Middle School DMC Test

The graph below shows a population trend of Earth.

image

What will most likely be the population of Earth in the year 2050?

  (A) 6 billion

  (B) 9 billion

  (C) 12 billion

  (D) 20 billion


This graph shows four 1-kg blocks of wood with different surface areas and the time it takes to burn them completely.

image

What can you conclude from these data?

  (A) The surface area does not affect the time it takes to burn the wood.

  (B) As the surface area of the wood decreases, the time it takes to burn increases.

  (C) As the surface area of the wood increases, the time it takes to burn decreases.

  (D) As the surface area of the wood increases, the time it takes to burn increases.


The diagram below shows the life cycle of a house spider and a monarch butterfly.

image

How do a house spider and a monarch butterfly have similar life cycles?

  (A) They give birth to live young.

  (B) They do not care for their young.

  (C) They carry an egg sac as it matures.

  (D) They lay their eggs in special places to keep them warm.


Your class conducts an experiment on the ability of certain substances, either when solid or when dissolved in water, to conduct electricity. Your class obtains the data below.

image

What is a possible conclusion based on these data?

  (A) All solids do not conduct electricity.

  (B) Water conducts electricity for covalent compounds but not ionic compounds.

  (C) Ionic compounds conduct electricity when dissolved in water but not when solid.

  (D) Covalent compounds do not have electrons and thus are able to conduct electricity.


Which body system is depicted in the diagram below?

image

  (A) digestive

  (B) circulatory

  (C) respiratory

  (D) reproductive


The table below gives four fossils that have been found by an archaeologist.

image

Which fossil is most likely to have come from a location that once had a cold, snowy climate?

  (A) Fossil 1

  (B) Fossil 2

  (C) Fossil 3

  (D) Fossil 4


The table below shows four unknown geographic locations.

image

Which is most likely located near the equator?

  (A) Location 1

  (B) Location 2

  (C) Location 3

  (D) Location 4


A group of students is investigating how long it takes for mold to grow on slices of bread at different temperatures.

image

Which is the best means of collecting data for this investigation?

  (A) Check each piece of bread for mold once a week

  (B) Check each piece of bread daily until mold appears

  (C) Check the warm bread daily and the cool bread once a week

  (D) Check only the warm bread daily, since the cool bread is a control


The following drawing illustrates a flower of a certain type of angiosperm.

image

Which organ system in vertebrates is similar in function to the flower shown?

  (A) The skeletal system

  (B) The circulatory system

  (C) The respiratory system

  (D) The reproductive system


The drawing below shows two books on a table.

image

Amanda places a book cover under each book. She quickly pulls out each cover, and the books do not move. Which of Newton's laws does Amanda's investigation best demonstrate?

  (A) The second because the books have different sizes and masses.

  (B) The first because the books stay at rest while the covers are moved.

  (C) The third because the books do not move in the same direction as the covers.

  (D) The second because the books do not have the same surface area and friction.


Students performed an investigation using a set of in-line skates and several identical balls. One student wore the skates and stood on a level surface. Each time this student threw a ball, the other students measured his motion.

image

Which of the following would the students' investigation best demonstrate?

  (A) Newton's first law of motion

  (B) Newton's third law of motion

  (C) Gravitational energy overcoming friction

  (D) Kinetic energy changing to potential energy


The map below highlights one of the major climatic regions of Earth.

image

Which of these statements best describes the climate of this region of Earth?

  (A) It has extremely cold winters and hot summers.

  (B) It has extremely cold winters and cold summers.

  (C) It is hot all year with low amounts of precipitation.

  (D) It is warm all year with high amounts of precipitation.


Students are trying to model the cause of planetary years. They have a rotating tray, a light source, and a ball to represent the planet. Position A is the center of the tray, Position B is at the edge of the tray, and Position C is on the table next to the tray.

image

Where should the students place the light and the ball so that the rotating tray will model the cause of planetary years?

  (A) Ball at Position A, light at Position B

  (B) Ball at Position C, light at Position A

  (C) Light at Position B, ball at Position C

  (D) Light at Position A, ball at Position B


Which shows how a compass would act when placed near a bar magnet lying on a table?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The table below lists the masses and distances from the Sun for four planets.

image

Based on the data in the table, which of these planets takes the longest time to circle the Sun?

  (A) Saturn

  (B) Jupiter

  (C) Uranus

  (D) Neptune


image

How should the first and second blanks be filled in to complete the Venn diagram above?

  (A) First blank = Has a tail Second blank = Has a round shape

  (B) First blank = Does not move very much Second blank = Has a tail

  (C) First blank = Has a round shape Second blank = Many produced at the same time

  (D) First blank = Only one produced at a time Second blank = Many produced at the same time


A student is modeling the night and day cycle of Earth using a light bulb and a globe as shown below.

image

How can the student best model the night and day cycle?

  (A) turn the bulb on and off

  (B) spin the globe on its axis

  (C) move the bulb in a circle around the globe

  (D) move the globe in a circle around the bulb


Eleven students built bottle rockets. The flight time for each bottle rocket is listed below.

image

What is the median flight time for these bottle rockets?

  (A) 22 seconds

  (B) 25 seconds

  (C) 26 seconds

  (D) 27 seconds


Look at the velocity-time graph below.

image

According to the graph, the acceleration of the object is

  (A) constant

  (B) decreasing

  (C) increasing

  (D) zero


A recent study focused on the color variations of a certain species of mouse living in two neighboring habitats. Habitat 1 is a dark-colored, hardened lava bed, and habitat 2 is desert scrub with light-colored soil at the edge of the lava bed. The graph shows the percent of dark-colored and light-colored mice captured in each habitat.

image

Which hypothesis was most likely being tested in this investigation?

  (A) Individuals of a species always stay in the same environment.

  (B) Individuals of a species are the same size in any environment.

  (C) Individuals of a species living in different habitats are different sizes.

  (D) Individuals of a species living in different habitats have different colors of fur.


A recent study focused on the color variations of a certain species of mouse living in two neighboring habitats. Habitat 1 is a dark-colored, hardened lava bed, and habitat 2 is desert scrub with light-colored soil at the edge of the lava bed. The graph shows the percent of dark-colored and light-colored mice captured in each habitat.

image

The scientist who conducted this study claimed that the results could be used to predict color variation in other mouse populations throughout Arizona. Which statement best explains why this claim is questionable?

  (A) The scientist did not include a control in this study to verify the data.

  (B) The amount of data collected from each habitat was too small to be accurate.

  (C) Conclusions about mice at the study site may not accurately represent other populations in Arizona.

  (D) Environmental conditions at the study site may be similar to environmental conditions in other parts of Arizona


Lee is planning an experiment to compare the velocity (v=d/t) of four objects with different masses and shapes when they are dropped from different heights. Lee must use only equipment from the diagram below to conduct his experiment.

image

Which pieces of equipment are needed to calculate the velocity of a falling object?

  (A) stopwatch and balance

  (B) speedometer and magnet

  (C) compass and tape measure

  (D) tape measure and stopwatch


Lee is planning an experiment to compare the velocity (v=d/t) of four objects with different masses and shapes when they are dropped from different heights. Lee must use only equipment from the diagram below to conduct his experiment.

image

During this experiment, which action would most likely lead to a measurement error?

  (A) recording data in a table

  (B) counting down before releasing the object

  (C) conducting multiple trials from each height

  (D) using different hand positions to release each object


Use the information in the box below to answer the question.

image

Which items are necessary for Pierre to build a correct model of the ramp?

  (A) the stopwatch and the ball only

  (B) the meter stick and the board only

  (C) the meter stick, the board, and the blocks of wood only

  (D) the board, the blocks of wood, and the ball only


Use the information and the table below to answer the following question. Corey found that when he added a certain chemical to water, the water would heat up. He then performed an experiment in which he mixed different amounts of the chemical with water in a test tube and measured the temperature of the water. The results of his experiment are shown in the table below.

image

Which of these is a valid conclusion based on the results of Corey's experiment?

  (A) Adding more of the chemical will always heat the water to a greater temperature.

  (B) The chemical always heats water to the same temperature.

  (C) The temperature of water is not affected by the amount of the chemical.

  (D) Adding more of the chemical will heat the water but only up to a certain temperature.


Use the picture below to answer the following question.

image

The cactus plant shown above lives in a desert environment. Which characteristic of this plant could be found in many other desert plants?

  (A) a deep root system for gathering water

  (B) lush growth that serves to trap water if it rains

  (C) broad leaves that protect the plants from the hot sun

  (D) leaves and stems that are adapted to conserve water


A beam of light is shining on the surface of a liquid. Which diagram shows what happens when the light is reflected by the liquid?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Use the graph below to answer the question.

image

The graph shows the results of a photosynthesis investigation on algae. Which question was the scientist most likely studying?

  (A) Why is the rate of photosynthesis different in high light intensity from low light intensity?

  (B) Why does increasing the light intensity increase the rate of photosynthesis in algae?

  (C) How is the rate of photosynthesis in algae at two light intensities affected by different temperature?

  (D) How does increasing the rate of photosynthesis in algae change its temperature?


Use the graph below to answer the question.

image

The graph above shows how a white-tailed deer population recovered over a ten-year period after a population crash. Wolves in the same area feed primarily on deer. Which graph shows the most likely change in wolf population for the same ten-year period?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Which diagram below illustrates the absorption of light energy?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Use the graph below to answer the question.

image

The graph shows the distance traveled by a cyclist on a six-hour trip. During which time was the cyclist's speed the greatest?

  (A) between hours 0 and 2

  (B) between hours 2 and 3

  (C) between hours 3 and 4

  (D) between hours 4 and 6


Use the diagram below to answer the question.

image

Lana had four equal-size blocks. She used a balance to find that the mass of one block is 12.2 grams. Lana predicted the mass of all four blocks to be 48.8 grams. She found the mass of all four blocks is 50.3 grams. Which conclusion is best supported by these observations?

  (A) Lana made a poor prediction.

  (B) At least one block has a different mass.

  (C) At least one block has a different volume.

  (D) Lana needs to use a more precise balance.


Materials Exchange from Blood The blood has the job of moving materials such as food molecules, vitamins, water, gases, and waste products through the body. Cells throughout the body exchange many substances with blood. However, some organs also move materials into and out of the blood. Diagrams 1 and 2 below show parts of the lungs and small intestine. The main function of each of these organs is to move materials into or out of the blood. Some organs specialize in moving materials needed by the body into the blood. For example, molecules from digested food travel from the small intestine into the bloodstream. The blood then carries these food molecules throughout the body. This process enables cells in other parts of the body, like the brain, bones, muscles, and skin, to receive the nutrients they need to function. Some organs specialize in helping the body get rid of waste products. Waste molecules are created by all cells in the body. The blood collects waste and carries it to organs that help the body get rid of the waste materials. These organs, such as the kidneys, have specialized structures that allow them to filter wastes out of the blood while keeping useful materials in. This ability to filter and remove wastes is important for all life. 1. Alveoli in Lungs

image

  1. Villi in Small Intestine

image

The table shows the percent of important gases in inhaled air and exhaled air.

image

Which model shows how gases are exchanged in the alveoli in the lungs?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Use this diagram to answer the question.

image

Which arrow points to an organ directly involved in the exchange of gases between a human and his or her environment?

  (A) arrow A

  (B) arrow B

  (C) arrow C

  (D) arrow D


Use this dichotomous key to answer the question.

image

Trish constructed a dichotomous key to help identify the reptiles and amphibians living in a certain area. Which phrase describes a lizard?

  (A) an animal with scaly skin and a shell but no external gills

  (B) an animal with scaly skin and legs but no shell

  (C) an animal with legs and coastal grooves but no tail

  (D) an animal with external gills and a tail but no coastal grooves


Use the graph below to answer the question.

image

The graph above shows the population of a rabbits in a field over a seven-year period. Based on the data, what is the approximate carrying capacity in the field for rabbits?

  (A) 200

  (B) 400

  (C) 500

  (D) 600


Use the data table below to answer the question.

image

A scientist studied two species of sea snail and recorded the physical characteristics in the data table. Which conclusion about the data is based on correct reasoning?

  (A) If a snail she studied had a brown shell, then it was a red foot snail.

  (B) If a snail she studied had a brown shell, then it had a white underside.

  (C) If a snail she studied was 125 millimeters long, then it was red foot snail.

  (D) If a snail she studied was 175 millimeters long, then it had a white underside.


Use this data chart to answer the question.

image

Which question is the experiment most likely designed to answer?

  (A) What are the effects of water on plant growth?

  (B) What amount of fertilizer is best to use for plants?

  (C) How does the height of a plant affect how much sunlight it needs?

  (D) How does the amount of sunlight a plant receives affect its growth?


Use this Punnett square to answer the question.

image

In Horse's, the gene for white hair (W) is dominant to the gene for non-white hair (w). A horse with genotype (WW) was crossed with a horse with genotype (ww), as shown in the Punnett square. What fraction of the offspring should be expected to have white hair?

  (A) none

  (B) one-half

  (C) three-quarters

  (D) all


Materials Exchange from Blood The blood has the job of moving materials such as food molecules, vitamins, water, gases, and waste products through the body. Cells throughout the body exchange many substances with blood. However, some organs also move materials into and out of the blood. Diagrams 1 and 2 below show parts of the lungs and small intestine. The main function of each of these organs is to move materials into or out of the blood. Some organs specialize in moving materials needed by the body into the blood. For example, molecules from digested food travel from the small intestine into the bloodstream. The blood then carries these food molecules throughout the body. This process enables cells in other parts of the body, like the brain, bones, muscles, and skin, to receive the nutrients they need to function. Some organs specialize in helping the body get rid of waste products. Waste molecules are created by all cells in the body. The blood collects waste and carries it to organs that help the body get rid of the waste materials. These organs, such as the kidneys, have specialized structures that allow them to filter wastes out of the blood while keeping useful materials in. This ability to filter and remove wastes is important for all life. 1. Alveoli in Lungs

image

  1. Villi in Small Intestine

image

Food that is being digested passes from the stomach to the small intestine. There, it mixes with digestive juices such as bile and pancreatic enzymes. Bile helps the body absorb fat while the pancreatic enzymes are capable of digesting carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. During digestion, these juices flow to the small intestine and combine with additional materials to further break down food. Afterwards, the molecules from the digested food are moved into the bloodstream. Which diagram shows how these structures work together to help digest food?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Materials Exchange from Blood The blood has the job of moving materials such as food molecules, vitamins, water, gases, and waste products through the body. Cells throughout the body exchange many substances with blood. However, some organs also move materials into and out of the blood. Diagrams 1 and 2 below show parts of the lungs and small intestine. The main function of each of these organs is to move materials into or out of the blood. Some organs specialize in moving materials needed by the body into the blood. For example, molecules from digested food travel from the small intestine into the bloodstream. The blood then carries these food molecules throughout the body. This process enables cells in other parts of the body, like the brain, bones, muscles, and skin, to receive the nutrients they need to function. Some organs specialize in helping the body get rid of waste products. Waste molecules are created by all cells in the body. The blood collects waste and carries it to organs that help the body get rid of the waste materials. These organs, such as the kidneys, have specialized structures that allow them to filter wastes out of the blood while keeping useful materials in. This ability to filter and remove wastes is important for all life. 1. Alveoli in Lungs

image

  1. Villi in Small Intestine

image

Which flowchart shows a likely path of a waste molecule through the body?

