shown below.

image

Which of the birds pictured below most likely eats the same type of food as a cardinal?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Dolphins that are found in oceans live either near coastlines or in deeper waters offshore. Dolphins that live near a coastline have larger flippers and smaller bodies than dolphins that live in deeper waters.

image

The larger body helps the offshore dolphins survive because they

  (A) swim faster than predators

  (B) swim closer to the surface of the water

  (C) can migrate shorter distances to find mates

  (D) can dive deeper into colder water to find food


Students in a lab investigated samples of different forms of matter.

image

The total mass of the whole piece of paper compared to the total mass of the small pieces of paper

  (A) decreased because some pieces of paper were lost

  (B) increased because there were more pieces of paper

  (C) decreased because each piece of paper was smaller than the whole piece of paper

  (D) remained the same because the mass of the small pieces equals the mass of the whole piece of paper


Students in a lab investigated samples of different forms of matter.

image

Which statement about the samples shows that all matter takes up space?

  (A) The liquid was clear.

  (B) The nails were shiny.

  (C) The air filled the balloon.

  (D) The pieces of paper were white.


Metals have many useful properties. The table below compares five properties of metals.

image

Which metal would be best for flexible wire that conducts electricity?

  (A) nickel

  (B) iron

  (C) calcium

  (D) copper


Dolphins that are found in oceans live either near coastlines or in deeper waters offshore. Dolphins that live near a coastline have larger flippers and smaller bodies than dolphins that live in deeper waters.

image

Dolphins that live near the Maryland coastline are often observed in water temperatures between 10° Celsius and 32° Celsius. The number of dolphins counted during several years is shown in the graph below.

image

Which year most likely had temperatures between 10° Celsius and 32° Celsius for the longest amount of time?

  (A) 2004

  (B) 2005

  (C) 2009

  (D) 2010


Students sorted animals into four groups. The students were given an additional animal to classify. This animal has feathers, a beak, and lays eggs. However, it cannot fly and does not hunt or eat other animals.

image

Into which group would the animal best be placed?

  (A) Group 1

  (B) Group 2

  (C) Group 3

  (D) Group 4


A science class is studying physical science. The students are using the following materials:

image

A student stands in front of the plane mirror. Which statement describes the image of the student in the mirror?

  (A) The image is reversed left to right.

  (B) The image is reversed top to bottom.

  (C) The image is bigger than the actual student.

  (D) The image is smaller than the actual student.


A science class is studying physical science. The students are using the following materials:

image

Which object is a poor conductor of heat?

  (A) iron nail

  (B) copper wire

  (C) steel spoon

  (D) wooden spoon


A science class is studying physical science. The students are using the following materials:

image

Which object is attracted by a magnet?

  (A) steel spoon

  (B) glass spoon

  (C) plastic spoon

  (D) wooden spoon


A student combined eggs, flour, chocolate, and butter to make a cake.

image

The observable properties of the materials after the cake was baked

  (A) were changed

  (B) remained separate

  (C) remained the same

  (D) were mixed together


Limestone Cave Formation Rainwater absorbs carbon dioxide as it falls through the air and becomes acidic. The rainwater then seeps through the soil and absorbs more carbon dioxide, causing the water to become more acidic. When the water reaches limestone, which is made of dolomite and other minerals, the water flows into pores and cracks, dissolving the dolomite and carrying away rock. Over time, this process forms caves.

image

Students used several common items to test the hardness of dolomite. The items and the hardness scale value of each item are listed in the table below. The students determined that dolomite has a hardness of about 4.

image

The dolomite most likely showed a scratch made by a steel file but not a scratch from

  (A) a fingernail

  (B) a piece of glass

  (C) a knife blade

  (D) a diamond ring


Limestone Cave Formation Rainwater absorbs carbon dioxide as it falls through the air and becomes acidic. The rainwater then seeps through the soil and absorbs more carbon dioxide, causing the water to become more acidic. When the water reaches limestone, which is made of dolomite and other minerals, the water flows into pores and cracks, dissolving the dolomite and carrying away rock. Over time, this process forms caves.

image

Limestone rock is most likely composed of several minerals because limestone contains different

  (A) colors

  (B) cracks

  (C) fossils

  (D) soils


Limestone Cave Formation Rainwater absorbs carbon dioxide as it falls through the air and becomes acidic. The rainwater then seeps through the soil and absorbs more carbon dioxide, causing the water to become more acidic. When the water reaches limestone, which is made of dolomite and other minerals, the water flows into pores and cracks, dissolving the dolomite and carrying away rock. Over time, this process forms caves.

image

Which process is most involved in forming limestone caves?

  (A) deposition

  (B) evaporation

  (C) filtering

  (D) weathering


The diagram below shows an open circuit.

image

In which space should Wire X be placed to close the circuit?

  (A) 1

  (B) 2

  (C) 3

  (D) 4


A sandbar forms when sand is moved from a beach and is relocated to a new place. A sandbar in a river is shown in the diagram below.

image

Which processes most often cause this change to Earth's surface?

  (A) precipitation and weathering

  (B) cooling and condensation

  (C) heating and evaporation

  (D) erosion and deposition


A student pumps air into a soccer ball.

image

Which statement best explains why the soccer ball changes size?

  (A) Air is matter and takes up space.

  (B) The air pumped into the ball is cold.

  (C) The mass of the ball is decreasing as it is pumped up.

  (D) The pump increased the amount of space inside the ball.


Snow Melt Students placed 500 grams of snow into each of four containers made of different materials as shown in the diagram below. The students then placed the containers of snow outside in the sunlight.

image

The outside temperature increased and the students observed that the containers were empty. The snow in the containers most likely changed

  (A) to a liquid and then to a solid

  (B) to water vapor (gas) and then to a solid

  (C) to a liquid and then to water vapor (gas)

  (D) to water vapor (gas) and then to a liquid


Snow Melt Students placed 500 grams of snow into each of four containers made of different materials as shown in the diagram below. The students then placed the containers of snow outside in the sunlight.

image

Snow is a form of matter because snow

  (A) has mass

  (B) melts into liquid water

  (C) takes up space and has mass

  (D) takes up less space when it melts


Lemon Battery A group of students constructed an electric circuit using four lemons, four pennies, four steel nails, metal clips, copper wires, and a small light bulb. The students completed the connections properly, and the small light bulb glowed.

image

The small light bulb in the lemon battery electric circuit glows when electricity moves

  (A) through the closed circuit

  (B) through the open circuit

  (C) away from the lemons

  (D) toward the light bulb


Lemon Battery A group of students constructed an electric circuit using four lemons, four pennies, four steel nails, metal clips, copper wires, and a small light bulb. The students completed the connections properly, and the small light bulb glowed.

image

The small light bulb in the lemon battery electric circuit glows when electricity moves A through the closed circuit B through the open circuit C away from the lemons D toward the light bulb The students placed the lemon battery electric circuit next to a window on a sunny day. After several minutes the metal clips became warm. However, the outside of the lemons remained cool. The outside of the lemons remained cool because lemons are

  (A) poor conductors of heat energy

  (B) good conductors of heat energy

  (C) poor conductors of electrical energy

  (D) good conductors of electrical energy


Oil is a natural resource from which many useful products are made. These products include materials such as plastics, paints, clothing, and fuels. One important product made from oil is gasoline, which is used in automobiles. A student constructed the diagram below to show some of the changes oil goes through as it is refined into gasoline and then used by humans.

image

A negative effect of the use of gasoline made from oil is an increase in the

  (A) number of cars

  (B) amount of litter

  (C) number of landfills

  (D) amount of air pollution


Oil is a natural resource from which many useful products are made. These products include materials such as plastics, paints, clothing, and fuels. One important product made from oil is gasoline, which is used in automobiles. A student constructed the diagram below to show some of the changes oil goes through as it is refined into gasoline and then used by humans.

image

Which unit of measurement would be used to find the volume of oil?

  (A) degree

  (B) gram

  (C) milliliter

  (D) millimeter


Oil is a natural resource from which many useful products are made. These products include materials such as plastics, paints, clothing, and fuels. One important product made from oil is gasoline, which is used in automobiles. A student constructed the diagram below to show some of the changes oil goes through as it is refined into gasoline and then used by humans.

image

There is no arrow drawn from Step 4 back to Step 1 because oil is

  (A) a renewable resource

  (B) usually found by drilling

  (C) heated to make gasoline

  (D) a nonrenewable resource


Keisha is pushing her bicycle up a hill. Where does Keisha get the energy to push her bicycle?

image

  (A) From the food she has eaten

  (B) From the exercise she did earlier

  (C) From the ground she is walking on

  (D) From the bicycle she is pushing


When this caterpillar

image

becomes an adult, what will it look like?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image

  (E)

image


A butterfly sitting on a leaf laid some small eggs. The pictures show the changes that took place to the eggs.

image

In what order did the changes take place?

  (A) 1, 2, 3, 4

  (B) 1, 3, 2, 4

  (C) 1, 4, 3, 2

  (D) 1, 4, 2, 3


The picture shows how an insect can carry pollen from the flowers of a tree to the flowers of a small plant.

image

What will most likely happen?

  (A) The offspring from the tree will look like the plant.

  (B) The offspring from the plant will look like the tree.

  (C) The offspring from the plant will look like the tree and the plant.

  (D) Nothing will happen because no offspring will be produced.


Here is a picture of the inside of a box. If you put a worm on the X on the bottom of the box, to which corner would you expect it to go?

image

  (A) Damp and light

  (B) Dry and light

  (C) Damp and dark

  (D) Dry and dark


Terry tested four rocks to see how hard they are. He rubbed each of them against some hard steel for one minute. He drew pictures of what they looked like before he rubbed them and after he rubbed them. Circle which of Terry's rocks is the hardest.

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


At different times during a sunny day a tree was seen to cast a shadow of different length as shown in the diagram below. Which diagram shows the shadow at mid-day (12 noon)?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image

  (E)

image


The same brick is put on a scale in three different ways.

image

What will the scale show?

  (A) 1 will show the greatest weight.

  (B) 2 will show the greatest weight.

  (C) 3 will show the greatest wight.

  (D) All will show the same weight.


Which of these insects is correctly paired with its young form?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Which of these types of plants are usually found growing in a tropical rain forest?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


image

Animals usually have physical features that help them live in certain places. Look at the picture shown above. This animal lives in a hot desert. What physical feature does this animal have that helps it lose heat?

  (A) a thick coat of fur

  (B) a bushy tail

  (C) small eyes

  (D) large ears


image

Larvae were found in a bag of rice. What best explains how the larvae got there?

  (A) They came from water in the bag.

  (B) They came from air in the bag.

  (C) They came from the rice itself.

  (D) They came from eggs laid by insects.


The picture shows three solid objects of the same size floating in water.

image

Which object weighs the most?

  (A) Object A

  (B) Object B

  (C) Object C

  (D) They all weigh the same.


The pictures below show four identical burning candles. Each is covered by a glass container of a different size. Which candle flame will be the last to go out?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


image

The picture above shows two types of seeds. How are those seeds scattered?

  (A) by bursting

  (B) by sticking to animals

  (C) by beating eaten by animals

  (D) by wind


Which ice cube will take the longest time to melt?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


image

Beans are fixed on a metal ruler with butter as shown in the figure above. The ruler is heated at one end. In which order will the beans fall off?

  (A) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

  (B) 5, 4, 3, 2, 1

  (C) 1, 3, 5, 4, 2

  (D) All at the same time


Which animal has its skeleton on the outside of its body?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The three objects below are the same shape and size.

image

Which statement about the weight of the objects is most likely to be correct?

  (A) The wood object is the heaviest.

  (B) The iron object is the heaviest.

  (C) The styrofoam object is the heaviest.

  (D) all three objects weight the same.


The pictures below show some fossils of she shellfish that were found in a rock layer on a mountainside.

image

what is the most likely reason they were found in the rock layer?

  (A) Shellfish lived on dry land long ago.

  (B) Fossils last longer when they form in mountains.

  (C) People left the shells on the mountainside.

  (D) The rock layer was once part of a sea floor.


Which bird is most likely to eat small mammals?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Maria designed an experiment using salt and water. The results of her experiment are shown in the table.

image

What was Maria studying in her experiment?

  (A) How much salt will dissolve in different volumes of water.

  (B) How much salt will dissolve at different temperatures.

  (C) If stirring increases how fast salt will dissolve.

  (D) If stirring decreases how fast will salt dissolve.


The leaf shape in the rock comes from a plant that lived long ago.

image

About how long ago was the plant alive?

  (A) one year

  (B) one hundred years

  (C) one thousand years

  (D) one million years


The picture shows a boat sailing.

image

Which force causes the boat to move?

  (A) gravity

  (B) wind

  (C) friction

  (D) magnetism


The table below shows the properties of the two materials.

image

Which statement about materials 1 and 2 is most likely to be correct?

  (A) Material 1 is glass, and material 2 is clay.

  (B) Material 1 is copper, and material 2 is wood.

  (C) Material 1 is iron, and material 2 is sugar.

  (D) Material 1 is cork, and material 2 is gold.


image

Polar bears and walruses look very different, but both can survive in the extreme cold. A polar bear has a thick coat of fur that helps keep it warm. The walrus has no fur. What does the walrus have that helps it keep warm?

  (A) fat layers

  (B) tusks

  (C) whiskers

  (D) flippers


image

Picture 1 and Picture 2 show the same eyes in different outside conditions. What outside condition is different between Picture 1 and Picture 2?

  (A) Light is brighter in Picture 1.

  (B) Light is brighter in Picture 2.

  (C) Temperature is higher in Picture 1.

  (D) Temperature is higher in Picture 2.