  (A) skin cell -> blood -> kidney -> large intestine -> rectum -> out of body

  (B) muscle cell -> blood -> liver -> blood -> lung -> out of body

  (C) bone cell -> blood -> liver -> gallbladder -> rectum -> out of body

  (D) brain cell -> blood -> kidney -> urine -> bladder -> out of body


Materials Exchange from Blood The blood has the job of moving materials such as food molecules, vitamins, water, gases, and waste products through the body. Cells throughout the body exchange many substances with blood. However, some organs also move materials into and out of the blood. Diagrams 1 and 2 below show parts of the lungs and small intestine. The main function of each of these organs is to move materials into or out of the blood. Some organs specialize in moving materials needed by the body into the blood. For example, molecules from digested food travel from the small intestine into the bloodstream. The blood then carries these food molecules throughout the body. This process enables cells in other parts of the body, like the brain, bones, muscles, and skin, to receive the nutrients they need to function. Some organs specialize in helping the body get rid of waste products. Waste molecules are created by all cells in the body. The blood collects waste and carries it to organs that help the body get rid of the waste materials. These organs, such as the kidneys, have specialized structures that allow them to filter wastes out of the blood while keeping useful materials in. This ability to filter and remove wastes is important for all life. 1. Alveoli in Lungs

image

  1. Villi in Small Intestine

image

A student made this model of the human respiratory system from a plastic soda bottle.

image

Which sentences best explain how the model can be used to show how different parts of the respiratory system work together?

  (A) Balloon 1 represents the lungs and balloon 2 represents the diaphragm. Pulling balloon 2 down shows how the diaphragm causes air to enter the lungs.

  (B) Balloon 1 represents an alveolus and balloon 2 represents a capillary. The bottle shows that the alveolus and capillary must be close together for gases to move between them.

  (C) The bottle represents the lungs and the straw represents the larynx. Squeezing and letting go of the bottle shows how the lungs push air into and out of themselves.

  (D) The bottle represents the ribs and the straw represents the windpipe. Squeezing the bottle shows how the ribs help push air out of the lungs.


Use the diagrams below of an animal cell and a plant cell to answer the question.

image

Features of plant cells that clearly make them different from animal cells are

  (A) a larger nucleus and fewer chromosomes.

  (B) a rigid cell wall and chloroplasts.

  (C) more cytoplasm and smaller vacuoles.

  (D) a changing size and indefinite shape.


Use the information and table below to answer the question. Mabel read that regular heavy watering promotes growth in sunflower plants. She planted 6 plots of sunflowers with 5 plants each and watered each plot with a different amount of water. The table shows her results.

image

Which of these statements represents Mabel's revised understanding of sunflower growth?

  (A) Heavy watering on a regular schedule promotes sunflower growth.

  (B) Some plants respond better to watering, while others respond better to light.

  (C) Water promotes growth up to a point, beyond which it stunts growth.

  (D) Some sunflower plants need less water than others.


Use the diagram below to answer the question.

image

Based on the diagram, which process explains why less dense, hot magma rises to the surface to displace more dense, cooler magma?

  (A) conduction

  (B) diffusion

  (C) radiation

  (D) convection


Use the information and the table below to answer the question. Corey found that when he added a certain chemical to water, the water would heat up. He then performed an experiment in which he mixed different amounts of the chemical with water in a test tube and measured the temperature of the water. The results of his experiment are shown in the table below.

image

Which of these is a valid conclusion based on the results of Corey's experiment?

  (A) Adding more of the chemical will always heat the water to a greater temperature.

  (B) The chemical always heats water to the same temperature.

  (C) The temperature of water is not affected by the amount of the chemical.

  (D) Adding more of the chemical will heat the water but only up to a certain temperature.


Use the picture below to answer the question.

image

The cactus plant shown above lives in a desert environment. Which characteristic of this plant could be found in many other desert plants?

  (A) a deep root system for gathering water

  (B) lush growth that serves to trap water if it rains

  (C) broad leaves that protect the plants from the hot sun

  (D) leaves and stems that are adapted to conserve water


image

For elements listed in the same columns of the periodic chart, which property increases moving from top to bottom?

  (A) concentration

  (B) half-life

  (C) atomic weight

  (D) hardness


image

Which of the substances shown in the chart could be sugar?

  (A) Substance W

  (B) Substance X

  (C) Substance Y

  (D) Substance Z


Juan wanted to know if fertilizer could help him grow more tomatoes. He divided his garden into three equal areas and used different amounts of fertilizer in each area. At the end of the summer, Juan concluded that fertilizer helped grow more tomatoes but that too much fertilizer was harmful. Which graph shows the effects of fertilizer on the number of tomatoes produced?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


What type of transportation, shown below, existed in the United States first?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


According to the graphs, there were fewer squirrels per square mile in 1995 than in 1990. Based on information in the graphs, the most likely reason for the change in squirrel population is that

image

  (A) less food was available for the squirrels in 1995 than in 1990.

  (B) more food was available for the squirrels in 1995 than in 1990.

  (C) there were fewer predators in 1995 than in 1990.

  (D) there were more predators in 1995 than in 1990.


Use the diagram below to answer the question.

image

A ray of light shines on a mirror at the angle shown above. Which diagram shows what will happen to the light after it strikes the mirror?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Use the information and diagram below to answer the question. The diagram shows a toy submarine being held beneath the water surface. The submarine has a weight of 0.5 newton (N). A buoyant force of 0.8 newton (N) is also exerted on the submarine.

image

What will happen to the submarine when it is released?

  (A) It will rise to the surface.

  (B) It will sink directly to the bottom.

  (C) It will surface, then sink to the bottom.

  (D) It will remain stationary.


If you wanted to filter a sample of dirty water to remove as much of the dirt as possible, which filter would be best to use?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Anne traveled from her home to a friend's house. She constructed this graph to show the relationship between the time and the distance traveled.

image

Which description is most consistent with the graph?

  (A) Anne started her trip on a country road. She stopped for lunch just before getting onto a superhighway for the rest of her trip.

  (B) Anne drove briefly on a superhighway, then on a country road, and finished her trip on a superhighway.

  (C) Anne started her trip on a superhighway. She stopped for lunch just before getting onto a country road for the rest of her trip.

  (D) Anne drove briefly on a country road, then on a superhighway, and finished her trip on a country road.


Use the picture to answer the question.

image

The picture represents rock layers in Earth's crust. The event that occurred along line XY is most appropriately described as

  (A) erosion.

  (B) volcanic eruption.

  (C) sedimentary deposition.

  (D) faulting.


image

The pictures are cells from the same animal. Which of the following best explains why the cell in Picture I looks so different from the cells in Picture II?

  (A) The cells have different DNA.

  (B) The cells have different functions.

  (C) The cells in Picture II are very young and still growing.

  (D) The cell in Picture I is diseased and damaged.


Linda travelled the same distance walking, riding a bike, and driving a car. For each mode of travel, the table shows her average speed and the amount of time required to travel the distance.

image

As Linda's speed increased, how did the amount of time change?

  (A) Time increased proportionally.

  (B) Time decreased proportionally.

  (C) Time increased randomly.

  (D) Time decreased randomly.


Use the topographic map below to answer the question.

image

The river flows

  (A) north.

  (B) south.

  (C) east.

  (D) west.


Use the graph to answer the question. Two guinea pigs were put on different diets for a month. The graph shows what happened to their weight. According to the information on the graph, which statement is correct?

image

  (A) Guinea pig Y lost weight while guinea pig X gained weight.

  (B) Guinea pig X and guinea pig Y weighed the same at the beginning of the experiment.

  (C) Guinea pig X and guinea pig Y weighed the same on day 15.

  (D) Guinea pig Y lost weight until day 15 and then gained weight.


Use the diagram to answer the question. The diagram shows the conditions for which phase of the Moon?

image

  (A) full

  (B) crescent

  (C) quarter

  (D) new


Use the drawing to answer the question. In the drawing, lightbulbs X and Y are wired in parallel and connected to battery B so that both bulbs are lit. Which statement best describes what would happen if light bulb X burned out?

image

  (A) The battery would no longer be usable.

  (B) The socket holding light bulb X would become warmer.

  (C) light bulb Y would also burn out.

  (D) light bulb Y would continue to be lit.


Use the picture below to answer the question.

image

The picture represents layers of rock in Earth's crust. Which layer is probably the oldest?

  (A) layer 1

  (B) layer 2

  (C) layer 4

  (D) layer 6


Which diagram best illustrates the orientation of Earth's axis as Earth orbits the Sun?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Use the figure to answer question. A metal block is hanging from a spring and is not moving. Gravity pulls on the block with a force of 10 newtons. How much force does the spring exert on the block?

image

  (A) 0 newtons

  (B) greater than 0 newtons, but less than 10 newtons

  (C) 10 newtons

  (D) more than 10 newtons


Use the graph below to answer the question.

image

An object was traveling at a constant speed. The graph shows the distance the object traveled from its starting point in 5 seconds. What was the object's speed?

  (A) 0.5 m/s

  (B) 1 m/s

  (C) 1.5 m/s

  (D) 2 m/s


Use the figure below to answer the question.

image

What would you see from the top view of the object above?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Use the table below to answer the question.

image

John wanted to determine if increasing the amount of potassium in the soil of his garden would yield bigger cucumbers. He arranged four plots and gave each a different concentration of potassium. Which hypothesis best explains why the fourth plot yielded the poorest results?

  (A) Too much potassium probably damages the cucumber plants.

  (B) Any time potassium is added to soil, poor results occur.

  (C) The smaller plot accounts for the low cucumber yield and mass.

  (D) Weeds must have choked out the cucumbers growing there.


The diagram below shows a food web.

image

If the corn and oats were completely removed from the above food web, which of the following would be the most affected?

  (A) mice and rats

  (B) hawks and owls

  (C) snakes and raccoons

  (D) grasshoppers and crickets


The diagram below shows a bacterium.

image

The part of the cell indicated by the arrow is responsible for which of the following functions?

  (A) absorption

  (B) breathing

  (C) locomotion

  (D) reproducing


Which of the following graphs represents a train moving at constant speed?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Based on the illustrations, which of the following vehicles will likely produce the least drag?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Which of the following models correctly represents the compound phosphorus trichloride (PCl3)?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Which of the following illustrations represents a pure substance?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The illustration below shows sheets of plywood that are nailed to floor joists.

image

The sheets of plywood are called the

  (A) beam.

  (B) decking.

  (C) truss.

  (D) foundation.


Two forces act on the 2 kg box shown below.

image

A 4 N force acts to the right and a 6 N force acts to the left. What is the net force acting on the box?

  (A) 10 N to the right

  (B) 10 N to the left

  (C) 2 N to the right

  (D) 2 N to the left


The diagram below represents a mirror reflecting light.

image

Which line best shows the correct angle of reflection?

  (A) I

  (B) II

  (C) III

  (D) IV


The chart below shows a portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

image

A plastic filter is fitted over a light. The light emits white light, but the filter only lets the longest wavelengths of visible light pass through. Which color would a person looking at the filtered light see?

  (A) green

  (B) red

  (C) violet

  (D) yellow


The figure below shows a house and a table that provides information about insulation of four houses in Massachusetts.

image

Each house is similar to the one pictured, except for the differences in insulation shown in the table. According to the table, which house is the most economical to heat?

  (A) house W

  (B) house X

  (C) house Y

  (D) house Z


A portable electric hair dryer with a resistance of 15 ohms is connected to a 120 V outlet.

image

What is the approximate current in the circuit?

  (A) 8 A

  (B) 15 A

  (C) 105 A

  (D) 180 A


The line marker shown in the diagram below is designed to show athletes and officials the exact location of a corner of a playing field.

image

This marker must be able to regain its upright position immediately after contact with players. Which of the following engineering properties is most important for the material used for the core of the line marker?

  (A) conductivity

  (B) ductility

  (C) elasticity

  (D) plasticity


The diagram below represents a concrete beam with four points labeled W, X, Y, and Z. It is subjected to three forces as shown.

image

At which labeled point would cracks due to tension most likely appear first?

  (A) W

  (B) X

  (C) Y

  (D) Z


The schematic below shows a simple circuit.

image

In this circuit, a potentiometer is used to control the light output of a bulb. Which of the following is the source in this circuit?

  (A) resistor

  (B) battery

  (C) potentiometer

  (D) bulb


Which of the following arrangements will remain stationary unless an external force acts on it? Assume there is no friction.

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


An archer pulls back the bowstring to prepare to shoot an arrow as shown below.

image

She uses an average force of 40 N, moving the bowstring 0.2 m. How much energy is stored in the bow?

  (A) 8 J

  (B) 16 J

  (C) 24 J

  (D) 36 J


The illustration below shows a car slowing down.

image

The car was initially traveling at 15 m/s. The car slows with a negative acceleration of 4.5 m/s^2. How long does it take the car to slow to a final velocity of 4.0 m/s?

  (A) 0.89 s

  (B) 2.4 s

  (C) 11 s

  (D) 60 s


The illustration below shows a power tool.

image

In which of the following manufacturing processes is this tool used?

  (A) molding

  (B) casting

  (C) finishing

  (D) assembling


The diagram below shows a polar projection of Earth and four positions of the Moon.

image

The highest high tides and lowest low tides are called spring tides. Which positions of the Moon produce spring tides in Earth's oceans?

  (A) 1 and 2

  (B) 2 and 4

  (C) 1 and 3

  (D) 3 and 4


A beam bridge supporting a toy truck is shown in the diagram below.

image

When an object pushes down on this bridge, the bottom edge experiences a force that tends to pull it apart as shown. What is the type of force labeled X?

  (A) compression

  (B) shear

  (C) tension

  (D) torsion


On Earth, Johanna weighs 100 lbs. She calculated what her weight would be at several other locations in the solar system. The results are shown in the table below.

image

Which of the following statements is best supported by the information in the table?

  (A) Venus has more gravitational force than Earth.

  (B) Mars has less gravitational force than the Moon.

  (C) Earth has four times the gravitational force of Mars.

  (D) Jupiter has more than twice the gravitational force of Earth.


The diagram below illustrates the motion of prevailing winds over oceans on Earth.

image

If a sailboat sailed from the eastern United States to Europe and then back, which of the following winds would most directly power the sailboat?

  (A) Polar Easterlies going and Westerlies returning

  (B) Northeast Trade Winds going and Westerlies returning

  (C) Westerlies going and Northeast Trade Winds returning

  (D) Southeast Trade Winds going and Northeast Trade Winds returning


The drawings below show skulls of three modern animals.

image

The three skulls all share characteristics with a fossil skull of an extinct seal (not shown) that is believed to be 23 million years old. What conclusion can be drawn about the relationship between the three modern animals and the fossil?

  (A) They are all the same species.

  (B) They share a common ancestor.

  (C) They share the same food supply.

  (D) They are all 23 million years old.


The drawing below shows a wooden crate.

image

Which of the following sets of equipment is most appropriate to design and construct this wooden crate?

  (A) hammer, wrench, electric drill, sander

  (B) electric drill, nails, chisel, screwdriver

  (C) measuring tape, hand saw, nails, hammer

  (D) electric stapler, pliers, yardstick, screwdriver


The diagram below represents a diver's motion from the top of a high diving board into a pool of water.

image

At which labeled point does the diver have the least potential energy?

  (A) 1

  (B) 2

  (C) 3

  (D) 4


The figure below shows a pictorial model of a highway bridge.

image

What is the primary structural action of member A?

  (A) compression

  (B) shear

  (C) tension

  (D) torsion


A circuit constructed on a circuit board is shown below.

image

Which of the following schematic circuits correctly represents the circuit shown?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The diagram below shows a cantilever beam with a force (P) applied.

image

For the cantilever beam shown, where is the maximum tensile stress when force P is applied?

  (A) W

  (B) X

  (C) Y

  (D) Z


Several electrical components are drawn below.

image

Which of the following is needed to make an electrical circuit using these components?

  (A) load

  (B) resistor

  (C) source

  (D) transistor


The illustration below shows a 2-ton elephant balancing on a tree stump.

image

Which of the following statements must be accurate?

  (A) The weight of the tree stump is greater than 2 tons.

  (B) A 4-ton force on the ground spreads out in all directions.

  (C) The tree stump is exerting a 2-ton force upward on the elephant.

  (D) The downward force on the ground under the tree stump is 4 tons.


The drawing below shows a ratchet, which is a mechanical device.

image

Which of the following is the correct interpretation of this drawing?

  (A) It shows the size of the finished device.

  (B) It shows how a ratchet can be manufactured.

  (C) It shows the operation of a ratchet mechanism.

  (D) It shows the necessary materials for the device.


The figure below shows a snow-covered greenhouse.

image

The snow on the greenhouse has a density of 100 kg/m^3 and is 0.1 m deep. The roof is 5 m wide and 8 m long. What is the load of snow on the roof?

  (A) 40 kg

  (B) 400 kg

  (C) 4,000 kg

  (D) 40,000 kg


Which of the following figures correctly shows the conduction of heat within the system of metal blocks?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Which of the following objects transfers its energy primarily by radiation?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Each of the following illustrations 4 shows the movement of a 1 kg object. Which of these is an example of simple harmonic motion?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The diagram below shows a house and its floor plan.

image

Settlers' homes in the Southwestern United States were often built with a porch facing the prevailing breeze and with two rooms separated by a breezeway. The funneling effects of the porch and front building walls could significantly accelerate the wind. Considering the effects of Bernoulli's principle, what air flow should be expected for windows X and W?

  (A) in W and out X

  (B) in W and in X

  (C) out W and in X

  (D) out W and out X


A scale drawing of a machined part is shown below.

image

What would be the actual dimension X of this part when it is built?

  (A) 1.3 cm

  (B) 3.20 cm

  (C) 10.3 cm

  (D) 16.0 cm


The figure below shows a screwdriver that broke while being used as a pry bar.

image

What does the break indicate about the material in the shaft of the screwdriver?

  (A) It was too ductile.

  (B) It was too brittle.

  (C) It was too elastic.

  (D) It was too dense.


The illustration below represents an experiment in which a hot object is added to a container of water at room temperature.

image

The water is continuously stirred while the hot object is immersed in it. Which of the following graphs best shows the temperature changes that follow?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The praying mantis is a predatory insect that often eats moths. The graph below shows the relative numbers of two species of moths over 12 weeks after the introduction of the predatory praying mantis.

image

What characteristic of this ecosystem is best indicated from this graph?

  (A) Species B was preferred as food over species A.

  (B) Species B may replace species A in this environment.

  (C) Species B will reproduce more rapidly than species A.

  (D) Species B was more abundant at the beginning of this time period than species A.


About 300 million years ago, the land of Earth was in a single mass known as Pangaea, as shown in Figure A. About 150 million years ago, Pangaea broke up into the land masses shown in Figure B.

image

Based on the diagrams, which of the following were more likely to survive on continent X after the breakup of Pangaea than before it broke apart?

  (A) organisms that lived in freshwater

  (B) organisms that required warm conditions

  (C) organisms that hibernated for long periods

  (D) organisms that traveled great distances during migrations


The two beakers below contain pure water.

image

Which of the following properties is the same for both of these samples?

  (A) mass

  (B) weight

  (C) volume

  (D) boiling point


Below are four ball-and-stick models representing compounds. Which of these models best represents ammonia (NH3)?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Which of the following instruments is best to use to measure the volume of a small irregularly shaped solid?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The illustration below shows a cloth banner made to advertise a county fair.

image

This sign will be hung across the main street of a town between two metal utility poles. Which of the following materials would be the best to use to attach the sign to the poles?

  (A) nails

  (B) ropes

  (C) staples

  (D) tape


The diagram below shows what occurred when a can of diet soda and a can of regular soda were dropped into a container of water.

image

The can of regular soda sank to the bottom of the container, but the can of diet soda floated. Which of the following statements best explains this observation?

  (A) The can of regular soda is less dense than the can of diet soda.

  (B) The can of regular soda is more dense than the can of diet soda.

  (C) The can of regular soda has a larger volume than the can of diet soda.

  (D) The can of regular soda has a smaller volume than the can of diet soda.


The bones of a whale flipper are similar to the bones of a bat wing as shown in the illustration below.

image

What does this similarity in bone structure suggest about the whale and the bat?

  (A) They use the same methods to travel.

  (B) They evolved from a common ancestor.

  (C) They can migrate to the same locations.

  (D) They can manipulate objects in the same way.


The illustration below shows three toy ducks floating on water, moving up and down as a wave travels to the right with a velocity of 3 m/s.

image

Which of the following is the frequency of the wave?

  (A) 0.75 Hz

  (B) 1.33 Hz

  (C) 1.5 Hz

  (D) 6.0 Hz


The graph below shows the amount of ATP produced in a cell during a period of time.

image

According to the graph, which of the following processes must have increased between points A and B?

  (A) cellular respiration

  (B) cytokinesis

  (C) DNA replication

  (D) meiosis


The illustration below shows a student bending a piece of wire back and forth at a single point X. The wire's temperature rises noticeably at point X.

image

Which of the following best describes the source of the temperature increase?

  (A) Some of the wire's mass is transformed into heat energy as the wire is bent.

  (B) Some of the kinetic energy is transformed into heat as the wire is bent.

  (C) The bending transfers potential energy to the wire, heating it.

  (D) The bending causes a current that heats the wire.


The diagram below represents four empty copper containers at room temperature.

image

An equal amount of water at 90°C is added to each copper container. Assume there is no loss of heat to the environment. Which container will have had the greatest change in temperature when the water and the container reach equilibrium?

  (A) 1

  (B) 2

  (C) 3

  (D) 4


A food web is shown below.

image

In this food web, the trophic level with the least energy includes which of the following organisms?

  (A) grasses

  (B) mice

  (C) snakes

  (D) hawks


Within an individual mouse, four different mutations occurred in different genes, located on separate chromosomes and in different cells, as shown in the table below.

image

Which of these mutations could be passed on to the mouse's offspring?

  (A) white fur

  (B) blue eyes

  (C) thin fur

  (D) short tail


Which of the diagrams below best represents the net movement of molecules in osmosis?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The diagram shows a motor being used to lift a load with the use of a pulley.

image

The motor is lifting the 6 kg box at a constant velocity. How much work is done on the box to lift it 2 m? (Assume no resistance from the pulley.)

  (A) 3 J

  (B) 4 J

  (C) 60 J

  (D) 120 J


The diagram below represents a mass suspended vertically by a rubber band. The mass is set in motion by pulling down slightly on the mass and letting go.

image

Which of the following correctly identifies the up-and-down motion of the mass?

  (A) torsional

  (B) transverse

  (C) nonharmonic

  (D) simple harmonic


The diagram below shows a strand of DNA matched to a strand of messenger RNA.

image

What process does this diagram represent?

  (A) mutation

  (B) respiration

  (C) transcription

  (D) translation


A partial food web for a marsh ecosystem is shown below.

image

The removal of which of the following organisms would most reduce the transfer of energy from aquatic organisms to terrestrial organisms?

  (A) herring gulls

  (B) sandpipers

  (C) rats

  (D) ghost crabs


The illustration below represents a marine iguana.

image

The marine iguanas of the Galápagos Islands feed on seaweed and algae. Marine iguanas have flattened tails while other species of iguanas that live inland on the Galápagos and on the South American mainland have rounded tails. Which of the following best explains this difference in tail shape?

  (A) Flattened tails are better for swimming than rounded tails.

  (B) Flattened tails move more easily on land than in the ocean.

  (C) Flattened tails are harder for predators to grasp than rounded tails.

  (D) Flattened tails release heat more rapidly in the ocean than on land.


A partial diagram of a reproductive process is shown below.

image

Which of the following labels belongs in the oval marked X?

  (A) egg

  (B) fetus

  (C) sperm

  (D) zygote


A cross section of part of a Golgi complex is shown below.

image

Part of the membrane of the Golgi complex pinches off and moves away. Which of the following is a function of this process?

  (A) to release energy from ATP

  (B) to deliver proteins to other locations in the cell

  (C) to collect amino acids for use in protein synthesis

  (D) to send messages about cell requirements to the nucleus


A student researching bears found the chart below in a textbook. The chart shows the classifications of several types of bears.

image

Which of the following conclusions is best supported by the data given in this chart?

  (A) Modern bears evolved from species that are now extinct.

  (B) The short-faced bear was the ancestor of the Asiatic black bear.

  (C) Present day bear species are more closely related than their ancestors were.

  (D) Natural selection favored the brown bear over the American black bear.


The graph below represents changes in molecular motion in a solid plastic cylinder over time.

image

These changes in the molecules of the plastic cylinder must be accompanied by which of the following?

  (A) an increase in mass

  (B) a decrease in volume

  (C) an increase in temperature

  (D) a decrease in heat capacity


An upward force of 150 N is applied to a box weighing 70 N. Which of the following is the free-body force diagram for this situation?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The diagram below represents a cell. The letters in the diagram represent alleles for two different genetic traits.

image

According to Mendel's law of independent assortment, which of the following shows all of the allele combinations expected in gametes produced by this cell?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The masses and specific heats of some samples of liquids are shown in the table below.

image

The temperature of which sample will rise most when 1000 J of heat is added?

  (A) water

  (B) glycerin

  (C) methanol

  (D) cooking oil


An electric circuit is shown below. The accompanying table shows the current measured at different levels of resistance.

image

Based on the data shown in the table, what is the voltage drop across the variable resistor?

  (A) 1.5 V

  (B) 6 V

  (C) 9 V

  (D) 12 V


During an investigation, Steven filled two cups with the same amount of water and placed them in a 20°C room for 30 minutes. Cup 1 was filled with 5°C water. Cup 2 was filled with 35°C water. The diagram below shows the temperatures of the cups at the beginning of the investigation.

image

Which of the following graphs shows how the temperatures of the two cups of water most likely changed over 30 minutes?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The picture below shows a demonstration of water changing from the liquid phase to the gas phase as it boils in a beaker.

image

Which of the following statements explains why this demonstration cannot be used to prove that matter is conserved during a change of phase?

  (A) The change of phase is incomplete.

  (B) Water is changing both phase and temperature.

  (C) Water in the gas phase is lighter than liquid water.

  (D) The change of phase is taking place in an open system.


The following diagram illustrates the appearance of the Moon from Earth.

image

Which of the following arrangements of the Sun, the Moon, and Earth will cause the Moon to appear as it does above?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The diagram below shows an energy pyramid for a lake ecosystem.

image

Which of the following best describes the role of the perch in this energy pyramid?

  (A) producer

  (B) decomposer

  (C) primary consumer

  (D) secondary consumer


The diagrams below represent different ways heat is transferred. The arrows in the diagrams show the direction of heat transfer.

image

Which table shows the primary way heat is transferred in each diagram?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The picture below shows a television satellite dish.

image

The satellite dish is an example of which of the following components of a television communications system?

  (A) decoder

  (B) encoder

  (C) receiver

  (D) transmitter


The diagram below shows some of the planets in our solar system.

image

Which statement best describes these planets?

  (A) They are made of gases.

  (B) They are made of rock.

  (C) They move at the same speed around the Sun.

  (D) They travel the same distance around the Sun.


The diagrams below show characteristics of monocot and dicot flowering plants.

image

Which picture represents a part of a member of the dicot group?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The picture below shows a maple seed.

image

How will this type of seed most likely be spread?

  (A) by the Sun

  (B) by birds

  (C) by insects

  (D) by the wind


An outline of the periodic table is shown below with four different sections shaded.

image

Three unknown elements all react with oxygen in similar ways. Which section of the periodic table contains these three elements?

  (A) Section 1

  (B) Section 2

  (C) Section 3

  (D) Section 4


The graph below shows the average daily solar energy for three different countries throughout the year. Tanzania is just south of the equator, Morocco is about 30° north of the equator, and England is about 50° north of the equator, as shown on the map.

image

Which conclusion can be reached based on the graph?

  (A) The average daily solar energy increases throughout the year.

  (B) The total solar energy in a year is the same for all three locations.

  (C) Areas near the equator receive the most total solar energy each year.

  (D) Areas near the equator have the greatest monthly variation in solar energy.


The diagrams below show an organism in its original size (1X), magnified three times (3X), and magnified 300 times (300X).

image

Which concept is best illustrated by the set of diagrams?

  (A) Cells are the building blocks of organisms.

  (B) Organisms go through cyclical phases.

  (C) Plants make food by photosynthesis.

  (D) Reproduction is a microscopic process.


The table below shows characteristics of organisms in three kingdoms.

image

To which classification does Kingdom Y most likely belong?

  (A) Animal

  (B) Fungi

  (C) Plant

  (D) Protists


The picture below shows a natural rock formation in the American Southwest.

image

Which statement best predicts how this rock formation will look in 500 years?

  (A) The rock formation will be exactly the same.

  (B) The rock formation will completely turn into sand.

  (C) The top section of the rock may fall due to erosion.

  (D) The top section of the rock may widen due to uplift.


The chart below lists various characteristics of the eight planets of our solar system. The chart compares each planet's characteristics to Earth's.

image

The eight planets are divided into two categories: inner planets and outer planets. The inner planets are known as "rocky planets." The outer planets are known as "gas planets." Which characteristic listed in the chart most likely determines which category a planet is placed in?

  (A) gravity

  (B) density

  (C) length of day

  (D) number of moons


The table below shows data for some satellites orbiting Earth.

image

Which satellite should have the greatest gravitational force?

  (A) EOS-PM Aqua

  (B) Eutelsat W3A

  (C) Formosat-2

  (D) Galaxy-12


The diagram below shows four positions of Earth during its orbit of the Sun.

image

In which position will the Northern Hemisphere of Earth experience the most daylight of the year?

  (A) position 1

  (B) position 2

  (C) position 3

  (D) position 4


The illustration below shows a small battery powered fan.

image

How does the form of energy change in this device?

  (A) electrical to chemical to gravitational potential

  (B) thermal to electrical to chemical

  (C) chemical to electrical to mechanical

  (D) gravitational potential to mechanical to thermal


The diagram below shows two locations, X and Y, on Earth.

image

What is the primary cause for the difference between the climates at locations X and Y?

  (A) the type of land surface

  (B) the kind of vegetation

  (C) the number of people present

  (D) the intensity of sunlight received


The pictures below show four organisms.

image

Which external characteristic of the snake makes it different from the other three organisms?

  (A) absence of segments

  (B) absence of legs

  (C) presence of eyes

  (D) presence of scales


The diagram below shows a plant with buds.

image

Which biological process is best illustrated by this diagram?

  (A) sexual reproduction

  (B) asexual reproduction

  (C) relationship among organs

  (D) relationship among tissues


The table below shows characteristics of objects in our solar system.

image

What should the headings W, X, Y, and Z be?

  (A) W-Sun; X-Venus; Y-Earth; Z-Earth's Moon

  (B) W-Venus; X-Earth; Y-Earth's Moon; Z-Sun

  (C) W-Earth's Moon; X-Sun; Y-Venus; Z-Earth

  (D) W-Sun; X-Earth; Y-Earth's Moon; Z-Venus


The diagram below shows the position of Earth during two solstices.

image

It is summer at which location(s)?

  (A) W only

  (B) X only

  (C) W and Z only

  (D) X and Y only


The modern horse (Equus) and two of its direct ancestors are shown in the diagram below.

image

Which statement best explains how changes occurred leading from one species to the next?