The Grass is Always Greener Jose and Maria noticed the grass in one part of the yard was growing better than in other areas. They thought this happened because parts of the yard received more light than other parts. They did the following investigation with grass sod (a layer of grass with its roots in soil). Prediction: Grass that receives more light will grow the tallest. Materials: grass sod cut into 3 equal pieces meter stick water 200 mL beaker 3 trays of the same size 3 lights connected to timers

image

Procedure: 1. Set the three pieces of grass sod into the three trays and put the trays in a dark place with the lights above them as shown in the Investigation Set-up. 2. Measure the average height of the grass in each tray and record as starting heights. 3. Set the timers to turn the lights on daily: one light for 2 hours, one light for 6 hours, and one light for 12 hours. 4. Water each tray with 200 mL of water every four days. 5. Measure the average height of the grass at the end of each week. 6. Record the average heights in the data table for 3 weeks. Data:

image

What question were Jose and Maria asking in their investigation?

  (A) How does the amount of light affect the color of grass?

  (B) How does the amount of light affect the thickness grass?

  (C) How does the amount of light affect the height of grass?


The Grass is Always Greener Jose and Maria noticed the grass in one part of the yard was growing better than in other areas. They thought this happened because parts of the yard received more light than other parts. They did the following investigation with grass sod (a layer of grass with its roots in soil). Prediction: Grass that receives more light will grow the tallest. Materials: grass sod cut into 3 equal pieces meter stick water 200 mL beaker 3 trays of the same size 3 lights connected to timers

image

Procedure: 1. Set the three pieces of grass sod into the three trays and put the trays in a dark place with the lights above them as shown in the Investigation Set-up. 2. Measure the average height of the grass in each tray and record as starting heights. 3. Set the timers to turn the lights on daily: one light for 2 hours, one light for 6 hours, and one light for 12 hours. 4. Water each tray with 200 mL of water every four days. 5. Measure the average height of the grass at the end of each week. 6. Record the average heights in the data table for 3 weeks. Data:

image

Why is soil important to the plant in Jose and Maria's investigation?

  (A) The soil prevents dust from getting to the leaves.

  (B) The soil provides support and nutrients for the grass.

  (C) The soil provides a place for insects and worms to live.


The Grass is Always Greener Jose and Maria noticed the grass in one part of the yard was growing better than in other areas. They thought this happened because parts of the yard received more light than other parts. They did the following investigation with grass sod (a layer of grass with its roots in soil). Prediction: Grass that receives more light will grow the tallest. Materials: grass sod cut into 3 equal pieces meter stick water 200 mL beaker 3 trays of the same size 3 lights connected to timers

image

Procedure: 1. Set the three pieces of grass sod into the three trays and put the trays in a dark place with the lights above them as shown in the Investigation Set-up. 2. Measure the average height of the grass in each tray and record as starting heights. 3. Set the timers to turn the lights on daily: one light for 2 hours, one light for 6 hours, and one light for 12 hours. 4. Water each tray with 200 mL of water every four days. 5. Measure the average height of the grass at the end of each week. 6. Record the average heights in the data table for 3 weeks. Data:

image

Which variable did Jose and Maria change (manipulate) in their investigation?

  (A) The amount of light

  (B) The amount of water

  (C) The amount of grass sod


Tim's family moved to a new house with a fenced yard and a deck. The yard had no grass or plants. Tim helped his parents design a yard to attract birds. The stages of their design process are described below. Problem: Attract birds to the yard. Gather Information: For two weeks, walk around the neighborhood for 1 hour each afternoon and record bird observations in the following table.

image

Explore Ideas: Consider planting grass, flowers, shrubs, and trees. Consider putting in a bird feeder, bird bath, and bird houses. Talk about how to keep the plants healthy, the bird feeder full of seeds, and the bird bath clean and full of water. Plan Summary: Put in grass for the birds to peck. Put in a bird feeder and keep the feeder full of seeds. Keep the fence clear for birds to stand or sit like birds do on rooftops, telephone wires, and trees. Steps to Do the Plan: 1. Put in grass. 2. Leave bare soil under the deck and around the house as shown in the Diagram of Solution. 3. Water the grass. 4. Install a bird feeder on the deck rail. 5. Keep the bird feeder full of seed.

image

Test Solution: Count the birds in the yard one hour every afternoon for two weeks. Results: Only 10 birds landed on the fence, flew into the yard, or came to the bird feeder. Tim wants to attract more birds into his new yard. To gather more information, which of the following questions would be best for Tim to research?

  (A) What do the birds in his neighborhood eat?

  (B) When do birds in his neighborhood sleep?

  (C) What birds in his neighborhood sing the most?


Tim's family moved to a new house with a fenced yard and a deck. The yard had no grass or plants. Tim helped his parents design a yard to attract birds. The stages of their design process are described below. Problem: Attract birds to the yard. Gather Information: For two weeks, walk around the neighborhood for 1 hour each afternoon and record bird observations in the following table.

image

Explore Ideas: Consider planting grass, flowers, shrubs, and trees. Consider putting in a bird feeder, bird bath, and bird houses. Talk about how to keep the plants healthy, the bird feeder full of seeds, and the bird bath clean and full of water. Plan Summary: Put in grass for the birds to peck. Put in a bird feeder and keep the feeder full of seeds. Keep the fence clear for birds to stand or sit like birds do on rooftops, telephone wires, and trees. Steps to Do the Plan: 1. Put in grass. 2. Leave bare soil under the deck and around the house as shown in the Diagram of Solution. 3. Water the grass. 4. Install a bird feeder on the deck rail. 5. Keep the bird feeder full of seed.

image

Test Solution: Count the birds in the yard one hour every afternoon for two weeks. Results: Only 10 birds landed on the fence, flew into the yard, or came to the bird feeder. What does the grass in Tim's yard need to grow?

  (A) Soil, water, and insects

  (B) Water, sunlight, and air

  (C) Nutrients, birds, and roots


Let Us Grow Ian and Karlyn each grew lettuce to feed their pet mouse. They both put the same amount of soil, seeds, and water in a plastic bag and zipped each one almost closed, leaving only a small opening in each bag. Ian taped his bag to the wall and Karlyn taped her bag to the window.

image

After one week, Karlyn noticed that her lettuce plants were larger than Ian's lettuce plants. What most likely caused Karlyn's plants to grow faster?

  (A) She used more seeds.

  (B) She watered her seeds more often.

  (C) She put her plastic bag in a different location.


Let Us Grow Ian and Karlyn each grew lettuce to feed their pet mouse. They both put the same amount of soil, seeds, and water in a plastic bag and zipped each one almost closed, leaving only a small opening in each bag. Ian taped his bag to the wall and Karlyn taped her bag to the window.

image

What does the soil in the plastic bag provide for the lettuce plants?

  (A) Energy

  (B) Nutrients

  (C) Roots


Let Us Grow Ian and Karlyn each grew lettuce to feed their pet mouse. They both put the same amount of soil, seeds, and water in a plastic bag and zipped each one almost closed, leaving only a small opening in each bag. Ian taped his bag to the wall and Karlyn taped her bag to the window.

image

What is the role of the lettuce plants in a garden ecosystem?

  (A) Producer

  (B) Consumer

  (C) Decomposer


Let Us Grow Ian and Karlyn each grew lettuce to feed their pet mouse. They both put the same amount of soil, seeds, and water in a plastic bag and zipped each one almost closed, leaving only a small opening in each bag. Ian taped his bag to the wall and Karlyn taped her bag to the window.

image

Fully-grown lettuce plants have flowers. What is a function of flowers?

  (A) Flowers make food for plants.

  (B) Flowers support the plant stem.

  (C) Flowers make seeds for new plants.


Puddle Problem Directions: Use the following information to answer the question. Meena and Roland play soccer at a nearby park. After a rain, the soccer field always had large puddles that did not go away for a few days. Meena wondered if the kind of soil has something to do with how long the puddles stayed. They did the following investigation. Question: How does the kind of soil affect the amount of water that drains through the soil? Prediction: Sandy soil will allow more water to drain through than other kinds of soils after 25 minutes. Materials: equal amounts of sandy soil, garden soil, and clay soil plastic bottles with bottoms cut off filter cloth rubber bands graduated cylinders beakers stopwatch water

image

Procedure: 1. Set up the plastic bottles with filter cloth rubber banded over the openings as shown in the Investigation Setup diagram. 2. Put equal amounts of each kind of soil into separate bottles as shown in the Investigation Setup diagram. 3. Pour 500 milliliters of water into each bottle. 4. Start the stopwatch. 5. After 25 minutes, record the amount of water in each graduated cylinder as Trial 1. 6. Repeat the procedure for Trials 2 and 3. 7. Find and record the average amount of water drained for each kind of soil. Data:

image

Meena and Roland wanted the water on the soccer field to drain faster. Based on the investigation, which kind of soil should be added to the soccer field soil?

  (A) Clay soil

  (B) Garden soil

  (C) Sandy soil


Puddle Problem Directions: Use the following information to answer the question. Meena and Roland play soccer at a nearby park. After a rain, the soccer field always had large puddles that did not go away for a few days. Meena wondered if the kind of soil has something to do with how long the puddles stayed. They did the following investigation. Question: How does the kind of soil affect the amount of water that drains through the soil? Prediction: Sandy soil will allow more water to drain through than other kinds of soils after 25 minutes. Materials: equal amounts of sandy soil, garden soil, and clay soil plastic bottles with bottoms cut off filter cloth rubber bands graduated cylinders beakers stopwatch water

image

Procedure: 1. Set up the plastic bottles with filter cloth rubber banded over the openings as shown in the Investigation Setup diagram. 2. Put equal amounts of each kind of soil into separate bottles as shown in the Investigation Setup diagram. 3. Pour 500 milliliters of water into each bottle. 4. Start the stopwatch. 5. After 25 minutes, record the amount of water in each graduated cylinder as Trial 1. 6. Repeat the procedure for Trials 2 and 3. 7. Find and record the average amount of water drained for each kind of soil. Data:

image

Which variable was the measured (responding) variable in this investigation?

  (A) The size of the filter cloth

  (B) The height of the bottles

  (C) The amount of water drained


Puddle Problem Directions: Use the following information to answer the question. Meena and Roland play soccer at a nearby park. After a rain, the soccer field always had large puddles that did not go away for a few days. Meena wondered if the kind of soil has something to do with how long the puddles stayed. They did the following investigation. Question: How does the kind of soil affect the amount of water that drains through the soil? Prediction: Sandy soil will allow more water to drain through than other kinds of soils after 25 minutes. Materials: equal amounts of sandy soil, garden soil, and clay soil plastic bottles with bottoms cut off filter cloth rubber bands graduated cylinders beakers stopwatch water

image

Procedure: 1. Set up the plastic bottles with filter cloth rubber banded over the openings as shown in the Investigation Setup diagram. 2. Put equal amounts of each kind of soil into separate bottles as shown in the Investigation Setup diagram. 3. Pour 500 milliliters of water into each bottle. 4. Start the stopwatch. 5. After 25 minutes, record the amount of water in each graduated cylinder as Trial 1. 6. Repeat the procedure for Trials 2 and 3. 7. Find and record the average amount of water drained for each kind of soil. Data:

image

Which variable was kept the same (controlled) in this investigation?

  (A) The amount of water poured into the soils

  (B) The amount of water in the puddles on the field

  (C) The amount of water that drained through the soils


Puddle Problem Directions: Use the following information to answer the question. Meena and Roland play soccer at a nearby park. After a rain, the soccer field always had large puddles that did not go away for a few days. Meena wondered if the kind of soil has something to do with how long the puddles stayed. They did the following investigation. Question: How does the kind of soil affect the amount of water that drains through the soil? Prediction: Sandy soil will allow more water to drain through than other kinds of soils after 25 minutes. Materials: equal amounts of sandy soil, garden soil, and clay soil plastic bottles with bottoms cut off filter cloth rubber bands graduated cylinders beakers stopwatch water

image

Procedure: 1. Set up the plastic bottles with filter cloth rubber banded over the openings as shown in the Investigation Setup diagram. 2. Put equal amounts of each kind of soil into separate bottles as shown in the Investigation Setup diagram. 3. Pour 500 milliliters of water into each bottle. 4. Start the stopwatch. 5. After 25 minutes, record the amount of water in each graduated cylinder as Trial 1. 6. Repeat the procedure for Trials 2 and 3. 7. Find and record the average amount of water drained for each kind of soil. Data:

image

Why did Meena and Roland do three trials during their investigation?

  (A) To find a way to remove the puddles

  (B) To identify more kinds of soil

  (C) To be more sure of the results


Puddle Problem Directions: Use the following information to answer the question. Meena and Roland play soccer at a nearby park. After a rain, the soccer field always had large puddles that did not go away for a few days. Meena wondered if the kind of soil has something to do with how long the puddles stayed. They did the following investigation. Question: How does the kind of soil affect the amount of water that drains through the soil? Prediction: Sandy soil will allow more water to drain through than other kinds of soils after 25 minutes. Materials: equal amounts of sandy soil, garden soil, and clay soil plastic bottles with bottoms cut off filter cloth rubber bands graduated cylinders beakers stopwatch water

image

Procedure: 1. Set up the plastic bottles with filter cloth rubber banded over the openings as shown in the Investigation Setup diagram. 2. Put equal amounts of each kind of soil into separate bottles as shown in the Investigation Setup diagram. 3. Pour 500 milliliters of water into each bottle. 4. Start the stopwatch. 5. After 25 minutes, record the amount of water in each graduated cylinder as Trial 1. 6. Repeat the procedure for Trials 2 and 3. 7. Find and record the average amount of water drained for each kind of soil. Data:

image

What does the soil provide for the grass on the soccer field?

  (A) Mineral nutrients

  (B) Chemical energy

  (C) Additional roots


Students are studying the growth of the two plants shown below.

image

They are preparing a report about these plants. Which data table should be in their report?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Which of the following is most useful to a person traveling across deep snow?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Study the table below.

image

A student records observed characteristics for four organisms. Based on this student's observations, which organism has two characteristics of all living things?

  (A) organism W

  (B) organism X

  (C) organism Y

  (D) organism Z


A student is studying the parts of a leaf.

image

Which tool will most help the student count all the veins in the leaf?

  (A) ruler

  (B) balance

  (C) hand lens

  (D) measuring cup


The road shown below was suddenly broken by a natural event.

image

Which natural event most likely caused the crack in the road?

  (A) wind

  (B) earthquake

  (C) a lava flow from a volcano

  (D) an avalanche down a mountain


Study the picture of the Big Dipper below.

image

Which picture best predicts how the Big Dipper would appear to move in the night sky?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The data table shows how many paper clips a magnet picked up during an investigation.

image

How many paper clips will the magnet most likely pick up during trial 6?

  (A) 6 paper clips

  (B) 7 paper clips

  (C) 10 paper clips

  (D) 12 paper clips


The picture shows how the Sun appeared to change position during a day. A shadow from a flagpole and flag is also shown.

image

Which position of the Sun most likely caused the shadow shown in the picture?

  (A) position 1

  (B) position 2

  (C) position 3

  (D) position 4


The drawing shows the front feet of an animal.

image

Which activity does this animal most likely do very well?

  (A) flying

  (B) digging

  (C) jumping

  (D) swimming


A student observed two objects and made a list of information describing each object.

image

Which properties of the objects did the student most likely observe and describe in each list?

  (A) shape, color, and length

  (B) shape, length, and temperature

  (C) size, color, and texture

  (D) size, temperature, and color


The chart below shows food sources for several organisms living in Alaska.

image

Which food chain is based on the information in the chart?

  (A) bears -> plants -> muskoxen

  (B) wolves -> bears -> moose

  (C) moose -> muskoxen -> plants

  (D) plants -> moose -> wolves


A student wants to count the number of tiny petals on an alpine wildflower. Which tool would be most useful to the student?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The diagram below shows an electrical circuit.

image

This circuit is a series circuit because

  (A) it has two light bulbs.

  (B) the same current flows through both light bulbs.

  (C) it uses a single battery.

  (D) the current is divided between the light bul


The diagram below shows that the magnetic field of Earth is similar to that of a bar magnet.

image

At which location is Earth's magnetic field the strongest?

  (A) 1

  (B) 2

  (C) 3

  (D) 4


The diagram below shows a simple food chain.

image

Which of the following animals might compete with the coyote in this food chain?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


A group of students is building a model of an ecosystem. Which of the following organisms should the students select to act as a decomposer?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Shown below are four different skin patterns found in the western garter snake.

image

The patterns most likely reflect differences in the snakes'

  (A) life cycle.

  (B) food source.

  (C) size.

  (D) habitat.


A student wants to put some plants in a window-box planter. The window selected for the plants is always shaded by a large tree outside the window.

image

Which characteristic of the plants would most likely affect the plants' growth in this location?

  (A) leaf shape

  (B) light requirement

  (C) plant price

  (D) flower color


Which of the following systems would most likely have the greatest amount of moisture associated with it?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


image

Which process is most responsible for the formation of the Grand Canyon?

  (A) scouring by continental glaciers

  (B) erosion by wind and water

  (C) eruptions by explosive volcanoes

  (D) cracking of Earth's crust by earthquakes


Plants are classified according to their structures. The plant pictured below reproduces without seeds and has simple tubes for transporting water.

image

In which group of plants would this plant be classified?

  (A) spore-producing plants with many leaves

  (B) plants that produce fruit on their leaves

  (C) plants that carry seeds on their leaves

  (D) flowering plants with many leaves


The diagram below shows the life cycle of an organism.

image

Which of the following organisms has a life cycle like the one shown in the diagram?

  (A) a bird

  (B) a butterfly

  (C) a frog

  (D) a snake


The pictures below show parts from four different plants.

image

Based on the pictures, which of the following physical characteristics would be best to use to sort the plants into two groups?

  (A) the shape of the leaves

  (B) the length of the leaves

  (C) the length of the branches

  (D) the thickness of the branches


The diagram below shows a screw on the bottom of a toy.

image

Which of the following questions can best be answered by using this diagram?

  (A) How strong is the screw?

  (B) What material is the screw made of?

  (C) Which tool should be used to turn the screw?

  (D) How many times should the screw be turned?


A student made the drawing below to show the order of several phases of the Moon. One of the phases is missing.

image

Which of the following pictures shows the phase of the Moon that is missing from the drawing?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The table below shows averages of temperature and precipitation for the past 20 years in an area in the United States.

image

For which of the following would these data be most useful?

  (A) understanding the climate of the area

  (B) showing the effect of weather on climate

  (C) predicting how the weather will change from day to day

  (D) demonstrating the difference between weather and climate


Kate is using the key shown below to classify a tree into one of four different groups.

image

The tree loses its leaves in winter and has rough bark. According to the key, into which group should the tree be classified?

  (A) group 1

  (B) group 2

  (C) group 3

  (D) group 4


Eastern meadowlarks are birds that use their beaks to grab and remove insects from holes in trees. An eastern meadowlark is shown below.

image

Which of the following objects functions most like the meadowlark's beak?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Carlos and his grandfather grow plants all year long in a greenhouse in Boston, Massachusetts. The picture below shows the greenhouse where they grow their plants.

image

This greenhouse was most likely built to solve which of the following problems?

  (A) How do they put fertilizer in the soil?

  (B) How do they give water to the plants?

  (C) How do they protect the plants from weather conditions?

  (D) How do they store the garden tools in an organized way?


The arrows on the map below show the migration cycle of penguins that live near the southern tip of South America. The penguins complete this migration cycle once each year.

image

The migration of these penguins is in response to which of the following environmental conditions?

  (A) change in temperature

  (B) long period of drought

  (C) decrease in ocean level

  (D) increase in earthquakes


The pictures below show four objects that a student placed outside in the sunlight.

image

Which object should absorb the greatest amount of light?

  (A) aluminum foil

  (B) black towel

  (C) clear glass

  (D) white paper


Jamal wants to make an electrical circuit, but he only has the objects shown below.

image

Which of the following must Jamal also have to make an electrical circuit?

  (A) a motor

  (B) a switch

  (C) a bar magnet

  (D) a power source


The table below shows the average high temperature and average relative humidity for a city in Massachusetts for the months of July, August, and September.

image

Which of the following statements describes how the average weather in this city changes from July to September?

  (A) The weather becomes cooler and less humid.

  (B) The weather becomes warmer and less humid.

  (C) The weather becomes cooler and more humid.

  (D) The weather becomes warmer and more humid.


Which of the following diagrams shows how two bar magnets will move when they are placed next to each other?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The picture below shows a full moon that a student observed in the night sky on March 1.

image

Which of the following pictures shows the appearance of the Moon approximately one month later?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The pictures below show how an island changed over time.

image

Which of the following processes most likely caused the island to change?

  (A) earthquakes over many days

  (B) hurricanes over several months

  (C) rain and flooding over several years

  (D) weathering and erosion over millions of years


Use the information below to answer the question. The drawing below shows a field habitat.

image

Which of these organisms is a producer in the field habitat?

  (A) bird

  (B) butterfly

  (C) grass

  (D) mouse


Use the information below to answer the question. The drawing below shows a field habitat.

image

What is the main source of energy in the field habitat?

  (A) the sun

  (B) the plants

  (C) the butterfly

  (D) the soil


Use the information below to answer the question. The drawing below shows a field habitat.

image

Which of these changes would be most harmful to the organisms in the field habitat?

  (A) more birds flying to the field habitat

  (B) increase of rainfall in the field habitat

  (C) students walking through the field habitat

  (D) construction of a building near the field habitat


A student is measuring the mass of a container of water.

image

Which of these tools should be used to measure the mass of the container of water?

  (A) a balance

  (B) a thermometer

  (C) a centimeter ruler

  (D) a graduated cylinder


The data table below shows the physical properties of four materials.

image

How are glass and copper similar?

  (A) Neither is hard.

  (B) Both are flexible.

  (C) Both conduct electricity.

  (D) Neither is attracted by magnets.


image

Which statement best describes the circuits in the diagram?

  (A) Only the light bulb in Circuit 1 is lit.

  (B) Only the light bulb in Circuit 2 is lit.

  (C) Both light bulbs are lit.

  (D) Neither light bulb is lit.


A student needs to measure the volume of some pond water. Which of these tools will best measure the volume of pond water?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Mixing sugar, water, and lemon juice makes lemonade.

image

Which of the following statements best describes the properties of the materials after mixing the lemonade?

  (A) The materials develop all new properties.

  (B) The materials kept all of their original properties.

  (C) The materials kept many of their physical properties.

  (D) The materials changed most of their physical properties.


Students measured the change in height of a plant during a 25-day period. The graph below shows their data.

image

How many centimeters did the plant grow from Day 10 to Day 25?

  (A) 3 centimeters

  (B) 8 centimeters

  (C) 16 centimeters

  (D) 19 centimeters


A student places one magnet above another magnet as shown below.

image

Why does the top magnet appear to float above the bottom magnet?

  (A) The magnets are made of different material.

  (B) The like poles of the magnets repel each other.

  (C) The opposite poles of the magnets repel each other.

  (D) The magnets have a different gravitational attraction.


A group of students investigated several materials often used as conductors or insulators. The investigation results are shown in the data table below.

image

Which material best completes the data table?

  (A) cloth fabric

  (B) paper towel

  (C) plastic foam

  (D) silver spoon


Several different types of cells are shown below.

image

Which two types of cells are most similar in shape?

  (A) skin cells and bone cells

  (B) nerve cells and skin cells

  (C) bone cells and nerve cells

  (D) muscle cells and skin cells


Use the information and diagram below to answer the question. Two students built different electrical circuits using the materials below.

image

Which of the circuits shown below will make both light bulbs glow?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Use the information below to answer the question. The maps below show information about the air quality for one day in June, as reported from different air quality stations.

image

Which of the following regions of the United States had the worst air quality on this day?

  (A) Gulf Coast

  (B) Chicago Area

  (C) Eastern Coast

  (D) Los Angeles Area


Use the information below to answer the question. The maps below show information about the air quality for one day in June, as reported from different air quality stations.

image

Which of these activities is the most likely source of poor air quality?

  (A) grazing cattle

  (B) planting crops

  (C) burning tires

  (D) recycling aluminum


Use the information below to answer the question. The maps below show information about the air quality for one day in June, as reported from different air quality stations.

image

Which nonrenewable resource is used by most cars and trucks?

  (A) oil

  (B) coal

  (C) minerals

  (D) sunlight


The picture below shows a fossil.

image

What makes this fossil similar to a fish?

  (A) the body and fins

  (B) the eyes and length

  (C) the bones and size

  (D) the color and mouth


A wall and a jelly fish are shown below.

image

A wall is made of bricks. What is a jellyfish made of?

  (A) skin

  (B) bacteria

  (C) muscles

  (D) cells


The diagram below shows a hill with several positions labeled.

image

A ball that is started from which position will finish with the greatest speed?

  (A) position W

  (B) position X

  (C) position Y

  (D) position Z


A dish of water is placed on a table. In which diagram would the water evaporate the fastest?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The Sphinx, shown in the picture below, is a large stone figure in the desert of Egypt.

image

What most likely damaged the Sphinx?

  (A) ice

  (B) snow

  (C) waves

  (D) wind


The diagram below shows a rubber ball rolling rapidly toward a brick wall.

image

The ball hits the wall. Which sentence explains what happens next?

  (A) The ball moves away from the wall.

  (B) The ball goes through the wall.

  (C) The ball moves up the wall.

  (D) The ball sticks to the wall.


Bacteria and fungi are responsible for recycling nutrients from dead plants and animals. The graph below shows bacterial and fungal activity in a grassland environment for one year.

image

During which month will the most nutrients be ready for growing plants to use?

  (A) February

  (B) March

  (C) June

  (D) August


Using the fossil foot bones of horses, scientists found that the feet of horses became longer and lost toes over a long period of time, as shown in the pictures below.

image

Which conclusion most likely explains why the horses' feet changed?

  (A) to allow horses to run faster than their predators

  (B) to allow horses to swim faster than their ancestors

  (C) to allow horses to eat more grass

  (D) to allow horses to have more offspring


The sunrise and sunset times for three days in February are recorded in the chart below.

image

Which statement is an accurate conclusion based on this information?

  (A) There are more hours of daylight as the month goes by.

  (B) There are fewer hours of daylight as the month goes by.

  (C) The Sun rises later as the month goes by.

  (D) The Sun sets earlier as the month goes by.


A group of buttons is shown in the diagram below.

image

Which button belongs with the group of buttons shown?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Which information is contained on this map of the United States?

image

  (A) state capitals

  (B) mountain ranges

  (C) weather conditions

  (D) animal populations


The thermometers below show the temperature of a liquid at the beginning and at the end of an experiment.

image

How did the temperature of the liquid change from the beginning to the end of the experiment?

  (A) It went down 4°F.

  (B) It went down 8°F.

  (C) It went up 2°F.

  (D) It went up 10°F.


The diagram below shows an incomplete electrical circuit that includes a battery, a bulb, and three wires labeled A, B, and C.

image

The bulb is not lit. What should be done in order to light the bulb and complete the circuit?