  (A) Individuals of each species adapted to differences in environmental conditions.

  (B) Individuals of each species learned traits and passed them on to the offspring.

  (C) Sudden environmental changes caused each species to develop in one generation.

  (D) Small structural changes in each species were passed on to offspring over many generations.


Making a Volcano Students made a model of a volcano using a tray, a small paper cup, clay, baking soda, food coloring, dish soap, and vinegar (acetic acid). First, they placed the paper cup on a large tray and covered the cup with clay to make it look like a volcano. Then, the students placed 10 grams of baking soda into the cup. Next, they added five drops of both food coloring and dish soap to 30 milliliters of vinegar. Finally, the students poured the vinegar mixture into the cup. Immediately, bubbles and foam erupted from the model volcano. The students observed the model and recorded their observations of the changes in the substances that made the model volcano.

image

A chemical property of baking soda demonstrated in this investigation is that baking soda

  (A) reacts with acids

  (B) reacts with oxygen

  (C) forms during an acid-base reaction

  (D) forms during the decomposition of water


Making a Volcano Students made a model of a volcano using a tray, a small paper cup, clay, baking soda, food coloring, dish soap, and vinegar (acetic acid). First, they placed the paper cup on a large tray and covered the cup with clay to make it look like a volcano. Then, the students placed 10 grams of baking soda into the cup. Next, they added five drops of both food coloring and dish soap to 30 milliliters of vinegar. Finally, the students poured the vinegar mixture into the cup. Immediately, bubbles and foam erupted from the model volcano. The students observed the model and recorded their observations of the changes in the substances that made the model volcano.

image

Which statement best describes evidence that a chemical reaction occurred in this investigation?

  (A) The solid mixed with the liquid released a gas.

  (B) The total mass of the substances remained constant.

  (C) The solid mixed with the liquid absorbed heat energy.

  (D) The volume of the vinegar and baking soda increased.


Making a Volcano Students made a model of a volcano using a tray, a small paper cup, clay, baking soda, food coloring, dish soap, and vinegar (acetic acid). First, they placed the paper cup on a large tray and covered the cup with clay to make it look like a volcano. Then, the students placed 10 grams of baking soda into the cup. Next, they added five drops of both food coloring and dish soap to 30 milliliters of vinegar. Finally, the students poured the vinegar mixture into the cup. Immediately, bubbles and foam erupted from the model volcano. The students observed the model and recorded their observations of the changes in the substances that made the model volcano.

image

A student repeated the investigation. However, nothing happened in the volcano model. The student concluded that baking soda and vinegar do not react chemically. The student would make a more informed conclusion by performing the investigation with

  (A) multiple trials

  (B) different kinds of vinegar

  (C) controlled temperature conditions

  (D) greater amounts of baking soda and vinegar


Learning to Live With the Laws of Motion Freed from the grip of Earth's gravity, astronauts find themselves in a living physics textbook. Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin, during his pioneering first orbit of the Earth in 1961, was the first to experience the practical effects. He put down his pencil while writing out his log. Obeying Newton's first law-the same principle of uniform motion that keeps the planets moving around the sun-the pencil floated out of reach: Gagarin had to complete his log by speaking into a tape recorder. Nowadays astronauts keep equipment in place with Velcro® or bungee straps. Newton's Second Law states that force is needed to accelerate or decelerate a body. In practice this means astronauts must learn how to push themselves carefully through their spacecraft, or else they will simply float around helplessly. And once astronauts get moving they have to remember to stop themselves as they near where they want to be. Otherwise they'll keep going until they hit something-or someone. First-timers tend to collect a lot of bruises. Newton's third law states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. This, too, has very apparent consequences for astronauts: if they so much as try to turn a screw without anchoring themselves to a wall, they'll find themselves twisting instead. The reaction from even the mildest of actions- typing at a computer keyboard, say-will send an astronaut floating away. It's not that the laws of motion are any different on Earth than in space. But Earth's gravitational field has such an overwhelming force it masks their precise effects. And gravity is integral to all sorts of phenomena that we take for granted. For example, the air in our homes circulates naturally: hot air rises because it is lighter than cool air, and convection currents form. In orbit, nothing is lighter than anything else, so ordinary convection currents can't exist. Without a ventilation fan, sleeping astronauts would suffocate in the carbon dioxide that accumulated around their faces. Similarly, weightless flames behave very differently from their Earth-bound counterparts. Instead of a flickering column of hot gas, a flame in orbit is a small blue sphere. An astronaut applies a force to a keyboard that is attached to the wall of a space shuttle.

image

After the astronaut applies the force to the keyboard, the astronaut moves

  (A) faster and upward

  (B) at a uniform speed and downward

  (C) at a uniform speed and away from the keyboard

  (D) faster and toward the keyboard at a constant rate


The early Greeks are credited with many valid concepts in astronomy. Some of their theories were correct; some were later proven incorrect. One theory was that Earth was the center of the universe and that other planets circled Earth. The Greeks thought Earth did not move because its movement was not obvious from the surface of the planet. The Greeks also believed that an invisible sphere surrounding our planet contained the stars. This sphere rotated, explaining the apparent movement of constellations over time. The Milky Way galaxy has spiraling arms.

image

The spiraling arms of the Milky Way galaxy are part of a

  (A) large sphere of rotating stars

  (B) small sphere of rotating stars

  (C) large rotating disk of stars

  (D) small rotating disk of stars


A Natural Snake-Bite Antidote? Snake bites and bee stings can be either painful or downright deadly, depending on which species is doing the biting, and sometimes whether the person being bitten is allergic to the venom. New research in mice suggests that these bites and stings would be even more dangerous if not for a special defensive trick that the mouse's immune system can pull off. Dr. Stephen Galli of Stanford University and his colleagues studied mast cells, which are immune cells that contribute to the inflammation that's part of asthma, allergies and even the extreme, anaphylactic shock that can happen to some people with severe allergies to things like peanuts. In these cases, the immune system gets mixed up and thinks it's being attacked by something harmful. But, mast cells also do beneficial things in the body. The scientists discovered that the cells also play a helpful role against certain snake and honeybee venoms. In their study they showed that the cells protected mice, making the venom's effects less harmful. The cells released an enzyme that broke down dangerous components of the venom of a snake called the Israeli mole viper. Dr. Galli said that it might someday be possible to make better snake bite or bee sting treatments that are based on this type of enzyme. More research will be necessary to see if this is possible. Dr. Galli thinks that this feature of the mast-cell defense system may have evolved, in animals that are prey to snakes or get stung by bees, partly as a way to help to protect against venom. This defense isn't foolproof or perfect, but it gives the prey animals a better chance of survival, especially if they get less than a "full dose" of venom in the bite of a poisonous snake. The Israeli mole viper has a small head, shiny black scales, small eyes, and hollow fangs.

image

Which feature enables the snake to inject venom into prey animals?

  (A) small head

  (B) black scales

  (C) small eyes

  (D) hollow fangs


Wind Energy or Coal Energy Most of Maryland's electricity comes from coal-fired power plants. Coal-fired power plants are inexpensive to operate but release harmful gases and solid particles into the air. These harmful gases contain chemicals that combine with water vapor, turning ordinary rain into acid rain. Wind turbines transform wind into electrical energy and do not produce harmful gases. Wind turbines can be constructed offshore in the ocean. Some people object to the turbines because the turbines are expensive and the motion of the blades may affect wildlife.

image

Using wind turbines instead of burning coal affects the natural processes in Maryland by

  (A) slowing down the water cycle

  (B) distributing liquid water more evenly

  (C) increasing the amount of liquid water available

  (D) keeping harmful chemicals out of the water cycle


Wind Energy or Coal Energy Most of Maryland's electricity comes from coal-fired power plants. Coal-fired power plants are inexpensive to operate but release harmful gases and solid particles into the air. These harmful gases contain chemicals that combine with water vapor, turning ordinary rain into acid rain. Wind turbines transform wind into electrical energy and do not produce harmful gases. Wind turbines can be constructed offshore in the ocean. Some people object to the turbines because the turbines are expensive and the motion of the blades may affect wildlife.

image

Which group would be most negatively affected by the appearance of the wind turbines off the coast of Maryland?

  (A) people who like to visit Maryland

  (B) people who construct wind turbines

  (C) Maryland residents who live near wind turbines

  (D) Maryland residents who want to prevent acid rain


The tectonic plates on opposite sides of a rift zone are continuously moving outward, away from a break in the crust of Earth. The Mid-Atlantic Rift Zone is located in the Atlantic Ocean. This rift zone stretches from the Arctic Ocean in the Northern Hemisphere to beyond the southern tip of Africa in the Southern Hemisphere. Within the central rift zone, new crust forms. Iceland is an island sitting atop the northern part of the Mid-Atlantic Rift Zone. Over time, activity along the rift zone has changed the geologic features of Iceland.

image

How will movement of the tectonic plates most likely continue to change the geologic features of Iceland?

  (A) The surrounding ocean will cover Iceland.

  (B) The glaciers covering Iceland will increase.

  (C) The surface of Iceland will become smooth and flat.

  (D) The surface of Iceland will increase from east to west.


The tectonic plates on opposite sides of a rift zone are continuously moving outward, away from a break in the crust of Earth. The Mid-Atlantic Rift Zone is located in the Atlantic Ocean. This rift zone stretches from the Arctic Ocean in the Northern Hemisphere to beyond the southern tip of Africa in the Southern Hemisphere. Within the central rift zone, new crust forms. Iceland is an island sitting atop the northern part of the Mid-Atlantic Rift Zone. Over time, activity along the rift zone has changed the geologic features of Iceland.

image

Which action is most likely responsible for the movement of the tectonic plates?

  (A) the rotation of Earth on its axis

  (B) the gravitational force of the sun

  (C) magnetic attraction from the core

  (D) convection currents in the mantle


Students wanted to know if a factory was polluting nearby rivers. The students collected water samples from two locations along the rivers. They measured the pollution levels of the samples. The map shows the area surrounding the factory.

image

Which of these actions should the students complete before concluding that the factory is polluting the rivers?

  (A) Measure the depth of the water in several locations.

  (B) Discuss statewide pollution causes with a geologist.

  (C) Take multiple measurements at the collection locations.

  (D) Report the findings of their study to the local newspaper.


Sodium and Water Students watched a video of sodium metal (Na) reacting with water in a fume hood. The reaction occurred quickly and produced the compound sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and hydrogen gas (H2). The reaction also gave off heat and sparks at times.

image

The compound sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is composed of

  (A) only one element

  (B) only one molecule

  (C) more than one element

  (D) more than one molecule


Power of Urine Runs a Battery Scientists have developed a way to turn urine into electricity. Cheap, disposable, and renewable, urine-powered batteries may be the perfect power source for disposable health care test kits called biochips, the researchers say. "We are striving to develop cheap, disposable credit card-sized biochips for disease detection," said battery developer Ki Bang Lee. "Our battery can be easily integrated into such devices, supplying electricity upon contact with biofluids such as urine." Scientists around the world are clamoring to design inexpensive biochips to quickly test for a variety of diseases. But no one has been able to make a similarly small and inexpensive power source. Lee and his team of researchers at Singapore's Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology have tackled this problem by using the very substance being tested-urine-to power the test. To make the battery, Lee and his team soaked a piece of paper in copper chloride and then sandwiched it between strips of magnesium and copper. Then they laminated the credit card-sized unit between transparent plastic films. When a drop of urine is added to the copper chloride paper, a chemical reaction takes place and produces electricity, which is harnessed by the battery. A few drops will generate about 1.5 volts, the same as a AA battery. The battery needs to be developed further to make it commercially viable. "Our urine-activated battery would be integrated into biochip systems for health care diagnostic applications," Lee said. Lee and his team also found that they could alter the battery's performance- voltage, power, or duration-by adjusting the design or materials. The chemical composition of urine indicates a person's general health and is widely used in diagnostic tests. For instance, doctors measure the concentration of the sugar glucose to determine whether someone is diabetic. Lee predicts that one day people will be able to monitor their own health at home using biochips powered by this type of battery. A group of students compared copper, an element the scientists used in the urine-powered battery, to copper bromide, a compound made within the battery.

image

When copper reacts to form copper bromide, the copper's

  (A) mass increases

  (B) properties change

  (C) atomic number changes

  (D) number of atoms increases


Kimberlite Pipes Kimberlite pipes are geological formations that originate in the upper mantle. Kimberlite pipes form when magma moves up through the crust of Earth. The magma breaks and pushes aside other rock layers, making a carrot-shaped structure. Some kimberlite pipes erupt at the surface of Earth before cooling. Many diamonds are found in the kimberlite pipes. These diamonds are formed in the mantle and are moved upward by the formation of the pipe.

image

A scientist studied the diagram of the kimberlite pipe. The scientist concluded that sedimentary layers 3 and 4 formed before the kimberlite pipe was formed. Which statement best supports this conclusion?

  (A) The pipe extends through both layers 3 and 4.

  (B) The pipe and layers 3 and 4 have the same fossils.

  (C) Sedimentary rock has less mass than igneous rock.

  (D) Sedimentary rock forms more slowly than igneous rock forms.


Kimberlite Pipes Kimberlite pipes are geological formations that originate in the upper mantle. Kimberlite pipes form when magma moves up through the crust of Earth. The magma breaks and pushes aside other rock layers, making a carrot-shaped structure. Some kimberlite pipes erupt at the surface of Earth before cooling. Many diamonds are found in the kimberlite pipes. These diamonds are formed in the mantle and are moved upward by the formation of the pipe.

image

The material found in a kimberlite pipe is best classified as igneous rock because the kimberlite pipe

  (A) forms from magma

  (B) includes several layers

  (C) includes valuable minerals

  (D) forms at the surface of Earth


Sodium and Water Students watched a video of sodium metal (Na) reacting with water in a fume hood. The reaction occurred quickly and produced the compound sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and hydrogen gas (H2). The reaction also gave off heat and sparks at times.

image

The element that would react with water in a similar way as sodium (Na) is

  (A) aluminum (Al)

  (B) copper (Cu)

  (C) lead (Pb)

  (D) potassium (K)


The two organisms shown in the diagram below are classified into different groups.

image

The feature that best determines Organism A and Organism B are placed in different groups is

  (A) the multicellular body

  (B) the method of growth

  (C) the ability to reproduce

  (D) the method of obtaining food


The universe is extremely large and contains many galaxies. Earth is part of a solar system that is located in the Milky Way galaxy. The approximate location of Earth and the solar system is shown in the diagram below.

image

Most of the celestial objects in the Milky Way that can be seen by observers are

  (A) comets

  (B) moons

  (C) planets

  (D) stars


Sodium and Water Students watched a video of sodium metal (Na) reacting with water in a fume hood. The reaction occurred quickly and produced the compound sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and hydrogen gas (H2). The reaction also gave off heat and sparks at times.

image

When sodium (Na) reacts with water (H2O), the properties of sodium

  (A) remain the same after the reaction

  (B) change when the compound is formed

  (C) change to properties similar to hydrogen

  (D) remain the same during the entire reaction


The universe is extremely large and contains many galaxies. Earth is part of a solar system that is located in the Milky Way galaxy. The approximate location of Earth and the solar system is shown in the diagram below.

image

The inner planets of our solar system orbit the sun

  (A) at the same speed as the outer planets

  (B) at a slower speed than the outer planets

  (C) in the same direction as the outer planets

  (D) in the opposite direction from the outer planets


The universe is extremely large and contains many galaxies. Earth is part of a solar system that is located in the Milky Way galaxy. The approximate location of Earth and the solar system is shown in the diagram below.

image

Earth is tilted on its axis as shown in the diagram below.

image

The tilt of Earth on its axis causes the

  (A) phases of the moon

  (B) wind currents during day and night

  (C) water currents in the Atlantic Ocean

  (D) seasons in the northern and southern hemisphere


The diagrams show different trials Abdul carried out with carts having different-sized wheels. He started them from different heights and the blocks he put in them were of equal mass.

image

He wants to test this idea: The heavier a cart is, the greater its speed at the bottom of a ramp. which three trials should he compare?