  (A) Remove wire C.

  (B) Remove the battery.

  (C) Connect wires B and C.

  (D) Connect wires A and B.


The drawing below shows a copper wire with a wooden handle being held in a flame.

image

After a few minutes, what will most likely happen?

  (A) The light will change to electricity.

  (B) The heat will travel through the wire.

  (C) The flame will get brighter.

  (D) The flame will go out.


Two objects of the same mass are going to be placed the same distance from the support of a balance beam. Which diagram shows where the support should be placed under the beam so the objects will balance?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Base your answers on the chart below and on your knowledge of science. The chart shows the life span of several organisms.

image

Which organism has the longest life span?

  (A) red fox

  (B) common poppy

  (C) American lobster

  (D) bristlecone pine


The map below shows weather conditions on a single day in the United States.

image

Which two types of precipitation are occurring?

  (A) high tides and low tides

  (B) rain and snow

  (C) sleet and hail

  (D) cloudy and sunny


In the diagram below, letters A, B, C, and D show processes in the water cycle.

image

Which letter shows runoff?

  (A) A

  (B) B

  (C) C

  (D) D


The diagram below shows a river flowing through a valley.

image

Which process caused the river valley to form?

  (A) evaporation

  (B) erosion

  (C) deposition

  (D) condensation


The diagram below shows a plastic cup floating in a container of water.

image

If some marbles are placed in the cup, the water level will

  (A) decrease

  (B) increase

  (C) remain the same


The diagram below shows three plants hanging over a table. A student watered the plants and observed water on the top of the table. The next day, the student noticed that there was no water on the table.

image

What process had occurred?

  (A) condensation

  (B) erosion

  (C) evaporation

  (D) precipitation


An electrical circuit is shown below.

image

Which object at X will complete the circuit?

  (A) a metal paper clip

  (B) a plastic bottle

  (C) a rubber band

  (D) a wooden stick


Base your answers on the diagram of a food chain below and on your knowledge of science.

image

Which organisms in this food chain are needed for all the other organisms to survive?

  (A) caterpillars

  (B) frogs

  (C) plants

  (D) snakes


Base your answers on the diagram of a food chain below and on your knowledge of science.

image

Which organisms in this food chain are predators?

  (A) plants and caterpillars

  (B) caterpillars and frogs

  (C) frogs and snakes

  (D) snakes and plants


Base your answers on the diagram of a food chain below and on your knowledge of science.

image

If the population of snakes increases, the population of frogs will most likely

  (A) decrease

  (B) increase

  (C) remain the same


Base your answers on the chart below and on your knowledge of science. The chart shows the life span of several organisms.

image

What is the life span of an organism?

  (A) the stages of development of the organism

  (B) the length of time the organism lives

  (C) the basic needs of the organism

  (D) the life processes the organism performs


Base your answers on the chart below and on your knowledge of science. The chart shows the life span of several organisms.

image

The life span of an African elephant is between

  (A) 1 minute and 1 day

  (B) 1 year and 10 years

  (C) 10 years and 100 years

  (D) 100 years and 1,000 years


Base your answers on the table below and on your knowledge of science. The table shows the weather conditions in a city at noon for five days in March.

image

Which statement describes what happened to the temperature at noon from Tuesday through Friday?

  (A) It increased, only.

  (B) It decreased, only.

  (C) It increased then decreased.

  (D) It decreased then increased.


Base your answers on the information and diagrams below. In diagram 1, a man is lifting a heavy box into a truck. In diagram 2, the same man is using a ramp to move the same box into the same truck.

image

Which type of simple machine is the ramp in diagram 2?

  (A) pulley

  (B) inclined plane

  (C) lever

  (D) wheel


Base your answers on the information and diagrams below. In diagram 1, a man is lifting a heavy box into a truck. In diagram 2, the same man is using a ramp to move the same box into the same truck.

image

Why is it easier for the man to move the same box using the ramp?

  (A) He uses less force.

  (B) He moves the box a shorter distance.

  (C) The box is lighter.

  (D) The truck is lower.


Base your answers on the information and diagrams below. In diagram 1, a man is lifting a heavy box into a truck. In diagram 2, the same man is using a ramp to move the same box into the same truck.

image

It would be easier to move the box if the surface of the ramp was smoother because there would be less

  (A) friction

  (B) gravity

  (C) mass

  (D) volume


Which letter in the diagram below points to the plant structure that takes in water and nutrients?

image

  (A) A

  (B) B

  (C) C

  (D) D


Which diagram correctly shows the life cycle of some insects?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Base your answers on the table below and on your knowledge of science. The table shows the weather conditions in a city at noon for five days in March.

image

What was the sky condition on the day with the most snow?

  (A) clear

  (B) cloudy

  (C) partly cloudy

  (D) mostly cloudy


Base your answers on the diagram of a food chain below and on your knowledge of science.

image

The energy that all organisms need to survive comes from

  (A) the air

  (B) the Sun

  (C) water

  (D) grass


Base your answers on the diagram of a food chain below and on your knowledge of science.

image

Which organism is a producer?

  (A) grasshopper

  (B) raccoon

  (C) grass

  (D) frog


Base your answers on the diagram of a food chain below and on your knowledge of science.

image

The raccoon in this food chain represents a

  (A) prey

  (B) predator

  (C) decomposer

  (D) producer


Base your answers on the diagram of a food chain below and on your knowledge of science.

image

If all the frogs died, the raccoon population would most likely

  (A) decrease

  (B) increase

  (C) remain the same


Base your answers on the bar graph below, which shows the average life span of four animals.

image

Which statement is supported by the data in the bar graph?

  (A) The life span of a dog is longer than the life span of a squirrel.

  (B) The life span of a lion is longer than the life span of a horse.

  (C) The life span of a squirrel is longer than the life span of a lion.

  (D) The life span of a horse is longer than the life span of a dog.


Base your answers on the bar graph below, which shows the average life span of four animals.

image

The life span of an animal is defined as the

  (A) changes that occur as the animal develops

  (B) length of time from the animal's birth to its death

  (C) process by which the animal grows in size

  (D) transfer of specific traits to the animal's offspring


The diagram below shows liquid in a container and an empty container.

image

All the liquid is poured into the empty container. Which property of the liquid changes?

  (A) color

  (B) odor

  (C) shape

  (D) volume


The diagram below shows a block of wood.

image

The block is a solid because it has a definite

  (A) color

  (B) odor

  (C) shape

  (D) texture


The diagram below shows the land surface changes caused by a river flowing through an area for many years.

image

Which process caused the changes shown?

  (A) condensation

  (B) erosion

  (C) evaporation

  (D) rotation


Base your answers on the diagram below and on your knowledge of science. The diagram shows two containers, A and B. Container A contains 150 milliliters of water. Container B is empty.

image

If all of the water from container A is poured into container B, what will happen to the volume of the water?

  (A) It will decrease.

  (B) It will increase.

  (C) It will remain the same.


Base your answers on the diagram below and on your knowledge of science. The diagram shows two containers, A and B. Container A contains 150 milliliters of water. Container B is empty.

image

If all the water from container A is poured into container B, which property of the water will change?

  (A) mass

  (B) color

  (C) shape

  (D) state


Base your answers on the diagram of the water cycle below and on your knowledge of science.

image

Runoff is best described as water that

  (A) condenses into a cloud

  (B) flows on the ground

  (C) evaporates into a gas

  (D) moves downward into the ground


Base your answers on the diagram of the water cycle below and on your knowledge of science.

image

What is the source of energy for the water cycle?

  (A) lake

  (B) Sun

  (C) cloud

  (D) forest


The data table below shows the highest air temperature recorded each day from Monday through Friday.

image

Based on the data table, which statement is correct?

  (A) The air temperature went up steadily from Monday through Friday.

  (B) Monday and Friday were the warmest days.

  (C) The air temperature went up and then down.

  (D) The air temperature was higher on Friday than on Monday.


Base your answers on the diagram below. The diagram shows some living and nonliving things in a fish tank.

image

Which is a living thing shown in the diagram?

  (A) rock

  (B) fish

  (C) air pump

  (D) gravel


Base your answers on the diagram below. The diagram shows some living and nonliving things in a fish tank.

image

After several weeks, a student observes that the water level in the tank is lower. What process caused this to happen?

  (A) condensation

  (B) erosion

  (C) evaporation

  (D) precipitation


What is the main function of the spines on the prickly cactus plant shown in the diagram below?

image

  (A) to make food

  (B) to provide shade

  (C) to attract animals

  (D) to protect the plant


The diagram below shows the seed of a maple tree.

image

How is this seed most likely dispersed?

  (A) It is carried by the wind.

  (B) It floats in moving water.

  (C) It passes through an animal's digestive system.

  (D) It sticks to an animal's fur.


The diagram below shows a baby giraffe with its parents.

image

The long neck on the baby giraffe is

  (A) a learned trait

  (B) an inherited trait

  (C) a seasonal adaptation

  (D) an environmental condition


The diagram below shows the stages of development of a plant.

image

At which stage has germination begun?

  (A) A

  (B) B

  (C) C

  (D) D


The diagram below shows the life cycle of a mealworm. The stages in its life cycle are labeled W, X, Y, and Z.

image

Which stage is shown at Y?

  (A) adult

  (B) egg

  (C) larva

  (D) pupa


Which thermometer shows a temperature of 65°F?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The diagram below shows a girl in a wheelchair using a ramp to enter a building.

image

The ramp she is using is an example of which simple machine?

  (A) pulley

  (B) lever

  (C) wheel

  (D) inclined plane


The diagram below shows an electrical circuit.

image

The purpose of the copper wire is to

  (A) conduct electricity

  (B) produce electricity

  (C) store electricity

  (D) stop the flow of electricity


The diagram below shows the effect of a river on an area over many years.

image

Which process caused the valley to form?

  (A) condensation

  (B) deposition

  (C) erosion

  (D) evaporation


The diagram below shows a lodge where beavers live.

image

This diagram shows that beavers need trees for

  (A) air

  (B) water

  (C) sunlight

  (D) shelter


The diagram below shows a fox and an owl both trying to catch a rabbit.

image

The fox and the owl are both

  (A) finding a mate

  (B) competing for food

  (C) seeking shelter

  (D) migrating for winter


The diagram below shows the life cycle of a frog. Four stages of development are labeled A, B, C, and D.

image

Which letter shows the adult stage of development?

  (A) A

  (B) B

  (C) C

  (D) D


The data table below shows the height of a bean plant over a three-month period. The height of the plant is recorded in centimeters (cm).

image

If the pattern shown continues, the height of the plant in June will be

  (A) 6 cm

  (B) 12 cm

  (C) 14 cm

  (D) 19 cm


The diagram below shows a food chain.

image

If the wheat plants died, the population of mice would most likely

  (A) decrease

  (B) increase

  (C) remain the same


Base your answers on the information below and on your knowledge of science. A group of students completed a float or sink experiment. They put six objects into a bucket of water. The objects were made of three different materials: clay, plastic, and steel. The diagram below shows the results of the experiment.

image

Which material always sank in this experiment?

  (A) clay

  (B) plastic

  (C) steel


Base your answers on the information below and on your knowledge of science. A group of students completed a float or sink experiment. They put six objects into a bucket of water. The objects were made of three different materials: clay, plastic, and steel. The diagram below shows the results of the experiment.

image

The clay boat and clay ball have the same mass. Which property causes the boat to float and the ball to sink?

  (A) color

  (B) mass

  (C) shape

  (D) texture


The diagram below shows a glass of water and a rock.

image

When the rock is placed into the glass, the water level will

  (A) decrease

  (B) increase

  (C) remain the same


The diagram below shows a balance. Side A has five blocks and side B has three blocks. The mass of each block is shown in grams (g).

image

How much greater is the mass of the blocks on side A than the mass of the blocks on side B?

  (A) 50 g

  (B) 100 g

  (C) 150 g

  (D) 200 g


The diagram below shows a bell ringing.

image

Which form of energy is produced when a bell rings?

  (A) magnetic

  (B) electrical

  (C) sound

  (D) light


The diagram below shows a pan of boiling water on a stove.

image

Which form of energy changes the water from a liquid to a gas as it boils?

  (A) sound

  (B) mechanical

  (C) light

  (D) heat


The diagram below shows a mature flower.

image

This flower produced seeds that grew into new flowers. Which new flower is most likely an offspring of this mature flower?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The diagram below shows a baby elephant with one of its parents.

image

The baby elephant's trunk is an example of

  (A) a response to the environment

  (B) an inherited trait

  (C) coloration to attract mates

  (D) a seasonal adaptation


Base your answers on the diagram below, which shows four stages in the growth and development of a bean plant. The stages are labeled A, B, C, and D.

image

In which stage is germination first visible?

  (A) A

  (B) B

  (C) C

  (D) D


Base your answers on the diagram below, which shows four stages in the growth and development of a bean plant. The stages are labeled A, B, C, and D.

image

Which new structure first appears in stage D?

  (A) seed

  (B) leaf

  (C) root

  (D) stem


The diagram below shows four stages in the life cycle of a butterfly. One stage is labeled X.

image

Which stage is shown at X?

  (A) larva

  (B) egg

  (C) adult

  (D) pupa


Base your answers on the diagram below and on your knowledge of science. The diagram shows a relationship between several organisms, labeled A, B, C, and D.

image

The sequence shown in this diagram represents a

  (A) life span

  (B) food chain

  (C) water cycle

  (D) seed germinating


Base your answers on the diagram below and on your knowledge of science. The diagram shows a relationship between several organisms, labeled A, B, C, and D.

image

Which organism in the diagram is a producer?

  (A) A

  (B) B

  (C) C

  (D) D


Base your answers on the diagram below and on your knowledge of science. The diagram shows a relationship between several organisms, labeled A, B, C, and D.

image

Which organism in the diagram is both predator and prey?

  (A) A

  (B) B

  (C) C

  (D) D


A calendar for the month of September 2003 is shown below.

image

The calendar shows the changing appearance of

  (A) the Sun

  (B) the Moon

  (C) the stars

  (D) Earth


The diagram below shows a solid piece of chocolate before it was melted and the same piece of chocolate after it was melted into a liquid.

image

Which property of the piece of chocolate is the same in the two diagrams?

  (A) mass

  (B) shape

  (C) temperature

  (D) texture


The diagram below shows a balance. Side A has five blocks and side B has three blocks. The mass of each block is shown in grams (g).

image

A student could balance sides A and B by

  (A) moving 200 g from side A to side B

  (B) moving 200 g from side B to side A

  (C) moving 100 g from side A to side B

  (D) moving 100 g from side B to side A


The diagram below shows a fan that uses energy to move the air in a room.

image

Which form of energy causes the blades of the fan to turn?

  (A) chemical

  (B) electrical

  (C) heat

  (D) light


The diagram below shows a person lighting a match by rubbing it on a rough surface.

image

Which form of energy is being used to light the match?

  (A) solar

  (B) sound

  (C) electrical

  (D) mechanical


The diagram below shows a glass of liquid with ice that has been placed in a sunny window. Water droplets have formed on the outside of the glass.

image

Which process caused the water droplets to form on the outside of the glass?

  (A) condensation

  (B) evaporation

  (C) precipitation

  (D) runoff


The diagrams A and B below show a student moving the same boxes in two different ways. In diagram B, the student is using wheels, which are part of a simple machine.

image

It will be easier for the student to use wheels to push the boxes in diagram B because there is

  (A) less mass

  (B) less friction

  (C) more gravity

  (D) more erosion


The data table below shows air temperatures, in degrees Fahrenheit (°F), recorded at noon for five days.

image

How much lower was the temperature at noon on Wednesday than at noon on Monday?

  (A) 2°F

  (B) 4°F

  (C) 6°F

  (D) 8°F


The map below shows some weather conditions at five different locations on a single day in the United States.

image

What is the temperature at the location on the map where liquid precipitation is occurring?

  (A) 28°F

  (B) 40°F

  (C) 50°F

  (D) 65°F


The diagram below shows four plant structures.

image

Which plant structure takes in the water and nutrients used by the plant to grow?

  (A) flower

  (B) leaf

  (C) stem

  (D) roots


The diagram below shows a model used to help people make healthful food choices.

image

Which good health habit is encouraged by this model?

  (A) exercising regularly

  (B) eating a balanced diet

  (C) avoiding harmful substances

  (D) washing hands


The diagram below shows seeds from two different plants.

image

Each seed is attached to a structure that helps the seed to

  (A) obtain water

  (B) produce food

  (C) disperse (spread)

  (D) capture sunlight


The diagram below shows a bird. The

image

represents the bird making sounds (chirping).

image

Which animal behavior is demonstrated by the bird chirping?

  (A) taking in nutrients

  (B) eliminating waste

  (C) reproducing

  (D) communicating


Which seed has structures that allow animals to transport the seed on their fur?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Popcorn kernels contain a solid material called starch and a small amount of water at room temperature. When the temperature of the kernels of popcorn increase, they explode or pop.

image

Which change in the state of the water takes place inside the kernel, causing the volume to increase?

  (A) solid -> gas

  (B) liquid -> gas

  (C) solid -> liquid

  (D) liquid -> solid


A student connects a bulb to a battery as shown, but the light produced is dim.

image

Which diagram shows how a second battery can be connected to make the bulb brighter?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


A sunflower and bee are shown.

image

What is the function of the sunflower's seeds?

  (A) food for the bee

  (B) food for the sunflower

  (C) reproduction of the sunflower

  (D) production of sunflower petals


Which shows a chemical change?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Use the information below to answer the question.

image

Students observe the liquid in the thermometer rising as the temperature increases. What is the effect of the transfer of thermal energy that explains this observation?

  (A) The liquid expands.

  (B) The liquid contracts.

  (C) The glass around the liquid expands.

  (D) The glass around the liquid contracts.


Plants often store food and water in their roots. Which plant has roots that are often eaten by mammals?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Use the information below to answer the question.

image

According to this information, which substance is a metal?

  (A) substance W

  (B) substance X

  (C) substance Y

  (D) substance Z


Use the following picture to answer the question.

image

What structure on this plant makes seeds so that the plant can reproduce?

  (A) leaf

  (B) root

  (C) stem

  (D) flower


A student looks at the two glasses pictured below. One of the glasses contains water.

image

Why does the straw in the glass of water appear to be split at the surface of the water?

  (A) The water reflects light passing through it.

  (B) The water refracts light passing through it.

  (C) The water scatters light passing through it.

  (D) The water absorbs light passing through it.


image

The chart shows the results of an investigation. Which question could be answered from these data?

  (A) Does electricity prevent rust?

  (B) Will a glowing lightbulb get hot?

  (C) How long will a battery work?

  (D) Which materials conduct electricity?


image

On a recent field trip, students found a 20-centimeter-long salamander. The salamander had four toes on its front feet and five toes on its back feet. According to the table above, the students most likely found which type of salamander?

  (A) Gulf Coast water dog

  (B) Smallmouth salamander

  (C) Spotted salamander

  (D) Texas blind salamander


Which picture best shows the process of condensation?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


image

The picture shows a clear glass marble on top of some words. Some of the letters look different because light -

  (A) bounces as it reaches the marble

  (B) changes color as it enters the marble

  (C) shines less brightly behind the marble

  (D) bends as it passes through the marble


image

Which tool below best models the way the dog's jaws work?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


image

The picture shows a type of gazelle that lives in Africa. It eats leaves, twigs, flowers, and fruits. Which characteristic most helps this gazelle get food?

  (A) Long neck

  (B) Tan fur

  (C) Curled horns

  (D) Large ears


image

The pictures show an empty cicada shell and a cicada. The cicada shell most likely shows that -

  (A) the cicada was killed by a bird

  (B) the cicada's outer skin helps attract mates

  (C) cicadas shed their skin during their life cycle

  (D) cicadas first appeared on Earth before dinosaurs were extinct


Look at the marine food web below.

image

What do seals eat?

  (A) Herring

  (B) Salmon

  (C) Seabirds


Look at the picture below. It shows an electric circuit.

image

According to the information in the picture, what must the current in a circuit do?

  (A) Move in a path

  (B) Cool a battery

  (C) Jump through the air


Look at the picture below. A small fish is hiding inside the coral to keep from being eaten by the larger fish.

image

What is protecting the small fish?

  (A) Its food chain

  (B) Its life cycle

  (C) Its environment


image

This food chain is MOST likely to be found in what type of environment?

  (A) A stream

  (B) A marshland

  (C) An ocean

  (D) A forest


image

What makes the needle on the compass in the picture point north?

  (A) Rainfall

  (B) Evaporation

  (C) Wind currents

  (D) Magnetism


image

These three plants are grouped together because all three -

  (A) need some shade

  (B) lose their leaves

  (C) are shrubs

  (D) have thorns


Which of these shows a pulley?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


image

This habitat is BEST for which type of pet?

  (A) Lizard

  (B) Butterfly

  (C) Fish

  (D) Bird


Which of these living things is a producer in a food chain?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


These pictures can be put in order to tell a story. Which of these pictures MOST likely comes last?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


image

The graph shows what happened when salt was added to water in a glass. According to the graph, which of these is correct?

  (A) Salt tastes different when water is heated.

  (B) Salt will cause water to heat up.

  (C) Salt is used to make hot water.

  (D) Salt dissolves more easily in hot water.


image

Using the picture, which measurement is closest to how far the frog jumped?

  (A) 12 centimeters (cm)

  (B) 14 centimeters (cm)

  (C) 18 centimeters (cm)

  (D) 20 centimeters (cm)


image

A rattlesnake belongs in which of the above groups?

  (A) Group 1

  (B) Group 2

  (C) Group 3

  (D) Group 4


image

The table lists the parts of a violet plant and their functions. What is the function of violet flowers?

  (A) Release oxygen

  (B) Produce seeds

  (C) Absorb sunlight

  (D) Promote growth


image

The picture shows some caddis fly larvae. These larvae cover themselves with small twigs and pebbles. What is the advantage of this behavior?

  (A) They can eat the twigs.

  (B) They are hidden from predators.

  (C) They can crawl on the bottom of creeks.

  (D) They are able to keep warm.


image

In an experiment, Jackson tested to see how the size of rocks affects the amount of dirt that washes away when water flows downhill. Which variable was manipulated?

  (A) Amount of water

  (B) Slope of the hill

  (C) Size of the rocks

  (D) Type of dirt


image

The flower's stem appears larger under water because the water -

  (A) absorbs light

  (B) produces light

  (C) repels light

  (D) refracts light


Which of these instruments measures wind speed?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Which of these has kinetic energy?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


image

To find out which soil absorbs (holds) moisture best, each container shown must -

  (A) be made of a different material

  (B) have soil from the same place

  (C) be tested by the same person

  (D) contain the same amount of soil


image

Which form of energy is being used by the toaster?

  (A) Chemical

  (B) Electrical

  (C) Solar

  (D) Nuclear


image

A student made a list of examples of each of the five kingdoms. The list contains two examples from the same kingdom. Which one of these should be removed from the list?

  (A) Worm

  (B) Mushroom

  (C) Sunflower

  (D) Amoeba


image

Three measurements of the same leaf were taken during June. Based on the graph, how much did the leaf grow in length from June 1 to June 30?

  (A) 6 cm

  (B) 7 cm

  (C) 11 cm

  (D) 13 cm


image

To describe this car's motion, a student should use its -

  (A) direction and speed

  (B) mass and volume

  (C) speed and color

  (D) volume and direction


image

Based on the chart, which pickle will MOST likely taste sweet?

  (A) Dill pickles

  (B) Zesty pickles

  (C) Candied pickles

  (D) Pickled peppers


Which picture shows objects with shapes MOST alike?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


image

After winter, which of these will MOST likely make a tree start to bud?

  (A) More wind

  (B) Fewer clouds in the sky

  (C) Less rainfall

  (D) More hours of daylight


image

Which thing near this house will wash away the MOST during a heavy rain?

  (A) Gravel driveway

  (B) Dirt pile

  (C) Stepping stones

  (D) Soil under grass


Which will have a bad effect on the air people breathe?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Which of these is an example of a lever?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


image

A kazoo is a toy that makes a sound when a person hums into it. Sound comes out of the kazoo because it -

  (A) is shiny

  (B) can float

  (C) is plastic

  (D) can vibrate


image

Which graph shows the correct type and number of fish in the fish tank?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Which of these animals is an invertebrate?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


image

Based on the bird of prey key, which bird is shown in the picture?

image

  (A) Owl

  (B) Vulture

  (C) Golden eagle

  (D) Bald eagle


image

Which of these best completes the circuit?

  (A) Rubber band

  (B) Metal nail

  (C) Leather shoelace

  (D) Wooden toothpick


image

The graph shows the height change of a plant over a period of 11 months. How tall should the plant be at month 12 if all conditions remain the same and the plant continues to grow at the same rate?

  (A) 36 cm

  (B) 39 cm

  (C) 42 cm

  (D) 45 cm


image

The graph shows the amount of rain that fell during the summer for each of four years. Weather data show that the average rainfall during the summer is about 12 inches. Based on the graph, rainfall was closest to the average during -

  (A) 2002

  (B) 2003

  (C) 2004

  (D) 2005


image

The picture shows a sprouting bean plant. The leaf produced will help the plant by -

  (A) absorbing water from the air for nourishment

  (B) using sunlight for energy in food production

  (C) reproducing more bean plants for survival of the species

  (D) adding support for the plant as it grows taller


image

What type of plant is MOST likely described?

  (A) A flowering plant

  (B) A pine tree

  (C) Grass

  (D) Cactus


image

Which kind of work is made easier by the wheels of a wagon?

  (A) Pulling a heavy load

  (B) Lifting a wide load

  (C) Dividing a large load

  (D) Holding a small load


image

Based on the food chain, which of these is a carnivore?

  (A) Sun

  (B) Water plant

  (C) Mayfly nymph

  (D) Osprey


image

Which shape is MOST like the one made by connecting the bases on the baseball field?

  (A) Circle

  (B) Square

  (C) Triangle

  (D) Oval


image

What causes fewer plants to grow on the rocky side of the river?

  (A) There is not enough sunlight.

  (B) There is not enough soil.

  (C) There is not enough water.

  (D) There is not enough air.


image

The electrician in this picture is wearing rubber gloves for protection. The purpose of the rubber gloves is to -

  (A) keep the electrician dry

  (B) create an electrical circuit

  (C) produce electricity

  (D) insulate the electrician


image

Which unit is best to use for measuring the width of oak tree leaves?

  (A) Centimeter

  (B) Gram

  (C) Kilometer

  (D) Milliliter


Which of these is an important natural resource of the Chesapeake Bay?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


image

What do the arrows on the map represent?

  (A) Size of waves

  (B) Water density

  (C) Ocean currents

  (D) Time between tides


A boy placed four leaves in a caterpillar's cage.

image

He observed the number of leaves in the caterpillar's cage each day. Based on the data, the boy should infer that the caterpillar -

  (A) is eating only every other day

  (B) is eating each day

  (C) will eat part of one leaf next Monday

  (D) will stop eating during molting on Friday


image

Juan is doing an experiment to see how long it takes an acorn to grow into a 0.5-meter-tall oak tree. Which two instruments should he choose?