  (A) G, T, and X

  (B) O, T, and Z

  (C) R, U, and Z

  (D) S,T, and U

  (E) S,W, and X


The following diagrams show a flashlight battery and a bulb connected by wires to various substances.

image

Which of the bulbs will light?

  (A) 1 and 2 only

  (B) 2 and 3 only

  (C) 3 and 4 only

  (D) 1, 2, and 3 only

  (E) 2, 3, and 4 only


The drawing shows an apple falling to the ground. In which of the three positions does gravity act on the apple?

image

  (A) 2 only

  (B) 1 and 2 only

  (C) 1 and 3 only

  (D) 1, 2, and 3


A uniform rod is pivoted at its center. It is acted on by two forces in the same plane. Each force has the same size, equal to 10 N (newtons). In which case is there a turning effect?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image

  (E)

image


A girl wanted to play on a seesaw with her little brother. Which picture shows the best way for the girl, who weighed 50 kg (kilograms), to balance her brother, who weighed 25 kg?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


image

Filtration using the equipment shown can be used to separate which materials?

  (A) A solution of copper sulfate and water

  (B) A solution of sodium chloride and water

  (C) A mixture of alcohol and water

  (D) A mixture of mud and water

  (E) A mixture of sand and sawdust


A beam of light strikes a mirror as shown.

image

Which picture best shows what the reflected light would look like?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


image

The diagram above shows a person holding a ball standing at three different places on Earth. If the person drops the ball, gravity will make it fall. Which of the following diagrams best shows the direction the dropped ball will fall at the three different positions?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


At different altitudes, the boiling point of water ranges from about 80°C to 100°C. Which of the Celsius thermometers shown below would give the most accurate measurements of the boiling point of water at different altitudes?

image

  (A) Thermometer A

  (B) Thermometer B

  (C) Thermometer C

  (D) Thermometer D

  (E) Thermometer E


Spring 1 and Spring 2 were the same. Then, Spring 1 was pushed together a little and clamped into place. Spring 2 was pushed together a lot and clamped

image

Which spring has more stored energy?

  (A) Spring 1

  (B) Spring 2

  (C) Both springs have the same energy.

  (D) You cannot tell unless you know what the springs are made of.


The diagram on the left shows a ball on the end of a string being whirled in a circle. The diagram on the right shows the whirling ball as viewed from above.

image

After several whirls, the string is released when the ball is at Q. Which of these diagrams shows the direction in which the ball will fly the instant the string is released?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


image

The diagram above shows the Pacific Ring of Fire. Earthquakes and volcanic activity occur along the Ring of Fire. Which of the following best explains why?

  (A) It is located at the boundaries of tectonic plates.

  (B) It is located at the boundary of deep and shallow water.

  (C) It is located where the major ocean currents meet.

  (D) It is located where ocean temperature is the highest.


A tiny light bulb is held 20 centimeters to the left of a square card, which is in turn held 20 centimeters to the left of a poster board, as shown. The shadow of the card on the poster board has a side of 10 centimeters.

image

If the poster board is moved 40 cm further to the right so that it is 80 cm from the light, what will be the new side of the card's shadow on the poster board?

  (A) 5 cm

  (B) 10 cm

  (C) 15 cm

  (D) 20 cm


The table shows different materials that have been sorted into two groups.

image

Which of the following could be used to sort the materials into Group 1 and Group 2?

  (A) solubility in water

  (B) compressibility

  (C) physical state

  (D) electrical conductivity


Work is done when an object is moved in the direction of an applied force. A person performed different tasks as shown in the diagrams below. In which diagram is the person doing work?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The diagram below shows an example of interdependence among organisms. During the day the organisms either use up or give off (a) or (b) as shown by the arrows.

image

Choose the right answer for (a) and (b) from the alternatives given.

  (A) (a) is carbon dioxide and (b) is nitrogen

  (B) (a) is oxygen and (b) is carbon dioxide.

  (C) (a) is carbon dioxide and (b) is water vapor.

  (D) (a) is carbon dioxide and (b) is oxygen.


image

What is organ X?

  (A) liver

  (B) stomach

  (C) small intestine

  (D) large intestine


Abiodiu poured corn syrup into the bottom of an empty beaker. He carefully added a layer of glycerin, water, and oil, as shown in the diagram. He then dropped a plastic disk into the beaker.

image

Which statement is true?

  (A) Oil is more dense than corn syrup.

  (B) Plastic is less dense than oil.

  (C) Glycerin is more dense than oil.

  (D) Corn syrup is less dense than water.


Two kinds of heat sources are usually available in the science lab; an electric hot plate and a Bunsen burner. Jack planned an investigation to test which of these sources heats water faster. He poured 200mL of water into each of two identical beakers and recorded the initial temperature of the water in each beaker. Where should Jack place the thermometer to accurately take his readings during his investigation?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Rods made of different materials are connected between points P and Q in the circuit diagram shown below.

image

Which rod would cause the bulb to light?

  (A) copper rod

  (B) wood rod

  (C) glass rod

  (D) plastic rod


The figure shows a parachute jumper in four positions.

image

In which of the positions does the force of gravity act on the jumper?

  (A) Position 2 only.

  (B) Positions 2 and 3 only.

  (C) Positions 1, 2 and 3 only.

  (D) Positions 1, 2, 3, and 4.


image

The diagram above shows the prevailing wind directions, precipitation, and average air temperatures at different elevations on both sides of a mountain. In which location are you most likely to find a jungle?

  (A) location 1

  (B) location 2

  (C) location 3

  (D) location 4


The diagram below shows geological layers of rock containing fossils. Layer F is the uppermost layer, while Layer A is the deepest layer.

image

Which statement about the age of the fossils is most likely correct?

  (A) Fossils in Layer A are the oldest, because they are located in the deepest layer.

  (B) Fossils in Layer C are the youngest because they look similar to existing organisms.

  (C) Fossils in Layer D are older than fossils in Layer A, because the fossils in Layer D are bigger.

  (D) Fossils in Layer E Are the same age as those in Layer F because they look the same.


John measures his pulse rate before he exercises. It is 70 beats per minute. He exercises for one minute and measures his pulse rate again. He then measures it every minute for several minutes. He draws a graph to show his results.

image

What can be concluded from his results?

  (A) His pulse rate increased by 50 beats per minute.

  (B) His pulse rate took less time to slow down than to increase.

  (C) His pulse rate after 4 minutes was 80 beats per minute.

  (D) His pulse rate returned to normal in less than 6 minutes.


Which diagram shows the position of the sun[S], moon[M], and Earth[E] during an eclipse of the moon? (Not drawn to scale)

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The following table shows the classification of some animals into two categories.

image

Which of the following was used to classify these animals?

  (A) organs used in breathing

  (B) food source

  (C) method of reproduction

  (D) pattern of movement


In the diagrams below, hydrogen atoms are represented by white circles, and oxygen atoms are represented by black circles. Which of the diagrams best represents water?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Three identical light bulbs are connected to a battery as shown in the diagram. The arrow indicates the direction of the current flow.

image

Which statements is true?

  (A) The current in Bulb 1 is greater than the current in Bulb 2.

  (B) The current in Bulb 1 is greater than the current in Bulb 3.

  (C) The current in Bulb 2 is the same as the current in Bulb 3.

  (D) The current in Bulb 2 is the same as the current in Bulb 1.


Bubble vs. Chewing Gum Libby thought that bubble gum must have more sugar than chewing gum. Both types of gum lose sugar (mass) after chewing. With this information in mind, Libby did the following investigation. Question: How does chewing affect the mass of bubble and chewing gum? Prediction (Hypothesis): The bubble gum will have less mass after chewing because bubblegum has more sugar than chewing gum. Materials: 3 three-gram pieces of bubble gum (all the same brand) 3 three-gram pieces of chewing gum (all the same brand) balance to measure mass stopwatch Procedure: 1. Chew a three-gram piece of bubble gum for 15 seconds. 2. Measure the mass of the chewed bubble gum and record. 3. Repeat steps 1 and 2 for chewing gum. 4. Repeat steps 1, 2, and 3 two more times with each type of gum. Data:

image

In Libby's investigation, which variable was controlled (kept the same)?

  (A) Number of chews

  (B) Type of gum chewed

  (C) Mass of gum after chewing

  (D) Mass of gum before chewing


Bubble vs. Chewing Gum Libby thought that bubble gum must have more sugar than chewing gum. Both types of gum lose sugar (mass) after chewing. With this information in mind, Libby did the following investigation. Question: How does chewing affect the mass of bubble and chewing gum? Prediction (Hypothesis): The bubble gum will have less mass after chewing because bubble gum has more sugar than chewing gum. Materials: 3 three-gram pieces of bubble gum (all the same brand) 3 three-gram pieces of chewing gum (all the same brand) balance to measure mass stopwatch Procedure: 1. Chew a three-gram piece of bubble gum for 15 seconds. 2. Measure the mass of the chewed bubble gum and record. 3. Repeat steps 1 and 2 for chewing gum. 4. Repeat steps 1, 2, and 3 two more times with each type of gum. Data:

image

In Libby's investigation, which of the following variables was the responding variable(dependent)?

  (A) Type of gum chewed

  (B) Length of time chewed

  (C) Mass of gum after chewing

  (D) Mass of gum before chewing


Bubble vs. Chewing Gum Libby thought that bubble gum must have more sugar than chewing gum. Both types of gum lose sugar (mass) after chewing. With this information in mind, Libby did the following investigation. Question: How does chewing affect the mass of bubble and chewing gum? Prediction (Hypothesis): The bubble gum will have less mass after chewing because bubble gum has more sugar than chewing gum. Materials: 3 three-gram pieces of bubble gum (all the same brand) 3 three-gram pieces of chewing gum (all the same brand) balance to measure mass stopwatch Procedure: 1. Chew a three-gram piece of bubble gum for 15 seconds. 2. Measure the mass of the chewed bubble gum and record. 3. Repeat steps 1 and 2 for chewing gum. 4. Repeat steps 1, 2, and 3 two more times with each type of gum. Data:

image

What could Libby do to be sure the results of her investigation were valid?

  (A) Change gum types

  (B) Research the gum

  (C) Change the variables

  (D) Repeat her investigation


Roller Coaster Jemond's favorite ride at the amusement park is the roller coaster. He especially likes the Coasting Thunder and Timber Coaster rides. These rides cause his heart to beat faster and harder. It takes a while for his body to get back to normal, but Jemond thinks the ride is worth it. Jemond decided to make a model of a roller coaster at home. He got some plastic track, a marble, and masking tape. He made a model with one big loop and two small loops, using the plastic track. He held one end of the track in the air and placed a marble at the top of that end. He let go of the marble to see of it would go through the entire length of the track without falling out. After several trials and adjustments, Jemond was successful at getting the marble to go through the entire length without falling out. Which best represents the successful model that Jemond made?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Roller Coaster Jemond's favorite ride at the amusement park is the roller coaster. He especially likes the Coasting Thunder and Timber Coaster rides. These rides cause his heart to beat faster and harder. It takes a while for his body to get back to normal, but Jemond thinks the ride is worth it. Jemond decided to make a model of a roller coaster at home. He got some plastic track, a marble, and masking tape. He made a model with one big loop and two small loops, using the plastic track. He held one end of the track in the air and placed a marble at the top of that end. He let go of the marble to see of it would go through the entire length of the track without falling out. After several trials and adjustments, Jemond was successful at getting the marble to go through the entire length without falling out. In which model does the marble have the greatest stored (potential) energy at the beginning?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


A Natural Satellite William was learning about the Earth-Moon-Sun system. He made the diagram below showing Earth's yearly orbit around the Sun and the Moon's monthly orbit around Earth. He also showed Earth's daily spin on its axis and how that axis tilted about 23°.

image

William knew that, when viewed from Earth, the Moon appeared quite differently than in the diagram above. He decided to record the phases of the Moon (how the Moon appears to be lit up) during the month of July. He observed a new Moon (no part of the Moon appears to lit up) on July 2 as recorded in the chart below. He recorded how the Moon appeared every night from July 2 to July 9. His next recording was July 16 when he saw a full Moon (the Moon appears completely lit up).

image

Which phenomena are caused by the 23° tilt of Earth's axis?

  (A) Day and night

  (B) Lunar eclipses

  (C) Seasons

  (D) Tides


Forest Succession Occasionally, a fire will destroy a forest, burning down trees and pushing wildlife out of their forest homes. However, the forest will grow back. Eventually, through the process of forest succession as shown below, short grasses and flowers begin to grow and animals make new homes.

image

Over time, shrubs and trees begin to grow. The forest returns to a lush habitat for the wildlife listed in the chart below.

image

Why do plants that were not common in the dense forest grow abundantly after the fire?

  (A) The plants survived after the fire.

  (B) The plants did not exist before the fire.

  (C) The plants have competition from other plants now.

  (D) The plants get more sunlight than before the fire.


Forest Succession Occasionally, a fire will destroy a forest, burning down trees and pushing wildlife out of their forest homes. However, the forest will grow back. Eventually, through the process of forest succession as shown below, short grasses and flowers begin to grow and animals make new homes.

image

Over time, shrubs and trees begin to grow. The forest returns to a lush habitat for the wildlife listed in the chart below.

image

As a forest revives after a fire, why would large animals appear around the same time as small trees?

  (A) Small trees are good for climbing.

  (B) The shrubs hide their food sources.

  (C) They dig their caves before the big trees grow in.

  (D) They can find food and shelter in the small trees.


Forest Succession Occasionally, a fire will destroy a forest, burning down trees and pushing wildlife out of their forest homes. However, the forest will grow back. Eventually, through the process of forest succession as shown below, short grasses and flowers begin to grow and animals make new homes.

image

Over time, shrubs and trees begin to grow. The forest returns to a lush habitat for the wildlife listed in the chart below.

image

Why are insects and small rodents, like mice, the first to come back to an area recovering from a fire?

  (A) They live in and under shrubs.

  (B) They fertilize the soil for trees.

  (C) They are food for larger wildlife.

  (D) They feed on grasses and flowers.


Forest Succession Occasionally, a fire will destroy a forest, burning down trees and pushing wildlife out of their forest homes. However, the forest will grow back. Eventually, through the process of forest succession as shown below, short grasses and flowers begin to grow and animals make new homes.

image

Over time, shrubs and trees begin to grow. The forest returns to a lush habitat for the wildlife listed in the chart below.

image

What organisms in the forest ecosystem are producers?

  (A) Deer and bears

  (B) Grasses and flowers

  (C) Worms and insects

  (D) Squirrels and chipmunks


A Natural Satellite William was learning about the Earth-Moon-Sun system. He made the diagram below showing Earth's yearly orbit around the Sun and the Moon's monthly orbit around Earth. He also showed Earth's daily spin on its axis and how that axis tilted about 23°.

image

William knew that, when viewed from Earth, the Moon appeared quite differently than in the diagram above. He decided to record the phases of the Moon (how the Moon appears to be lit up) during the month of July. He observed a new Moon (no part of the Moon appears to lit up) on July 2 as recorded in the chart below. He recorded how the Moon appeared every night from July 2 to July 9. His next recording was July 16 when he saw a full Moon (the Moon appears completely lit up).

image

Ancient civilizations, such as the Mayan Indians, were able to accurately predict the phases of the Moon. What enabled them to do this?