  (A) Thermometer and centimeter ruler

  (B) Thermometer and calendar

  (C) Centimeter ruler and pan balance

  (D) Centimeter ruler and calendar


image

In which numbered stage of the frog's life cycle does the frog begin to use lungs to breathe air?

  (A) 1

  (B) 2

  (C) 3

  (D) 4


image

What part of the flower produces pollen?

  (A) ovary

  (B) sepal

  (C) pistil

  (D) stamen


Which of these correctly shows what happens when two magnets are placed side by side?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


image

Students place a pencil in a glass of water as shown. The pencil in the water looks broken because -

  (A) water can dissolve pencils

  (B) water is colder than air

  (C) light bends when it enters the water

  (D) light is absorbed when it hits the glass


A student is writing a report on recycling. The student learns that different kinds of material are recycled in different amounts. Which graph best shows the data?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Which of these glasses will MOST likely become empty first because of evaporation?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


image

Students made observations about these toy cars. Which of these BEST describes Car 1 and Car 2?

  (A) Car 1 is heavier than Car 2.

  (B) Car 2 is darker than Car 1.

  (C) Car 2 is bigger than Car 1.

  (D) Car 1 is longer than Car 2.


Which of these is made from a plant?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


image

All of the objects shown can be described as -

  (A) having moving parts

  (B) having the same size

  (C) needing a magnifying glass to be seen

  (D) being made from more than one material


image

Which of these BEST describes the texture of the metal spoon?

  (A) Small

  (B) Smooth

  (C) Flexible

  (D) Shiny


image

Which of these can be dissolved in water?

  (A) Grains of sand

  (B) Baking soda

  (C) Wood chips

  (D) Cooking oil


image

A teacher asked his class to help plan their science field trip schedule from January to June. Based on the table, which month with an average temperature above 50°F has the least amount of average precipitation?

  (A) March

  (B) April

  (C) May

  (D) June


image

Which describes energy through this food web?

  (A) Salamanders get energy from snakes and mice.

  (B) Acorns get energy from insects and pine trees.

  (C) Mice get energy from salamanders and insects.

  (D) Snakes get energy from salamanders and mice.


image

When comparing fossil A to fossil B, which is most likely correct?

  (A) Fossil B is older.

  (B) Fossil B is larger.

  (C) Only fossil B is metamorphic.

  (D) Only fossil B was once an organism.


image

Students filled a graduated cylinder with the amount of water shown. How much more water needs to be added to the cylinder to measure 25 mL?

  (A) 2 mL

  (B) 4 mL

  (C) 6 mL

  (D) 9 mL


image

Temperatures normally increase every month from January through August. During which month was the average temperature most unusual?

  (A) January

  (B) February

  (C) March

  (D) April


Which of these animals is least likely a member of the pond community?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


image

About how much longer is the jackknife clam than the razor clam?

  (A) 5 centimeters

  (B) 7 centimeters

  (C) 10 centimeters

  (D) 12 centimeters


Which picture shows an object that has kinetic energy?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


image

Based on the information in the table, the best way to tell gold from pyrite is by which property?

  (A) Color

  (B) Transparency

  (C) Luster

  (D) Hardness


image

The diagram above shows the changes to a land surface caused by a river flowing through the area for many years. Which process caused the changes to the surface?

  (A) Condensation

  (B) Erosion

  (C) Evaporation

  (D) Pollution


image

In this food web, which two organisms could be harmed if the mouse population were to decline?

  (A) Deer and caterpillar

  (B) Wolf and snake

  (C) Oak and grass

  (D) Hawk and songbird


image

The box would be easier to move if the surface of the ramp was smoother because there would be less -

  (A) mass in the box

  (B) friction opposing the box

  (C) gravity pulling on the box

  (D) distance to push the box


image

Which of these would best describe the tube worms shown?

  (A) Mammals

  (B) Vertebrates

  (C) Amphibians

  (D) Invertebrates


Read the information about Regina's experiment, look at the illustrations and Table 1, then answer the question. Regina explored the strength of a magnetic field by testing the number of paperclips the magnet could hold by following these steps: Step 1 - She opened a large paperclip to make a hook. Step 2 - She placed the hook on the magnet at the edge of the magnet's north pole. Step 3 - She added one paperclip at a time until the hook fell off the magnet. Step 4 - She recorded the highest number of paperclips the hook could hold. Steps 5 through 10 - She repeated this test every 2 cm until she reached the magnet's south pole and recorded the data each time (see Table 1).

image

image

What did Regina need to keep the same so that her test was fair?

  (A) type of magnet used and the type of hook used

  (B) distance from the north pole and the type of hook used

  (C) type of magnet used and the number of paperclips used

  (D) distance from the north pole and number of paperclips used


The pictures below show animals separated into two groups.

image

The animals are grouped by whether they have a backbone or not. Which of the following belongs in Group 1?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Carlos connected a battery, bulb, and wires as shown in the drawing below.

image

If the free ends of both wires touch the following objects, which object will allow the bulb to light?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Each picture shows a light bulb connected to a battery. Which bulb will light?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Read the information about Regina's experiment, look at the illustrations and Table 1, then answer the question. Regina explored the strength of a magnetic field by testing the number of paperclips the magnet could hold by following these steps: Step 1 - She opened a large paperclip to make a hook. Step 2 - She placed the hook on the magnet at the edge of the magnet's north pole. Step 3 - She added one paperclip at a time until the hook fell off the magnet. Step 4 - She recorded the highest number of paperclips the hook could hold. Steps 5 through 10 - She repeated this test every 2 cm until she reached the magnet's south pole and recorded the data each time (see Table 1). Which of the following graphs best display the data Regina collected

image

image

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The diagram below shows an object made from a battery, a nail, and some wire.

image

What will happen if you touch a metal paperclip to the nail?

  (A) The wires will melt.

  (B) The battery will spark.

  (C) The nail will give you a shock.

  (D) The paperclip will stick to the nail.


Many life scientists study only one kind of animal their entire career. Which type of scientist would likely study the animal shown below?

image

  (A) fish scientist

  (B) snail scientist

  (C) insect scientist

  (D) reptile scientist


Read the information about Regina's experiment, look at the illustrations and Table 1, then answer the question. Regina explored the strength of a magnetic field by testing the number of paperclips the magnet could hold by following these steps: Step 1 - She opened a large paperclip to make a hook. Step 2 - She placed the hook on the magnet at the edge of the magnet's north pole. Step 3 - She added one paperclip at a time until the hook fell off the magnet. Step 4 - She recorded the highest number of paperclips the hook could hold. Steps 5 through 10 - She repeated this test every 2 cm until she reached the magnet's south pole and recorded the data each time (see Table 1).

image

image

Based on the data collected, what can Regina conclude about the strength of magnetic fields?

  (A) Magnetic fields are stronger at the north pole of a magnet and weaker at the south pole.

  (B) Magnetic fields are stronger at the south pole of a magnet and weaker at the north pole.

  (C) Magnetic fields are stronger near the poles and get weaker as you move away from the poles.

  (D) Magnetic fields are weaker near the poles and get stronger as you move away from the poles.


The table below shows the temperature and precipitation (rain or snow) in four different cities on the same day.

image

In which city did it snow?

  (A) Atlanta

  (B) Boston

  (C) Chicago

  (D) Dallas


Students want to know which ramp makes a toy car travel the greater distance on the floor. The students roll a toy car down each ramp one time.

image

They measure how far the toy car rolls on the floor. Which additional tests will produce results that can be most trusted?

  (A) Roll the same toy car down each ramp two times.

  (B) Roll the same toy car down each ramp five times.

  (C) Roll five different toy cars down the ramp with two books, two times.

  (D) Roll five different toy cars down the ramp with two books, five times.


There are four planets and a star in the solar system below.

image

The planets move around the center star in different orbits. Which planet has an orbit that is in the same relative position from its star as Earth's orbit is from the Sun?

  (A) planet 1

  (B) planet 2

  (C) planet 3

  (D) planet 4


The drawing below shows an arctic fox.

image

Which statement is an observation of the arctic fox in the drawing?

  (A) The arctic fox has two ears.

  (B) The arctic fox eats mice during the summer.

  (C) The arctic fox lives farther north than other types of foxes.

  (D) The arctic fox has fur that changes color during the winter.


Students investigated the effect of water temperature on the growth of bean plants. The students used four bean plants. Each plant was 12 cm tall. The students watered each plant with the same amount of water at a different temperature.

image

Which statement best describes the results of the investigation?

  (A) Bean plants did not grow when watered with cooler water.

  (B) Bean plants did not grow when watered with warmer water.

  (C) The cooler the water used, the less the bean plants grew.

  (D) The warmer the water used, the less the bean plants grew.


A student measured the resting heart rate of another student and recorded the results in a data table.

image

The students conclude that the resting heart rate is 85 heartbeats/minute. Which action would best help the students make sure their conclusion is correct?

  (A) repeat the investigation measuring the student's resting heart rate

  (B) measure the student's heart rate again after exercising for one minute

  (C) compare the student's resting heart rate to a teacher's resting heart rate

  (D) talk to a teacher about the resting heart rates of other students in the class


The picture below shows an active volcano in a mountain range.

image

When hot lava enters a river, steam forms. Which statement best explains why the steam forms?

  (A) The lava increases the temperature of the river water.

  (B) The lava decreases the temperature of the river water.

  (C) The river water causes the lava to change from a liquid to a gas.

  (D) The river water causes the lava to change from a gas to a liquid.


The drawing below shows the positions of Earth during different seasons.

image

Which statement describes the position of Earth when Alaska has the most daylight hours?

  (A) Alaska has the most daylight hours at position 1, when it is summer.

  (B) Alaska has the most daylight hours at position 2, when it is winter.

  (C) Alaska has the most daylight hours at position 3, when it is summer.

  (D) Alaska has the most daylight hours at position 4, when it is winter.


When homemade ice cream is made, salt is added to the ice that surrounds the ice cream chamber.

image

Which property of salt is important when making ice cream?

  (A) Salt conducts electricity in water.

  (B) Salt dissolves in water.

  (C) Salt lowers the freezing point of water.

  (D) Salt adds flavor to the ice cream mixture.


Which of the following electromagnets would have the greatest magnetic field?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Use the information below to answer the question.

image

Several students placed a toy truck on a table in front of a plane mirror and viewed the image of the truck in the mirror. Next, the students moved the toy truck to different positions and observed the reflected images of the truck from each position. The students placed the toy truck 20 centimeters in front of the mirror. The image of the truck will appear to be

  (A) 0 centimeters from the mirror

  (B) 10 centimeters in front of the mirror

  (C) 20 centimeters behind the mirror

  (D) 40 centimeters behind the mirror


Use the information below to answer the question.

image

Several students placed a toy truck on a table in front of a plane mirror and viewed the image of the truck in the mirror. Next, the students moved the toy truck to different positions and observed the reflected images of the truck from each position. The diagram below shows the path of a light ray from the toy truck to the mirror.

image

Which diagram best shows the path of the light ray after it is reflected from the mirror?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The diagram below shows a circuit made of a light bulb, a battery, and a wire.

image

Which statement best describes this circuit?

  (A) The circuit is closed because the battery is connected to two wires.

  (B) The circuit is closed because wires connect the light bulb to the battery.

  (C) The circuit is open because a wire is not correctly connected to the light bulb.

  (D) The circuit is open because there are not enough wires to connect all the parts.


Use the information and pictures below to answer the question. Two students with different masses investigated how their positions on a seesaw affected the movement of the seesaw. The students changed their horizontal positions on the seesaw and measured the highest point at the opposite end.

image

How might the students best show periodic motion using the seesaw?

  (A) by switching ends of the seesaw every 10 seconds

  (B) by balancing the ends of the seesaw for 10 seconds

  (C) by taking turns pushing off the ground every 10 seconds

  (D) by moving from the end to the center of the seesaw every 10 seconds


Use the information and pictures below to answer the question. Two students with different masses investigated how their positions on a seesaw affected the movement of the seesaw. The students changed their horizontal positions on the seesaw and measured the highest point at the opposite end.

image

What is the primary force that Student 1 works against in order to lower Student 2?

  (A) friction

  (B) gravity

  (C) magnetism

  (D) pressure


Use the information below to answer the question. Most organisms are made of many different types of cells. Each type of cell has a special role within the organism.

image

Which of these organisms would most likely contain cells shaped like a rectangle?

  (A) a cat

  (B) a clam

  (C) a fish

  (D) a tree


Use the information below to answer the question. Most organisms are made of many different types of cells. Each type of cell has a special role within the organism.

image

Which of these cells uses sunlight to produce food?

  (A) leaf cell

  (B) skin cell

  (C) nerve cell

  (D) muscle cell


Use the information below to answer the question. Seawater contains a number of different salts. The water can be separated by a process called distillation. A simple distillation setup is shown below.

image

The water in the flask evaporates. Water vapor (gas) rises, leaving the salt in the flask. The water vapor is cooled in the condensing tube and drips into the beaker. During the process shown in the diagram, water vapor (gas) changes into liquid water by

  (A) cooling

  (B) evaporating

  (C) freezing

  (D) warming


Use the information below to answer the question. Seawater contains a number of different salts. The water can be separated by a process called distillation. A simple distillation setup is shown below.

image

The water in the flask evaporates. Water vapor (gas) rises, leaving the salt in the flask. The water vapor is cooled in the condensing tube and drips into the beaker. Why does salt remain in the flask?

  (A) Salt is attracted to heat.

  (B) Salt does not evaporate.

  (C) Salt is too heavy to become a vapor (gas).

  (D) Salt becomes water after it is heated.


Use the passage below to answer the question. Free Fall Galileo first introduced the concept of free fall. His classic experiments led to the finding that all objects free fall at the same rate, regardless of their mass. According to legend, Galileo dropped balls of different mass from the Leaning Tower of Pisa to help support his ideas. A freely falling body is an object that is moving under the influence of gravity only. These objects have a downward acceleration toward the center of the earth. Newton later took Galileo's ideas about mechanics and formalized them into his laws of motion. Free-fall rides are really made up of three distinct parts: the ride to the top, the momentary suspension, and the downward plunge. In the first part of the ride, force is applied to the car to lift it to the top of the free-fall tower. The amount of force that must be applied depends on the mass of the car and its passengers. The force is applied by motors, and there is a built-in safety allowance for variations in the mass of the riders. After a brief period in which the riders are suspended in the air, the car suddenly drops and begins to accelerate toward the ground under the influence of the earth's gravity. The plunge seems dramatic. Just as Galileo and Newton explain in their theories of free fall, the least massive and most massive riders fall to the earth with the same rate of acceleration. If the riders were allowed to hit the earth at that speed, coming to a sudden stop at the end of the ride, there would certainly be serious injuries. Ride designers account for this by building an exit track. The car is attached to this track, which gradually curves toward the ground. A stretch of straight track allows the car to slow down and brake, producing a controlled stop at the bottom, that keeps passengers from getting injured. Which graph best shows the motion of a car in a free-fall ride as the car drops?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Use the information below to answer the question. Large populations of sea nettles have been observed during the summer in parts of the Chesapeake Bay. The Chesapeake Bay is a mixture of salt water and fresh water. During the summer, the bay has a moderately high salt content. The amount of salt in the water, the salinity, depends on the amount of fresh water that flows into the bay. Additionally, some studies suggest that human activities have caused an increase in the sea nettle population.

image

The salinity level of the bay is changed when pollutants enter the bay. Salinity is also affected by extreme temperatures, drought conditions, and floods. Which of these events would have the most negative effect on the sea nettle population in the bay?

  (A) fossil fuel burning cars drive across the bay on a bridge

  (B) farmland fertilizers enter a river that flows into a nearby bay

  (C) a thunderstorm dumps rain along a shoreline of a nearby bay

  (D) overflow from a waste water treatment plant empties directly into the bay


Use the information below to answer the question. Two students met at a local park. Student 1 lives farther from the park than does Student 2. Both students left their houses at 10:00 A.M. and arrived at the park at 10:20 A.M. While at the park, the students played on the swings, slide, and merry-go-round.

image

Both students played on the slide. Student 1 wore shorts, and Student 2 wore long pants. Which of these explanations best identifies why Student 2 moved down the slide more smoothly than Student 1?

  (A) less gravity

  (B) less friction

  (C) more weight

  (D) more acceleration


Use the information below to answer the question. A scientist studied an estuary, the area where fresh water from a river empties into salty ocean water. The scientist classified nine estuary organisms into the three groups shown below.

image

Which organism in the estuary relies on the sun to make food?

  (A) horseshoe crab

  (B) hard clam

  (C) salt grass

  (D) osprey


The data table below compares four characteristics of the inner planets.

image

Which of these statements best explains why Earth is the only inner planet that supports life?

  (A) The other planets have too much mass.

  (B) The other planets are too close to the sun.

  (C) The other planets are either too hot or too cold.

  (D) The other planets are either too big or too small.


Use the information and pictures below to answer the question. Wild ponies have lived on Assateague Island for about 300 years. The ponies have become well adapted to the harsh environment, including extreme temperatures in summer and winter. The ponies mainly eat salty marsh grasses and grow thick fur in winter. Domestic horses are larger than the ponies. An Assateague pony drinks twice as much fresh water as a domestic horse does. Other organisms on the island include rodents, birds, small foxes, marsh grasses, mussels, and deer.

image

Why have the ponies developed a coat of thick fur?

  (A) to stay warm

  (B) to help them swim

  (C) to prepare them to find mates

  (D) to protect them from predators


Use the information below to answer the question. Two students met at a local park. Student 1 lives farther from the park than does Student 2. Both students left their houses at 10:00 A.M. and arrived at the park at 10:20 A.M. While at the park, the students played on the swings, slide, and merry-go-round.

image

Which of these statements best explains how the two students arrived at the park at the same time?

  (A) Student 1 took a longer route.

  (B) Student 1 walked faster than Student 2.

  (C) Student 2 walked faster than Student 1.

  (D) Student 2 took more short-cuts than Student 1.


Use the information and diagram below to answer the question. A troglobite is any animal that lives in dark caves. These animals have special features that help them live in cool, dark places, like the caves in western Maryland. Many cave millipedes, a type of troglobite, have long antennae that feel vibrations. Northern cave fish, another troglobite, have very little skin coloring and cannot see. Animals in caves eat bat waste, material from dead plants, and animals that wash into the cave.

image

A population of troglobite cave fish is moved from a cave habitat to an open-air pond. The cave-fish population in the open-air pond will most likely

  (A) increase because their food supply increased

  (B) decrease because they are too large to live in a pond

  (C) increase because their reproduction rate will increase

  (D) decrease because they do not have features needed to survive in sunlight


Use the information below to answer the question. Students used two textbooks and a board to make a ramp. The students rolled Ball 1 down the ramp. They measured the distance the ball traveled in 10 seconds. The students repeated the investigation, using Ball 2. The students calculated the average speed of each ball after five trials and recorded the information in the data table below.

image

Which of these tools should students use to find the distance each ball rolled?

  (A) a balance

  (B) a hand lens

  (C) a stopwatch

  (D) a metric ruler


Use the information below to answer the question. Students used two textbooks and a board to make a ramp. The students rolled Ball 1 down the ramp. They measured the distance the ball traveled in 10 seconds. The students repeated the investigation, using Ball 2. The students calculated the average speed of each ball after five trials and recorded the information in the data table below.

image

Which of the following statements best compares the balls in the investigation?

  (A) Ball 2 traveled slower than Ball 1.

  (B) Ball 2 traveled farther than Ball 1.

  (C) Ball 1 had more mass than Ball 2.

  (D) Ball 1 rolled more seconds than Ball 2.


Use the information below to answer the question. A teacher gave students four rock samples. The students listed their observations about each rock sample in the data table below.

image

Which of these rock features best indicates that Rock 2 is made of different minerals?

  (A) does not contain fossils

  (B) does not scratch easily

  (C) has smooth, round edges

  (D) contains different colored particles


Use the information below to answer the question. The data table below shows information a student collected.

image

Most amphibians, such as frogs, live on land and reproduce in water. Based on the information in the data table, which of these animals is most likely an amphibian?

  (A) Animal 1

  (B) Animal 2

  (C) Animal 3

  (D) Animal 4


Use the information below to answer the question. Students examined plants and animals that live in and near the Chesapeake Bay. The students identified some features of these organisms, as seen in the table below.

image

The bald eagle hunts and eats other organisms. Which of these organisms does the bald eagle most likely hunt?

  (A) bay grass

  (B) deer

  (C) oyster

  (D) striped bass


Use the information and table below to answer the question. A group of students investigated natural resources and the products humans make from these natural resources. The students recorded their findings in the table below.

image

Which action positively affects the environment?

  (A) planting native seedlings when trees are cut

  (B) collecting seeds from native trees

  (C) harvesting trees to make paper

  (D) clearing trees to build roads


Use the passage and the following pictures to answer the question. Space Shuttle Re-entry The space shuttle program uses spaceships to carry humans from Earth to space and back again. It takes a lot of fuel to produce the force needed to lift a space shuttle from Earth to space because the lift force must act against the force of gravity pulling down on the space shuttle. Much less fuel is needed to bring the space shuttle back to Earth. When the astronauts on a space shuttle complete a mission, they use the force of gravity acting on the space shuttle to pull it down from space to Earth's surface. This landing process is not entirely without problems. Once the space shuttle moves from space into Earth's atmosphere, the space shuttle begins to hit air molecules. Although air is a gas, the space shuttle moves so quickly that it hits many air molecules with a great amount of force. Those hits result in friction with the air around the space shuttle. The friction slows the downward motion of the space shuttle and produces a large amount of heat. Because of the heat produced, the space shuttle needs heat-resistant tiles so the inside of the space shuttle does not get too hot as it lands. The heat produced by the friction between the tiles and the atmosphere produces an orange glow as the shuttle moves toward Earth's surface.

image

Which measurement best represents the distance of the orbiting space shuttle from Earth?

  (A) 300 liters

  (B) 300 seconds

  (C) 300 kilograms

  (D) 300 kilometers


Use the information below to answer the question. Mount Rushmore is located in the Black Hills of South Dakota. The heads of four former presidents-George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Abraham Lincoln-are carved into Mount Rushmore as a monument.The monument rises to 1,745 meters above sea level. Mount Rushmore is granite, one of the most common rocks on Earth, and took millions of years to form. The sculptor chose to carve the monument in granite because granite erodes at a rate of about 2 centimeters every 10,000 years.

image

The monument carved in Mount Rushmore is most likely weathered year-round by

  (A) a river

  (B) a glacier

  (C) shifting winds

  (D) ocean currents


Use the information and table below to answer the question. Carbon is a pure element that is able to form different materials. The table below compares three forms of carbon.

image

Some substances in coal make coal weak and breakable. The four main types of coal are listed below.

image

Which type of coal is the strongest?

  (A) anthracite

  (B) bituminous

  (C) lignite

  (D) subbituminous


Use the information below to answer the question. Students studied the natural resources of Maryland. The students recorded their findings in the data table below.

image

What is a harmful result of burning coal?

  (A) air pollution

  (B) soil erosion

  (C) evaporation

  (D) condensation


Use the information and data table below to answer the question. Students tested several samples of rocks and minerals. The students used the table below to identify the samples.

image

Two groups of students tested the same mineral sample. One group identified the mineral as calcite. The other group identified the mineral as topaz. Which test would best identify the sample?

  (A) color

  (B) luster

  (C) hardness

  (D) streak


Use the passage below to answer the question. Rusty Crayfish: A Small Invader Causing Big Problems

image

The rusty crayfish originated in the Ohio River Basin. This invader species began to spread into the Great Lakes regions. They compete with the native crayfish and also, greatly decrease the amount of vegetation, thereby impacting entire food webs. The rusty crayfish have a large eating capacity when consuming aquatic plants. In addition, they eat aquatic insects. When the rusty crayfish reproduce, they can lay 50-575 eggs at one time. Due to their hyper-appetite, rusty crayfish greatly decrease the amount and diversity of plants in aquatic areas, increase competition with native crayfish, and consume an abnormal amount of other aquatic species. When the rusty crayfish invade, they are disrupting the entire ecosystem. The decreased amount of diversity in vegetation affects the population of many other aquatic species in the surrounding ecosystem. Plant beds provide a habitat for invertebrates as well as shelter for many different species of fish. When vegetation is disturbed, all of the species which rely on it have a harder time surviving. Rusty crayfish displace the native species of crayfish from the aquatic ecosystems it invades. In a study of 150 lakes and streams that had been invaded by the rusty crayfish, seventy-five percent had no native crayfish remaining. The displacement occurs through competition for food. Because the "rusty" is so aggressive, natives get beat out when feeding and soon their population greatly decreases. As aquatic species disappear, disruption of the food web occurs, which affects all the species in an ecosystem. By introducing rusty crayfish to new ecosystems, they have a great potential to crumble. Which statement is best supported by evidence from the passage?

  (A) Rusty crayfish consume native crayfish.

  (B) Rusty crayfish are larger than native crayfish.

  (C) Native crayfish lay more eggs than rusty crayfish.

  (D) Native crayfish are less aggressive than rusty crayfish.


Use the passage below to answer the question. Rusty Crayfish: A Small Invader Causing Big Problems

image

The rusty crayfish originated in the Ohio River Basin. This invader species began to spread into the Great Lakes regions. They compete with the native crayfish and also, greatly decrease the amount of vegetation, thereby impacting entire food webs. The rusty crayfish have a large eating capacity when consuming aquatic plants. In addition, they eat aquatic insects. When the rusty crayfish reproduce, they can lay 50-575 eggs at one time. Due to their hyper-appetite, rusty crayfish greatly decrease the amount and diversity of plants in aquatic areas, increase competition with native crayfish, and consume an abnormal amount of other aquatic species. When the rusty crayfish invade, they are disrupting the entire ecosystem. The decreased amount of diversity in vegetation affects the population of many other aquatic species in the surrounding ecosystem. Plant beds provide a habitat for invertebrates as well as shelter for many different species of fish. When vegetation is disturbed, all of the species which rely on it have a harder time surviving. Rusty crayfish displace the native species of crayfish from the aquatic ecosystems it invades. In a study of 150 lakes and streams that had been invaded by the rusty crayfish, seventy-five percent had no native crayfish remaining. The displacement occurs through competition for food. Because the "rusty" is so aggressive, natives get beat out when feeding and soon their population greatly decreases. As aquatic species disappear, disruption of the food web occurs, which affects all the species in an ecosystem. By introducing rusty crayfish to new ecosystems, they have a great potential to crumble. Which tool would best help people notice the differences in physical features between a rusty crayfish and a native crayfish?