  (A) They had access to modern technology.

  (B) There was less pollution so the air was very clear.

  (C) They made consistent observations over a long period of time.

  (D) They had a better view of the night sky because there were no lights.


A Natural Satellite William was learning about the Earth-Moon-Sun system. He made the diagram below showing Earth's yearly orbit around the Sun and the Moon's monthly orbit around Earth. He also showed Earth's daily spin on its axis and how that axis tilted about 23°.

image

William knew that, when viewed from Earth, the Moon appeared quite differently than in the diagram above. He decided to record the phases of the Moon (how the Moon appears to be lit up) during the month of July. He observed a new Moon (no part of the Moon appears to lit up) on July 2 as recorded in the chart below. He recorded how the Moon appeared every night from July 2 to July 9. His next recording was July 16 when he saw a full Moon (the Moon appears completely lit up).

image

William looked at videos of a moonwalk. He noticed that astronauts easily carried very heavy life-support systems. How could they do this?

  (A) Astronauts are stronger on the Moon.

  (B) Astronauts use jetpacks on the Moon.

  (C) Life-support systems are less dense on the Moon.

  (D) The weight of everything is less on the Moon.


Cloud in the Bottle Mary was at a science museum. She saw a demonstration of a cloud forming in a bottle. A large glass bottle was one-fourth filled with hot water. A smoking match was dropped inside the bottle (Diagram #1). The bottle was quickly covered with a metal pan filled with ice (Diagram #2). Mary observed a cloud form at the top of the bottle (Diagram #3).

image

What part of cloud formation does the ice in the pan represent?

  (A) Cold air in the atmosphere

  (B) Fog on the hills above rivers

  (C) Clouds that are already above the ocean

  (D) Glaciers above lakes and in the mountains


Cloud in the Bottle Mary was at a science museum. She saw a demonstration of a cloud forming in a bottle. A large glass bottle was one-fourth filled with hot water. A smoking match was dropped inside the bottle (Diagram #1). The bottle was quickly covered with a metal pan filled with ice (Diagram #2). Mary observed a cloud form at the top of the bottle (Diagram #3).

image

What part of cloud formation does the smoke from the match represent?

  (A) Fog in the air

  (B) Clouds in the sky

  (C) Particles in the air

  (D) Condensation in the air


Cloud in the Bottle Mary was at a science museum. She saw a demonstration of a cloud forming in a bottle. A large glass bottle was one-fourth filled with hot water. A smoking match was dropped inside the bottle (Diagram #1). The bottle was quickly covered with a metal pan filled with ice (Diagram #2). Mary observed a cloud form at the top of the bottle (Diagram #3).

image

While leaving the science museum, Mary noticed that tiny water droplets covered the cold boulders in front of the museum. During the demonstration in the museum, she noticed tiny water droplets forming on the sides of the glass bottle. Which one of the following describes both observations?

  (A) Water vapor in the air condenses on cool surfaces.

  (B) Water vapor in the air evaporates from cool surfaces.

  (C) Water vapor in the air dissolves the surface of cool objects.

  (D) Water vapor in the air is attracted to the surface of cool objects.


Mt. St. Helens In March of 1980, earthquakes shook Mt. St. Helens. Magma rose and produced a bulge underneath the rock on the north face of the mountain. Although it was hot enough inside this magma pocket to turn water into steam, the water was kept in liquid form by the pressure of the rock above the magma. On May 18, 1980, another earthquake produced a landslide on the north face. The movement reduced the pressure building underneath the rock. The water changed to steam, and the magma and ash blasted horizontally (as diagrammed below).

image

Just before the Mt. St. Helens eruption, the magma was in which layer of Earth?

  (A) Crust

  (B) Mantle

  (C) Outer core

  (D) Inner core


Mt. St. Helens In March of 1980, earthquakes shook Mt. St. Helens. Magma rose and produced a bulge underneath the rock on the north face of the mountain. Although it was hot enough inside this magma pocket to turn water into steam, the water was kept in liquid form by the pressure of the rock above the magma. On May 18, 1980, another earthquake produced a landslide on the north face. The movement reduced the pressure building underneath the rock. The water changed to steam, and the magma and ash blasted horizontally (as diagrammed below).

image

Which of the following rock types formed directly from the magma that erupted from Mt. St. Helens?

  (A) Plutonic rock

  (B) Igneous rock

  (C) Metamorphic rock

  (D) Sedimentary rock


Mt. St. Helens In March of 1980, earthquakes shook Mt. St. Helens. Magma rose and produced a bulge underneath the rock on the north face of the mountain. Although it was hot enough inside this magma pocket to turn water into steam, the water was kept in liquid form by the pressure of the rock above the magma. On May 18, 1980, another earthquake produced a landslide on the north face. The movement reduced the pressure building underneath the rock. The water changed to steam, and the magma and ash blasted horizontally (as diagrammed below).

image

Which one of the following changes occurs in the magma as the magma cools to form rocks?

  (A) Gravitational

  (B) Biological

  (C) Physical

  (D) Electrical


Clean Water? Darcie and Matt were hiking in the Cascade Mountains and ran out of clean water. The only water they could find was from a muddy stream. They designed and built the water cleaner system shown in the diagram below.

image

Darcie and Matt used their scientific understanding of the water cycle around them in the design of their water cleaner system. Darcie and Matt made their water cleaner system from equipment found in their backpacks. They poured muddy water into the bottom of a large plastic bowl. They placed a metal cup into the middle of the muddy water in the plastic bowl. Then they stretched clear plastic wrap over the top of the plastic bowl. Finally they placed a rock on top of the plastic wrap causing the plastic wrap to sag in the middle. Their water cleaner system functioned with the energy input from sunlight. If Darcie uses filter paper to filter the muddy water, which of the following parts of the muddy water will remain in the water once the water has been filtered?

  (A) Sand

  (B) Leaves

  (C) Insects

  (D) Bacteria


Clean Water? Darcie and Matt were hiking in the Cascade Mountains and ran out of clean water. The only water they could find was from a muddy stream. They designed and built the water cleaner system shown in the diagram below.

image

Darcie and Matt used their scientific understanding of the water cycle around them in the design of their water cleaner system. Darcie and Matt made their water cleaner system from equipment found in their backpacks. They poured muddy water into the bottom of a large plastic bowl. They placed a metal cup into the middle of the muddy water in the plastic bowl. Then they stretched clear plastic wrap over the top of the plastic bowl. Finally they placed a rock on top of the plastic wrap causing the plastic wrap to sag in the middle. Their water cleaner system functioned with the energy input from sunlight. Which force caused the clean water to drop into the metal cup?

  (A) Electric

  (B) Magnetic

  (C) Frictional

  (D) Gravitational


Clean Water? Darcie and Matt were hiking in the Cascade Mountains and ran out of clean water. The only water they could find was from a muddy stream. They designed and built the water cleaner system shown in the diagram below.

image

Darcie and Matt used their scientific understanding of the water cycle around them in the design of their water cleaner system. Darcie and Matt made their water cleaner system from equipment found in their backpacks. They poured muddy water into the bottom of a large plastic bowl. They placed a metal cup into the middle of the muddy water in the plastic bowl. Then they stretched clear plastic wrap over the top of the plastic bowl. Finally they placed a rock on top of the plastic wrap causing the plastic wrap to sag in the middle. Their water cleaner system functioned with the energy input from sunlight. Which of the following statements explains why Darcie and Matt should be more concerned about running out of water than running out of food?

  (A) The human body is able to obtain more nutrients from water than from food.

  (B) The human body is able to survive longer without food than without water.

  (C) The human body is made up of very little water.

  (D) The human body is made up of very little liquid.


Respiratory System Deepak was learning about parts of the respiratory system and their functions. The respiratory system in animals is responsible for the exchange of gases in the body with gases in the air. Many systems in the human body interact with each other. Examples of two such systems are the respiratory and circulatory systems, as diagrammed below.

image

Which diagram shows the conditions necessary for air to enter the lungs?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Respiratory System Deepak was learning about parts of the respiratory system and their functions. The respiratory system in animals is responsible for the exchange of gases in the body with gases in the air. Many systems in the human body interact with each other. Examples of two such systems are the respiratory and circulatory systems, as diagrammed below.

image

Which of the following changes occurred in the respiratory systems of certain water-dwelling organisms that allowed these organisms to survive on land?

  (A) Lungs replaced gills.

  (B) Fins changed into legs.

  (C) Bones replaced cartilage.

  (D) Blood cells changed to carry oxygen.


Respiratory System Deepak was learning about parts of the respiratory system and their functions. The respiratory system in animals is responsible for the exchange of gases in the body with gases in the air. Many systems in the human body interact with each other. Examples of two such systems are the respiratory and circulatory systems, as diagrammed below.

image

While hiking on Mount Rainier, Deepak found that as he climbed higher up the mountain, he had to take deeper breaths. Which reason explains why these deeper breaths were needed?

  (A) As Deepak climbed higher, an increase in air pressure made his lungs smaller.

  (B) Oxygen molecules in the air are spread farther apart as altitude increases.

  (C) As Deepak climbed higher, carbon dioxide concentrations increased.

  (D) The heart beats slower at higher altitudes than at low altitudes.


Tree Stump Directions: Use the following information to answer the question. Brian had to move a loose stump from a hole in his backyard. The stump was too heavy to lift. While solving this problem, Brian recorded the stages of his design process as follows. Problem: Lift a heavy stump out of a hole. Gather Information: A 1-Newton force could lift a 4-Newton weight when a meter stick is used as a lever, as shown in the Lever System diagram.

image

Explore Ideas: Use a long lever to lift the heavy stump. Pull the stump up a ramp. Lift the stump with a pulley. Get more people and all lift the stump at once. Plan Summary: Use a long shovel as a long lever and a rock as a fulcrum because the rock is strong enough to hold up the shovel and tree stump. Steps to do the Plan: 1. Move the rock close to the stump. 2. Put the shovel blade under the stump and rest the handle on top of the rock, as shown in the Diagram of Solution. 3. Push down on the end of the shovel handle while keeping the shovel blade under the stump and the shovel handle on top of the rock. Diagram of Solution:

image

Test Solution: Apply a force to the Shovel Lever System by pushing down on the end of the shovel handle. Measure the height of the lifted stump. Test Results: The stump was lifted 4 centimeters above the ground. Which of these lever systems is similar to the Shovel Lever System?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Tree Stump Directions: Use the following information to answer the question. Brian had to move a loose stump from a hole in his backyard. The stump was too heavy to lift. While solving this problem, Brian recorded the stages of his design process as follows. Problem: Lift a heavy stump out of a hole. Gather Information: A 1-Newton force could lift a 4-Newton weight when a meter stick is used as a lever, as shown in the Lever System diagram.

image

Explore Ideas: Use a long lever to lift the heavy stump. Pull the stump up a ramp. Lift the stump with a pulley. Get more people and all lift the stump at once. Plan Summary: Use a long shovel as a long lever and a rock as a fulcrum because the rock is strong enough to hold up the shovel and tree stump. Steps to do the Plan: 1. Move the rock close to the stump. 2. Put the shovel blade under the stump and rest the handle on top of the rock, as shown in the Diagram of Solution. 3. Push down on the end of the shovel handle while keeping the shovel blade under the stump and the shovel handle on top of the rock. Diagram of Solution:

image

Test Solution: Apply a force to the Shovel Lever System by pushing down on the end of the shovel handle. Measure the height of the lifted stump. Test Results: The stump was lifted 4 centimeters above the ground. In which diagram below does the stump have the greatest potential energy?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Tree Stump Directions: Use the following information to answer the question. Brian had to move a loose stump from a hole in his backyard. The stump was too heavy to lift. While solving this problem, Brian recorded the stages of his design process as follows. Problem: Lift a heavy stump out of a hole. Gather Information: A 1-Newton force could lift a 4-Newton weight when a meter stick is used as a lever, as shown in the Lever System diagram.

image

Explore Ideas: Use a long lever to lift the heavy stump. Pull the stump up a ramp. Lift the stump with a pulley. Get more people and all lift the stump at once. Plan Summary: Use a long shovel as a long lever and a rock as a fulcrum because the rock is strong enough to hold up the shovel and tree stump. Steps to do the Plan: 1. Move the rock close to the stump. 2. Put the shovel blade under the stump and rest the handle on top of the rock, as shown in the Diagram of Solution. 3. Push down on the end of the shovel handle while keeping the shovel blade under the stump and the shovel handle on top of the rock. Diagram of Solution:

image

Test Solution: Apply a force to the Shovel Lever System by pushing down on the end of the shovel handle. Measure the height of the lifted stump. Test Results: The stump was lifted 4 centimeters above the ground. Which lever system would require the least input force from Brian?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Danger! Mudflow! Directions: Use the following information to answer the question. Saya and James wanted to investigate mud, a mixture of soil and water. They wondered how water affects a mudflow. They built a model as shown below, and did the following investigation. Question: What is the effect of the volume of water in mud on the distance a mudflow travels? Hypothesis (prediction): As the volume of water in mud increases, a mudflow will travel farther because water erodes soil. Materials: dry soil water balance stirring rod graduated cylinder beaker piece of rain gutter brick meter stick

image

Procedure: 1. Put the rain gutter and brick together as shown in the Investigation Setup diagram. 2. Stir 100 grams of dry soil and 20 milliliters (mL) of water together in a beaker to make mud. 3. Pour the mud into the top of the raised end of the rain gutter as shown in the Investigation Setup diagram. 4. Measure and record the distance the front of the mudflow traveled as Trial 1. 5. Rinse and dry the rain gutter to remove the mud. 6. Repeat steps 2 through 5 two times as Trials 2 and 3. 7. Repeat steps 2 through 6 for 25 mL of water, 30 mL of water, and 35 mL of water. 8. Calculate and record the average distance the mudflow traveled for each volume of water used. Data:

image

Which diagram below shows the mud with the greatest potential energy?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Danger! Mudflow! Directions: Use the following information to answer the question. Saya and James wanted to investigate mud, a mixture of soil and water. They wondered how water affects a mudflow. They built a model as shown below, and did the following investigation. Question: What is the effect of the volume of water in mud on the distance a mudflow travels? Hypothesis (prediction): As the volume of water in mud increases, a mudflow will travel farther because water erodes soil. Materials: dry soil water balance stirring rod graduated cylinder beaker piece of rain gutter brick meter stick

image

Procedure: 1. Put the rain gutter and brick together as shown in the Investigation Setup diagram. 2. Stir 100 grams of dry soil and 20 milliliters (mL) of water together in a beaker to make mud. 3. Pour the mud into the top of the raised end of the rain gutter as shown in the Investigation Setup diagram. 4. Measure and record the distance the front of the mudflow traveled as Trial 1. 5. Rinse and dry the rain gutter to remove the mud. 6. Repeat steps 2 through 5 two times as Trials 2 and 3. 7. Repeat steps 2 through 6 for 25 mL of water, 30 mL of water, and 35 mL of water. 8. Calculate and record the average distance the mudflow traveled for each volume of water used. Data:

image

Which variable was the responding (dependent) variable in this investigation?

  (A) Density of the mud mixture

  (B) Temperature of the mudflow

  (C) Distance the mudflow traveled

  (D) Mass of soil in the mud mixture


Danger! Mudflow! Directions: Use the following information to answer the question. Saya and James wanted to investigate mud, a mixture of soil and water. They wondered how water affects a mudflow. They built a model as shown below, and did the following investigation. Question: What is the effect of the volume of water in mud on the distance a mudflow travels? Hypothesis (prediction): As the volume of water in mud increases, a mudflow will travel farther because water erodes soil. Materials: dry soil water balance stirring rod graduated cylinder beaker piece of rain gutter brick meter stick

image

Procedure: 1. Put the rain gutter and brick together as shown in the Investigation Setup diagram. 2. Stir 100 grams of dry soil and 20 milliliters (mL) of water together in a beaker to make mud. 3. Pour the mud into the top of the raised end of the rain gutter as shown in the Investigation Setup diagram. 4. Measure and record the distance the front of the mudflow traveled as Trial 1. 5. Rinse and dry the rain gutter to remove the mud. 6. Repeat steps 2 through 5 two times as Trials 2 and 3. 7. Repeat steps 2 through 6 for 25 mL of water, 30 mL of water, and 35 mL of water. 8. Calculate and record the average distance the mudflow traveled for each volume of water used. Data:

image

Based on the results of James and Saya's investigation, which weather condition is most likely to produce a large mudflow?

  (A) Strong winds

  (B) Heavy rains

  (C) Low snowfall

  (D) High temperatures


Danger! Mudflow! Directions: Use the following information to answer the question. Saya and James wanted to investigate mud, a mixture of soil and water. They wondered how water affects a mudflow. They built a model as shown below, and did the following investigation. Question: What is the effect of the volume of water in mud on the distance a mudflow travels? Hypothesis (prediction): As the volume of water in mud increases, a mudflow will travel farther because water erodes soil. Materials: dry soil water balance stirring rod graduated cylinder beaker piece of rain gutter brick meter stick

image

Procedure: 1. Put the rain gutter and brick together as shown in the Investigation Setup diagram. 2. Stir 100 grams of dry soil and 20 milliliters (mL) of water together in a beaker to make mud. 3. Pour the mud into the top of the raised end of the rain gutter as shown in the Investigation Setup diagram. 4. Measure and record the distance the front of the mudflow traveled as Trial 1. 5. Rinse and dry the rain gutter to remove the mud. 6. Repeat steps 2 through 5 two times as Trials 2 and 3. 7. Repeat steps 2 through 6 for 25 mL of water, 30 mL of water, and 35 mL of water. 8. Calculate and record the average distance the mudflow traveled for each volume of water used. Data:

image

What caused the mudflow to stop moving in each trial of the investigation?

  (A) Kinetic energy of the mud increased.

  (B) Gravitational force on the mud decreased.

  (C) The mass of the mud became greater as the mud moved.

  (D) Friction became greater than the force of gravity on the mud.


Danger! Mudflow! Directions: Use the following information to answer the question. Saya and James wanted to investigate mud, a mixture of soil and water. They wondered how water affects a mudflow. They built a model as shown below, and did the following investigation. Question: What is the effect of the volume of water in mud on the distance a mudflow travels? Hypothesis (prediction): As the volume of water in mud increases, a mudflow will travel farther because water erodes soil. Materials: dry soil water balance stirring rod graduated cylinder beaker piece of rain gutter brick meter stick

image

Procedure: 1. Put the rain gutter and brick together as shown in the Investigation Setup diagram. 2. Stir 100 grams of dry soil and 20 milliliters (mL) of water together in a beaker to make mud. 3. Pour the mud into the top of the raised end of the rain gutter as shown in the Investigation Setup diagram. 4. Measure and record the distance the front of the mudflow traveled as Trial 1. 5. Rinse and dry the rain gutter to remove the mud. 6. Repeat steps 2 through 5 two times as Trials 2 and 3. 7. Repeat steps 2 through 6 for 25 mL of water, 30 mL of water, and 35 mL of water. 8. Calculate and record the average distance the mudflow traveled for each volume of water used. Data:

image

Why did Saya and James repeat the investigation three times?

  (A) To fill in the data table

  (B) To support the hypothesis

  (C) To be sure the data is reliable

  (D) To make the results identical


Different arrangements of atoms are shown in the figures below.

image

Which figure represents a mixture?

  (A) Figure 1

  (B) Figure 2

  (C) Figure 3

  (D) Figure


Read the information about Linda's tests then answer the question. The diagrams below show five different tests Linda carried out using steel balls of three different sizes and masses. She used the same ramp for all trials.

image

Linda wants to test this idea: if the ramp is placed higher, the ball will travel to the bottom of the ramp faster. Which three trials should Linda compare to test this idea?

  (A) Trials 1, 2, and 3

  (B) Trials 1, 3, and 5

  (C) Trials 2, 3, and 4

  (D) Trials 2, 4, and 5


Read the information about Linda's tests then answer the question. The diagrams below show five different tests Linda carried out using steel balls of three different sizes and masses. She used the same ramp for all trials.

image

After selecting the three trials to compare, Linda measured the time it took for the ball to travel to the end of the ramp. She repeated each trial 10 times and recorded her data. What is the main reason Linda collected 10 measurements for each of the three trials?

  (A) to increase the reliability of her data

  (B) to list all the results in a table or graph

  (C) to change the experimental conditions

  (D) to check that the equipment is working


Read the information about Linda's tests then answer the question. The diagrams below show five different tests Linda carried out using steel balls of three different sizes and masses. She used the same ramp for all trials.

image

Which graphic representation would be the best way for Linda to display data from the three trials she tested?

  (A) histogram

  (B) line graph

  (C) double bar graph

  (D) stem and leaf plot


While washing some berries, a student observes that the blueberries sink in water and the strawberries float in water.

image

Which statement explains this observation?

  (A) A blueberry has greater density than a strawberry.

  (B) A blueberry has greater volume than a strawberry.

  (C) A strawberry has more weight than a blueberry.

  (D) A strawberry has more surface area than a blueberry.


A teacher asks her students to classify four animals by completing the chart shown below.

image

Which column correctly completes the chart?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The table below shows the average summer temperature increases for regions in Canada.

image

Which trend can be correctly inferred from the data?

  (A) The mountain regions are warming more than the coasts.

  (B) The forest regions are warming more than the mountain regions.

  (C) The Atlantic coast is warming more than the Pacific coast.

  (D) The northeastern forest is warming more than the northwestern forest.


The three stars shown below are similar in type and temperature.

image

From Earth, star Y appears to be the brightest, while star X and star Z appear to be similar in brightness. Which list orders the stars from closest to farthest from Earth?

  (A) star X, star Y, star Z

  (B) star X, star Z, star Y

  (C) star Y, star X, star Z

  (D) star Y, star Z, star X


A marine food web is shown in the diagram below.

image

Which organism below belongs in level 3 of this marine food web?

  (A) salmon

  (B) zooplankton

  (C) sea alga

  (D) polar bear


The illustration shows a runner rounding a turn on a running path.

image

The runner leans inward while traveling around a curve. This action allows the runner to

  (A) use force to help change direction.

  (B) introduce a force to overcome gravity.

  (C) balance all of the forces acting on him.

  (D) resist the force trying to change his direction.


A student puts water in a graduated cylinder and carefully adds two small rocks.

image

What is the volume of the rocks?

  (A) 2 mL

  (B) 3 mL

  (C) 5 mL

  (D) 12 mL


Which diagram correctly models the movement of heat, energy, and matter in an ecosystem?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


A topographic map is shown below.

image

Which description of a location is best supported by the topographic map?

  (A) Location 1 is a valley.

  (B) Location 2 is the southern edge of a lake.

  (C) Location 3 is an island.

  (D) Location 4 is the top of a small mountain.


A pea plant with genes that are homozygous for round seeds is crossed with a pea plant that is homozygous for wrinkled seeds.

image

Which statement correctly predicts the results of this genetic cross?

  (A) The offspring will have the genotype Rr.

  (B) The offspring will have the genotype RR.

  (C) Round seeds will be recessive to wrinkled seeds.

  (D) Wrinkled seeds will be observed in half of the offspring.


Students designed an experiment using bird feeders with different types of seeds.

image

For one hour, the students counted the number of birds that ate from each bird feeder. Which question would this experiment most likely answer?

  (A) Which kinds of birds eat seeds?

  (B) How many seeds can a bird eat?

  (C) How does a bird find seeds to eat?

  (D) Which seeds do birds eat most often?


A student holding a ball releases it, and the ball falls to the floor.

image

Which graph best shows the changes in potential energy and kinetic energy of the ball as it falls to the floor?

image

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


A map displaying areas with and without trees is shown below.

image

Which question could most likely be answered using this map?

  (A) What types of trees grow in Alaska?

  (B) How tall are most of the trees in Alaska?

  (C) Where are most forests in Alaska located?

  (D) What is the best temperature for tree growth in Alaska?


Some recent changes in an area were recorded.

image

Which of the following is most likely a result of the changes in the area?

  (A) rivers flooding

  (B) sea ice forming

  (C) permafrost thawing

  (D) sea levels increasing


A student moves a charged needle near an electrically neutral copper cylinder.

image

Which statement describes what will happen when the needle first touches the cylinder?

  (A) The needle will become positively charged.

  (B) Negative charge will flow from the needle to the cylinder.

  (C) The charge will be forced out of the needle and into the air.

  (D) Repulsion between the needle and the cylinder will increase.


Some of the characteristics of a vertebrate are shown below.

image

To which group does this vertebrate belong?

  (A) birds

  (B) reptiles

  (C) mammals

  (D) amphibians


Each box represents a type of organism in a food web.

image

Which box most likely represents an organism that is a decomposer?

  (A) box W

  (B) box X

  (C) box Y

  (D) box Z


The organisms in this list are part of the same marine ecosystem. Organisms in a Marine Ecosystem • seals • orcas • fishes • plants • bacteria Which food web best shows how matter can be cycled between these organisms in this marine ecosystem?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Study the model below.

image

Which system of the human body does this model most likely represent?

  (A) skeletal

  (B) digestive

  (C) respiratory

  (D) circulatory


The movement of negatively charged electrons in a complete circuit with a lamp and battery is shown below.

image

Which statement best explains the movement of these electrons?

  (A) Positive charges repel negative charges.

  (B) Positive charges repel positive charges.

  (C) Negative charges are attracted to positive charges.

  (D) Negative charges are attracted to negative charges.


The drawing shows a moth with markings on its wings that look like owl eyes.

image

When the moth leaves its cocoon, it will often land on a tree and display these markings. Which statement best explains the moth's behavior?

  (A) It is a learned behavior to capture prey.

  (B) It is a learned behavior to scare away predators.

  (C) It is an inherited behavior to capture prey.

  (D) It is an inherited behavior to scare away predators.


The diagram shows five charged objects.

image

Based on the diagram, in which direction will the shaded object in the middle most likely move?

  (A) up

  (B) left

  (C) right

  (D) down


image

What is the name of the indicated atom in the acetic acid molecule shown above?

  (A) carbon

  (B) calcium

  (C) chromium

  (D) copper


A student records the mass and volume of a lump of clay, x. Next, a second lump of clay, y, is added to lump x, and the combined (x + y) mass and volume are recorded. Finally, a third lump of clay, z, is added to the combined (x + y) mixture, and the final (x + +y z) mass and volume are recorded, as shown below.

image

What is the most logical conclusion about the clay used in this investigation?

  (A) Lump z had the greatest mass.

  (B) Lump z had the lowest density.

  (C) Lump y had the lowest density.

  (D) Lump y had the greatest mass.


The graph below shows the movement of an object at several points in time.

image

What is the average speed of the object?

  (A) 0.5 meters/minute

  (B) 2 meters/minute

  (C) 25 meters/minute

  (D) 50 meters/minute


The table below shows the pH and reaction to litmus of four body fluids.

image

These data indicate that gastric juice is

  (A) very acidic.

  (B) very basic.

  (C) positively charged.

  (D) negatively charged.


The following table shows properties of four different sample materials. One of these materials is cork, a type of wood that floats in water.

image

Given that the density of water is 1 g/mL, which of the samples is most likely cork?

  (A) 1

  (B) 2

  (C) 3

  (D) 4


The densities of four different woods are shown below.

image

Which wood will sink when placed in a fluid with a density of 1.14 g/cm^3?

  (A) African teakwood

  (B) balsa

  (C) cedar

  (D) ironwood


The following equations represent chemical reactions.

image

Which equation shows that the total mass during a chemical reaction stays the same?

  (A) 1

  (B) 2

  (C) 3

  (D) 4


Four forces are acting on a box, as shown below.

image

This box will increase in speed

  (A) downward and to the left.

  (B) downward and to the right.

  (C) upward and to the left.

  (D) upward and to the right.


Several factors can cause weather patterns in the atmosphere. The diagram below shows how air movement near the equator can form thunderstorms.

image

Which process is the main source of this movement?

  (A) movement of ocean currents

  (B) decrease in relative humidity

  (C) heating by energy from the Sun

  (D) warming in the upper atmosphere


The law of conservation of mass can be demonstrated by a chemical reaction. Which of the following models of a chemical reaction best represents the law of conservation of mass?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Which of the following bridges is an example of a suspension bridge?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The diagram below shows some positions in the path of a pendulum swinging from a fixed point called a fulcrum.

image

The pendulum is raised to the start position and released. At which two numbered positions is the potential energy of the pendulum most likely the same? A. position 1 and position 3 B. position

  (A) and position 4 C. position

  (B) and position

  (C)

  (D) position 2 and position 4


The four pictures below show how a pond environment changed from 1900 to 2000.

image

Which of the following processes was most directly responsible for the changes that occurred in the pond environment?

  (A) freezing

  (B) evaporation

  (C) sediment deposition

  (D) chemical weathering


Which of the following pictures shows the appearance of the Moon when a solar eclipse occurs?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The organisms shown below are both found in aquatic environments.

image

Which of the following is common to both of these organisms?

  (A) They contain blood.

  (B) They contain nerves.

  (C) They are both producers of food.

  (D) They are both composed of cells.


The drawings below show a turtle embryo and a chicken embryo.

image

Which of the following statements is supported by the similarities between these embryos?

  (A) The turtle is more advanced than the chicken.

  (B) The chicken has more offspring than the turtle.

  (C) The turtle and the chicken are similar as adults.

  (D) The chicken and the turtle share a common ancestor.


A student is investigating potential and kinetic energy by stretching a spring across a table. When the student lets go, the spring recoils.

image

At which time is potential energy in the spring being converted into kinetic energy in this system?

  (A) when the spring is stretching

  (B) when the spring is fully stretched

  (C) when the spring is recoiling

  (D) when the spring is fully recoiled


The diagram below shows the relative positions of Earth and the Moon and rays of sunlight.

image

Based on the diagram, which of the following best represents how the Moon would appear as seen from Earth?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The diagram below shows information about the motion of a toy car between two points on a track.

image

Which of the following can be determined using the information shown in the diagram?

  (A) the car's position after the first two seconds

  (B) the car's mass as it moves away from the start

  (C) the car's average speed between the two points

  (D) the car's total acceleration within the first meter


In the chemical reaction shown below, all of the HCl and Zn will react to form H2 and ZnCl2.

image

Which of the following statements describes the result of this reaction?

  (A) The hydrogen gas will have a mass of zero.

  (B) The zinc chloride will have less mass than the zinc.

  (C) The mass of the products will equal the mass of the reactants.

  (D) The mass of the hydrogen atoms will decrease in the products.


The pictures below show two dogs of the same breed that have different coat colors.

image

The instructions that determine coat color are stored in the

  (A) cytoplasm of skin cells.

  (B) membrane of every cell.

  (C) mitochondria of hair cells.

  (D) chromosomes of every cell.


The graph below shows the motion of four different bicyclists during a one-hour bicycle ride.

image

Based on the graph, which bicyclist traveled at a constant speed during the entire ride?