  (A) a balance

  (B) a hand lens

  (C) a thermometer

  (D) a graduated cylinder


Use the information below to answer the question. A flashlight and a toy boat are placed on a table in front of a plane mirror. Each object is the same distance from the mirror. A large book is placed halfway between the flashlight and the boat. The diagram below shows a top view of the objects on the table.

image

The book is 5.0 centimeters wide. The reflection of the book in the plane mirror shows that the width of the book is

  (A) 1.0 centimeter

  (B) 2.5 centimeters

  (C) 5.0 centimeters

  (D) 10.0 centimeters


Use the information and data table below to answer the question. A student performed an investigation on green single-celled organisms called Euglena. Two samples of Euglena were placed in two different containers of water taken from the same source. One sample of Euglena was kept in a dark area. The other sample of Euglena was kept in a lighted area. The student recorded the observations in the table below.

image

Which tool did the student most likely use to observe the Euglena?

  (A) goggles

  (B) hand lens

  (C) telescope

  (D) microscope


Some plants live in very dry conditions, such as a desert.

image

The plant best adapted to survive in a desert climate is

  (A) Plant 2, because the spines attract insects

  (B) Plant 1, because the leaves provide shade for the roots

  (C) Plant 1, because the leaves are far away from the hot soil

  (D) Plant 2, because the spines allow less water to evaporate


Use the following information to answer the question.

image

The Hines Emerald Dragonfly can be found in Michigan and was one of the first insect species to be listed as endangered under the Endangered Species Act. Female dragonflies deposit eggs in shallow water, near plants or in soft mud. After the larvae hatch, they live underwater for two to four years. In this time, they shed their exoskeletons eight to fifteen times. The larvae have large lower lips with bristles that can be extended up to one-third of their body length. They consume large quantities of mosquito larvae, water insects, worms, and even small fishes and tadpoles. Once larval growth is complete, they emerge from the water to begin a life in the air. They shed their final exoskeleton to reveal a bright green body, and their wings expand. These dragonflies have large eyes that are capable of seeing nearly 360 degrees (in all directions) and can detect even the slightest movement. They have two sets of wings that work independently of each other, allowing the dragonflies to fly forward, backward, change directions in mid-air, and hover motionless. They feed on mosquitoes, flies, and other insects for four to seven weeks before returning to the water to mate and die. Based on its feeding preferences, the dragonfly is best classified as a

  (A) predator.

  (B) producer.

  (C) vertebrate.

  (D) decomposer.


image

Using the battery and light bulb shown above, how could you show that metal conducts electricity and glass does not conduct electricity?

  (A) Touch the metal and glass bars together.

  (B) Touch wire 1 to the metal bar and then to the glass bar.

  (C) Touch wire 2 to the metal bar and then to the glass bar.

  (D) Touch wires 1 and 2 to opposite ends of the metal bar and repeat with the glass bar.


Use the following information to answer the question.

image

Chris has joined a skateboarding team and purchased a new skateboard. The team captain tells Chris that being a good skateboarder means understanding and using physical science. Use your knowledge of physical science to answer the following questions. Chris attaches a sheet of sandpaper to the surface of the skateboard deck. What purpose does the sandpaper most likely serve?

  (A) It provides a protective coating to help prevent damage to the skateboard.

  (B) It reduces the effect that gravity has on the board as it moves down the ramp.

  (C) It allows Chris to crouch lower on the board to increase his speed on the ramp.

  (D) It increases the friction between Chris's shoes and the deck to keep him from sliding off.


Using the diagram below and what you know about Earth, answer the question.

image

Which city in North America will receive the first morning light each day?

  (A) Washington, DC

  (B) Denver, Colorado

  (C) Detroit, Michigan

  (D) Los Angeles, California


Two juice containers are in a cooler. One is plastic and one is metal. The metal can feels colder than the plastic bottle. Students place a thermometer in each container. They find that the juices in the bottle and in the can are the same temperature.

image

Why does the can feel colder than the bottle?

  (A) The metal can holds colder juice than the plastic bottle.

  (B) Plastic is a better conductor of thermal energy than metal.

  (C) Metal is a better conductor of thermal energy than plastic.

  (D) The outside of the metal can is drier than the plastic bottle.


A student has a glass of water as shown. She takes an ice cube from the freezer. She puts the ice cube into the water.

image

Which explains the change that happens?

  (A) The ice cube melts because cold flows out of the ice cube to the water.

  (B) The ice cube does not melt because cold flows into the ice cube from the water.

  (C) The ice cube melts because thermal energy transfers to the ice cube from the water.

  (D) The ice cube does not melt because thermal energy transfers from the ice cube to the water.


Use the following information to answer the question. Model Telephone Two students want to find out what affects the sounds heard through model telephones. They investigate the materials used and the tightness of the material connecting the cups. Their first three setups are shown. They use the same length of string or wire in each setup. The boy repeats the same sounds at the same volume for each setup.

image

They record results of the three setups in the table below.

image

The two students want classmates to repeat the investigation so that they can compare results. What should the students communicate so that results may be compared?

  (A) materials and steps used in the investigation

  (B) conclusions about results from the investigation

  (C) where they got the idea for making model telephones

  (D) where to purchase the materials for model telephones


Use the following information to answer the question.

image

The picture shows a pond ecosystem. Many plants and animals live in and around the pond. In the winter, the pond starts to freeze. The ducks leave the pond. They migrate to warmer climates. Which statement explains one reason why ducks migrate?

  (A) The ducks have too many enemies.

  (B) The ducks have difficulty finding food.

  (C) The ducks have to lay eggs near water.

  (D) The ducks have too few places to hibernate.


The principal's chair has wheels. It sits on her office floor next to her desk. She pulls the chair away from her desk.

image

What makes the chair move?

  (A) the force of gravity on the chair

  (B) the force of her pull on the chair

  (C) friction between her hand and the chair

  (D) friction between the wheels and the floor


Use the following table to answer the question.

image

A student created this table for a report on animals that can be found in Ohio. Student A studies the potato beetle. He concludes that all animals that lay eggs only live in crop fields. Student B notes that the red-tailed hawk lays eggs. It lives in both grasslands and crop fields. What should student A do with his own conclusion?

  (A) Keep the conclusion. The new data confirm it.

  (B) Keep the conclusion. The new data are not related to it.

  (C) Revise the conclusion. Collect more data about animals that live in crop fields.

  (D) Revise the conclusion. Collect more data about habitats of animals that lay eggs.


Use the following information to answer the question.

image

The picture shows a pond ecosystem. Many plants and animals live in and around the pond. Look at the picture of the pond ecosystem. Which organism uses sunlight to produce food that others eat?

  (A) Snail

  (B) Sunfish

  (C) Butterfly

  (D) Green Algae


Use the information in the table to answer the question. A teacher gives students five rock samples to describe and sketch. The students record their observations in the table below.

image

Sedimentary rocks have visible layers of small pieces of other rocks. Based on the information in the rock sample table, which is a sedimentary rock?

  (A) pumice

  (B) granite

  (C) obsidian

  (D) limestone


Use the information in the table to answer the question. A teacher gives students five rock samples to describe and sketch. The students record their observations in the table below.

image

How is conglomerate different from the other rock samples?

  (A) It contains pebbles.

  (B) It has visible layers.

  (C) It has a rough texture.

  (D) It is all the same color.


Use the information in the table to answer the question. A teacher gives students five rock samples to describe and sketch. The students record their observations in the table below.

image

The limestone sample was found in an area of Wyoming that is now a desert. Which statement describes what scientists can learn from the rock?

  (A) There once was a lake in that area.

  (B) There once was a glacier in that area.

  (C) There once were a lot of trees and plants in that area.

  (D) There once were fish that lived on dry land in that area.


Use the following diagram to answer the question.

image

Which number in the diagram represents Earth?

  (A) 1

  (B) 2

  (C) 3

  (D) 4


Students pluck each rubber band on the instrument shown below.

image

Which rubber band produces a sound with the highest pitch?

  (A) rubber band A

  (B) rubber band B

  (C) rubber band C

  (D) rubber band D


Use the following information to answer the question. Two Investigations Students conduct investigations with solids and liquids over several days.

image

Students pour vinegar into a beaker. They add a spoonful of baking soda to the vinegar. They observe bubbles. The bubbles stop when the baking soda is no longer visible.

image

Students pour water into a beaker. They add a cube of frozen water (ice). They observe that the water level changes to 500 mL. After a few minutes, the cube begins to melt. When the cube melts, the water level does not change. Look at the investigation from day 2. Why does the ice cube melt?

  (A) The ice transfers cold to the water.

  (B) The water transfers cold to the ice.

  (C) The ice transfers thermal energy to the water.

  (D) The water transfers thermal energy to the ice.


A scientist studies the diets of some animals living in a forest in Ohio. She records her results in the following table.

image

Which food chain shows one way that energy flows between these organisms?

  (A) grass -> mouse -> squirrel -> fox

  (B) fox -> squirrel -> grasshopper -> fruit

  (C) leaves -> grasshopper -> mouse -> fox

  (D) fruit -> squirrel -> acorns -> grasshopper


Over many years, a river changes how it flows. A young river flows rapidly down a shallow bed because it has not developed a floodplain. An old river has a large floodplain and flows slowly around many bends.

image

Which series shows a river from its youngest age to its oldest?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The diagrams below show what a river looked like fifty years ago and what it looks like today.

image

Which statement describes how a process acting slowly could have caused the river to become shallow over time?

  (A) A heavy rainfall raised the water level and flooded the river.

  (B) A glacier melted upstream and the water flowed into the river.

  (C) A large amount of soil was moved into the river during an earthquake.

  (D) A small amount of soil was deposited each time the river current slowed down.


Compare the two weather maps to answer the question.

image

In which direction did these weather fronts move based on the weather maps?

  (A) from north to south

  (B) from south to west

  (C) from east to north

  (D) from west to east


Use the following information to answer the question. The teacher asks the class to use cups to collect soil samples from the school yard. The students collect the soil from two locations near the sidewalk.

image

The students record their observations of the soil samples in the table below.

image

What explains why the composition of the soil samples is so different?

  (A) The students took samples at different times.

  (B) The students collected samples from different layers.

  (C) The students used different tools to observe the samples.

  (D) The students used different-sized cups to collect the samples.


image

A rubber ball was dropped from the same height onto five different surfaces. The height of the first bounce was measured and recorded. The graph shows the data. Based on the data, which of the following is the best conclusion?

  (A) Rubber balls bounce higher on harder surfaces.

  (B) All balls bounce higher indoors than they do outdoors.

  (C) Tennis balls bounce higher than basketballs on all surfaces.

  (D) Large balls do not bounce as high as small balls.


image

A student thinks that orange juice will freeze faster than any other substance. She fills identical containers with the same amount of different liquids, then places each in the freezer. She checks them every five minutes and discovers that the orange juice is the last one to freeze and the water is the first to freeze. Which should the student do next?

  (A) Change her results to match her original hypothesis.

  (B) Repeat her investigation to see if her results are the same.

  (C) Conclude that investigations can only be performed on water.

  (D) Tell her friends that investigations at school work better than at home.


image

Jack grew some very small organisms in a jar of pond water. Each day, he counted the number of organisms he saw on a slide. Then he estimated how many organisms were in the jar. About how many organisms did he estimate were in the jar on day 15?

  (A) 1000

  (B) 1500

  (C) 2000

  (D) 2500


On her vacation, Mrs. Smith saw a snake. The snake was a solid color and had dark rings around its head. Which is MOST like the snake Mrs. Smith saw?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


image

Two flashlights are turned on. The light rays they create are shown in the diagram. These light rays best illustrate that -

  (A) both rays are reflected

  (B) both rays are refracted

  (C) Ray 1 is reflected and Ray 2 is refracted

  (D) Ray 1 is refracted and Ray 2 is reflected


image

About how long is the dragonfly in the picture?

  (A) 2 centimeters

  (B) 4 centimeters

  (C) 6 centimeters

  (D) 8 centimeters


image

The school garden club planted sunflower seeds in 6-inch pots. Each pot was watered the same amount every two days. At the end of one month, the number of sprouts was counted. Which pot had an unusual number of sprouts?

  (A) 1

  (B) 2

  (C) 3

  (D) 4


Use the following information to answer the question. Paul and Sheryl studied a Toy Car System at school. The Toy Car System is a model car with a battery. When the ON button is pressed, the toy car rolls forward, plays music, and flashes the headlamps. Paul and Sheryl made the following diagram showing the parts of the Toy Car System.

image

What causes the toy car to play music?

  (A) The type of wheels

  (B) The vibrations in the speaker

  (C) The brightness of the headlamps


Use the following information to answer the question. Paul and Sheryl studied a Toy Car System at school. The Toy Car System is a model car with a battery. When the ON button is pressed, the toy car rolls forward, plays music, and flashes the headlamps. Paul and Sheryl made the following diagram showing the parts of the Toy Car System.

image

Paul and Sheryl did an investigation with three different toy cars. They collected their data in the table shown.

image

Which Toy Car moved the fastest?

  (A) Toy Car A

  (B) Toy Car B

  (C) Toy Car C


Use the following information to answer the question. Ariana and Matt visited a wheat field. They drew the Wheat Field Food Web.

image

Ariana and Matt also made a diagram of a Wheat Plant.

image

How does the worm population benefit a wheat field ecosystem?

  (A) Worms attract water to the soil.

  (B) Worms give off oxygen for the wheat plants.

  (C) Worms help wheat plants get mineral nutrients.


Use the following information to answer the question. Ariana and Matt visited a wheat field. They drew the Wheat Field Food Web.

image

Ariana and Matt also made a diagram of a Wheat Plant.

image

Sometimes a row of trees is planted along the edge of a wheat field. Why do farmers plant rows of trees next to their fields?

  (A) To prevent wind from eroding the soil

  (B) To protect animals from the rain

  (C) To provide food for the wheat