  (A) bicyclist R

  (B) bicyclist S

  (C) bicyclist T

  (D) bicyclist U


A teacher put one test tube of 50°C liquid and one test tube of 10°C liquid into a 20°C water bath, as shown in the diagram below.

image

Which of the following diagrams best represents the directions that heat will move when the test tubes are placed into the water bath?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The diagram below shows the relative positions of Earth and the Sun at a certain time of year.

image

Based on the diagram, which season is occurring in the Southern Hemisphere of Earth?

  (A) winter

  (B) spring

  (C) summer

  (D) fall


The picture below shows a paramecium.

image

In which kingdom is the paramecium classified?

  (A) Animalia

  (B) Fungi

  (C) Plantae

  (D) Protista


Which of the following pictures shows a beam bridge?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The picture below shows a beaker containing a clear liquid with a temperature of 20°C.

image

A blue powder is added to the liquid. Which of the following pictures provides the best evidence that the change to the liquid is physical, not chemical?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Anya is observing an organism in the laboratory. The table below shows her observations.

image

The organism Anya is observing most likely belongs to which kingdom?

  (A) Animalia

  (B) Eubacteria

  (C) Fungi

  (D) Plantae


The diagram below represents a portion of a contour map.

image

Which of the following best describes the physical feature represented by this contour map?

  (A) a flood plain with creeks and streams

  (B) a valley with two gently sloping sides

  (C) a hill with slopes that vary in steepness

  (D) a series of rivers flowing in concentric circles


The diagram below shows the orbit of a comet around the Sun. The comet travels more quickly in its orbit when it is closer to the Sun.

image

Which of the following statements best explains why the comet travels more quickly when it is closer to the Sun?

  (A) The mass of the comet increases.

  (B) The temperature of the comet increases.

  (C) The frictional force on the comet increases.

  (D) The gravitational pull on the comet increases.


Which of the following diagrams best represents the size relationships among galaxies, stars, and the universe?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The diagram below shows a partial food web for some of the organisms in an area.

image

If all the trees in the area were cut down, the energy supply of which population would be most directly affected?

  (A) aphid

  (B) grasshopper

  (C) oriole

  (D) rabbit


A student is comparing the composition of different samples of soil. She needs to find out how much gravel (small stones) is in each sample. Which of the following tools would best separate the gravel from the rest of the soil in each sample?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Which of the following diagrams best represents the angle at which the Sun's rays strike location X at noon on June 21?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Which of the following diagrams best represents two different elements combining to form a compound?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The table below shows the mass and the weight of a certain object on Earth.

image

The force of gravity on the Moon is about one-sixth the force of gravity on Earth. What are the approximate mass and approximate weight of the same object on the Moon?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The diagram below shows Earth, four different positions of the Moon, and the direction of incoming sunlight.

image

In which position would the Moon appear as a full moon as seen from Earth? A. position

  (A)

  (B) position 2

  (C) position 3

  (D) position 4


The picture below represents boxes piled in a closet. The same boxes were then arranged neatly on shelves in the closet.

image

The shelves were built to help store the boxes so the contents of the boxes can be found more easily. Which of the following problems was solved by building shelves?

  (A) organizing the use of space

  (B) limiting the shape of the boxes

  (C) increasing the size of the closet

  (D) equalizing the weight of the boxes


A student is measuring the length of the object shown in the picture below.

image

Which of the following rulers should the student use to measure the length of the object more precisely?

  (A) a ruler that is longer

  (B) a ruler that is also marked in inches

  (C) a ruler that is marked in millimeters

  (D) a ruler that has zero exactly at the end


The pictures below show the estimated locations of landmasses on Earth 225 million years ago and their present day locations.

image

Which of the following processes caused the breakup and relocation of the landmasses over time?

  (A) tectonic plate motion

  (B) strong ocean currents

  (C) erosion and sedimentation

  (D) volcanic eruptions and weathering


An illustration of a bacterium is shown below.

image

Based on the illustration, which of the following can be concluded about the bacterium?

  (A) It is unable to move.

  (B) It is made up of one cell.

  (C) It is the same as a vacuole.

  (D) It is missing genetic material.


Use the information below to answer the question. The map below shows the geographic relationship between two cities in the United States. Cleveland, Ohio is approximately 600 kilometers northwest of Baltimore, Maryland.

image

The data below represents the weather conditions on a specific Monday in Cleveland, Ohio and Baltimore, Maryland.

image

Average air pressure = 1,013 millibars Which description best represents a high pressure system in the northern hemisphere?

  (A) winds flowing outward and counterclockwise

  (B) winds flowing inward and counterclockwise

  (C) winds flowing outward and clockwise

  (D) winds flowing inward and clockwise


The picture below shows four leaves, each from a different tree.

image

Which leaf is best adapted to a dry environment?

  (A) poplar

  (B) pine

  (C) maple

  (D) oak


Mixtures may be separated into individual substances in a variety of ways. The graduated cylinder on Day One contains a mixture of salt and water. The graduated cylinder is left undisturbed for two days.

image

By Day Three, a solid has formed at the bottom of the graduated cylinder. The solid is a single substance. What process was used to separate the mixture?

  (A) sifting

  (B) filtration

  (C) evaporation

  (D) paper chromatography


Use the chemical equation below to answer the question.

image

What process is represented by the chemical equation above?

  (A) how plants make food

  (B) how plants digest food

  (C) how animals make food

  (D) how animals digest food


Use the information and the diagram below to answer the question. Hydroelectric dams use falling water to generate electricity. Dams affect river organisms, including the American shad, a common fish in waterways. Shad live in the ocean but swim up rivers to reproduce (spawn). Engineers have built elevators on dams for the shad and other fish. The fish swim into the elevator below the dam and are raised into the water above the dam.

image

Which human activity would most likely reduce the shad population?

  (A) preserving wetlands along the spawning areas

  (B) spilling chemical waste into the spawning areas

  (C) monitoring water conditions of the spawning areas

  (D) conducting fish-tagging programs within the spawning areas


Use the information and the diagram below to answer the question. Hydroelectric dams use falling water to generate electricity. Dams affect river organisms, including the American shad, a common fish in waterways. Shad live in the ocean but swim up rivers to reproduce (spawn). Engineers have built elevators on dams for the shad and other fish. The fish swim into the elevator below the dam and are raised into the water above the dam.

image

What might be a likely consequence of dams to the environment downriver?

  (A) reduced pollution

  (B) increased flooding

  (C) reduced fish populations

  (D) increased drinking water


Substances are classified as acidic, basic, or neutral. The pH scale can be used to classify a substance.

image

Which feature suggests that a substance is basic?

  (A) The pH is 0.

  (B) The pH is 7.

  (C) The pH is less than 7.

  (D) The pH is greater than 7.


A new moon, as viewed from Earth, is diagrammed below.

image

Which statement best describes how a new moon occurs?

  (A) Earth receives no sunlight.

  (B) The moon receives no sunlight.

  (C) Earth is between the moon and the sun.

  (D) The moon is between Earth and the sun.


Use the information below to answer the question. The map below shows the geographic relationship between two cities in the United States. Cleveland, Ohio is approximately 600 kilometers northwest of Baltimore, Maryland.

image

The data below represents the weather conditions on a specific Monday in Cleveland, Ohio and Baltimore, Maryland.

image

Average air pressure = 1,013 millibars On this Monday, the weather in Cleveland is influenced by a

  (A) tornado

  (B) blizzard

  (C) low pressure area

  (D) high pressure area


Use the information below to answer the question. The map below shows the geographic relationship between two cities in the United States. Cleveland, Ohio is approximately 600 kilometers northwest of Baltimore, Maryland.

image

The data below represents the weather conditions on a specific Monday in Cleveland, Ohio and Baltimore, Maryland.

image

Average air pressure = 1,013 millibars A weather forecaster in Baltimore said, "There will be increasing clouds in Baltimore late Monday night." Which statement about the Monday weather best supports this prediction?

  (A) In Cleveland, clouds are clearing.

  (B) In Baltimore, the air pressure is falling.

  (C) In Cleveland, the air pressure is stable.

  (D) In Baltimore, there is a moderate breeze from the southwest.


Students conducted an investigation to determine if mold grows on only certain types of bread. The students dripped water on four types of bread and covered the damp bread with plastic wrap. Each piece of bread was placed in a different dark area. The data table below shows the information the students collected after four days.

image

Which of these changes should the students make to their investigation to develop a valid conclusion?

  (A) Use only two types of bread.

  (B) Drip more water on each piece of bread.

  (C) Keep all the bread at the same temperature.

  (D) Place some of the pieces of bread in a lighted area.


Use the information below to answer the question. The hair dryer in the cross section diagram below transforms one type of energy into other types of energy.

image

Wire coils in the hair dryer become hot when in use. What energy transformation occurs in the wire coils?

  (A) electrical to heat

  (B) heat to mechanical

  (C) chemical to mechanical

  (D) mechanical to electrical


Use the information below to answer the question. The hair dryer in the cross section diagram below transforms one type of energy into other types of energy.

image

What part of the hair dryer changes electrical energy into mechanical energy?

  (A) motor

  (B) switch

  (C) wire coils

  (D) fan blades


A student classifies a substance as an acid.

image

Which of the following substances is the most acidic?

  (A) a substance that has a pH of 8

  (B) a substance that has a pH of 7

  (C) a substance that has a pH of 5

  (D) a substance that has a pH of 2


Use the information below to answer the question. The pictures represent several kitchen appliances. Each of these appliances uses electricity.

image

Many kitchen appliances use electricity. What is the most common energy source used to produce electricity?

  (A) wind

  (B) sunlight

  (C) fossil fuel

  (D) river water


Use the information below to answer the question. Environmental scientists are studying a preserved wetland ecosystem and the effect of human population growth on that wetland. The scientists used the information below to develop an educational program.

image

The frog population of the wetland declined from Year 0 to Year 4 and increased in Year 6. Which statement most likely explains the decline in the frog population?

  (A) The life cycle of frogs is dependent on rainfall.

  (B) The frogs moved to a wetland with fewer trees.

  (C) Habitat destruction reduced the number of frogs.

  (D) Competition with other species reduced the number of frogs.


Use the information below to answer the question. The pictures represent several kitchen appliances. Each of these appliances uses electricity.

image

A garbage disposal chops waste food into tiny pieces that move easily through sewage pipes. A garbage disposal converts electrical energy to

  (A) heat energy

  (B) radiant energy

  (C) chemical energy

  (D) mechanical energy


As shown in the drawing below, snowshoe hares have thick white fur in the winter and thin gray fur in the summer. Changing fur color with the season provides a certain advantage to these animals.

image

The advantage of changing fur color is that it

  (A) helps hares to attract a mate

  (B) allows hares to build soft dens

  (C) helps hares to sneak up on prey

  (D) allows hares to blend with the environment


Use the information below to answer the question. The pictures represent several kitchen appliances. Each of these appliances uses electricity.

image

Which example best demonstrates conduction?

  (A) a burner warming a pan

  (B) a refrigerator cooling air

  (C) a stove circulating hot air

  (D) a microwave warming food


Use the information below to answer the question. Students studied the water quality at five different sites in a water drainage area. The water from the five streams and river sites empties into a bay.The students recorded data for dissolved oxygen, percentage of floating sediments, water quality for aquatic life, temperature, and salinity.The information is shown in the data table below.

image

The data table below shows information collected from four water samples.

image

Which of the following relationships is reflected by the data above?

  (A) When nitrogen increases, algae growth increases.

  (B) When nitrogen decreases, algae growth increases.

  (C) When nitrogen increases, dissolved oxygen increases.

  (D) When nitrogen decreases, dissolved oxygen decreases.


The map below shows areas with active volcanoes.

image

Where are most of the active volcanoes located?

  (A) along the equator

  (B) in the middle of the oceans

  (C) on tectonic plate boundaries

  (D) at the center of the continents


The diagram below represents a simple food web.

image

Based on the diagram, which population most likely would benefit from a sharp decline in the mouse population?

  (A) grasses

  (B) hawk

  (C) owl

  (D) snake


Use the information below to answer the question. The diagram below represents the relationship among Earth, the sun, and the moon.

image

According to the diagram, the rays from the sun are striking the Northern Hemisphere. What season does this represent in the Northern Hemisphere?

  (A) fall

  (B) spring

  (C) summer

  (D) winter


Use the information below to answer the question. The diagram below represents the relationship among Earth, the sun, and the moon.

image

Which statement best describes the orbit of Earth around the sun?

  (A) Earth's orbit is elliptical.

  (B) Earth's orbit is irregularly-shaped.

  (C) Earth's orbit takes about 30 days to complete.

  (D) Earth's orbit takes about 24 hours to complete.


Use the information below to answer the question. The diagram below represents the relationship among Earth, the sun, and the moon.

image

Venus is about 3/4 the distance that Earth is from the sun. Which of the following units of time best identifies the approximate length of a solar year on Venus?

  (A) 30 days

  (B) 90 days

  (C) 180 days

  (D) 270 days


Use the diagram below to answer the question.

image

Which numbered arrow indicates the core of Earth?

  (A) Arrow 1

  (B) Arrow 2

  (C) Arrow 3

  (D) Arrow 4


Use the information below to answer the question. Students studied the water quality at five different sites in a water drainage area. The water from the five streams and river sites empties into a bay.The students recorded data for dissolved oxygen, percentage of floating sediments, water quality for aquatic life, temperature, and salinity.The information is shown in the data table below.

image

Based on the data in the table, how do high sediment levels reduce water quality for aquatic life?

  (A) increase the salinity

  (B) decrease the temperature

  (C) decrease dissolved oxygen

  (D) increase the amount of carbon dioxide


The diagram below shows a cross section of Earth.

image

Which numbered part of the diagram represents the mantle of Earth?

  (A) 1

  (B) 2

  (C) 3

  (D) 4


Use the information and map below to answer the question. Tropical Rain Forests Tropical rain forests are located near the equator and have hot, wet climates. The tropical rain forests are home for over half of the plants and animals on Earth. The tropical rain forests in many areas are being destroyed and the land is being used for other purposes. The shaded areas on the map indicate the location of tropical rain forests.

image

Which issue most likely results from cutting down tropical rain forests?

  (A) Habitats for many species are destroyed.

  (B) Crops are more difficult to grow and harvest.

  (C) Roads and houses are more difficult to build.

  (D) Soil quality increases in the deforested areas.


Use the information and map below to answer the question. Tropical Rain Forests Tropical rain forests are located near the equator and have hot, wet climates. The tropical rain forests are home for over half of the plants and animals on Earth. The tropical rain forests in many areas are being destroyed and the land is being used for other purposes. The shaded areas on the map indicate the location of tropical rain forests.

image

Removing trees from a rain forest changes the habitat for many species by

  (A) decreasing the temperature

  (B) decreasing the protective cover

  (C) increasing the oxygen levels

  (D) increasing the food supply


Use The Periodic Table of the Elements and the information below to answer the question. A student analyzed the data that identified the properties of an unknown element, Element X, to determine if the element was a metal or a nonmetal.

image

Which word best describes the substance that is formed when Element X reacts with chlorine?

  (A) compound

  (B) element

  (C) mixture

  (D) solution


Equal force is applied to a baseball, a basketball, a tennis ball, and a bowling ball.

image

Which ball will have the greatest change in motion?

  (A) a baseball

  (B) a basketball

  (C) a tennis ball

  (D) a bowling ball


Use the information and graph below to answer the question. Heating Distilled Water A group of students conducted an investigation.They placed 10 grams of ice at -5°C and a thermometer into a beaker. The students then placed the beaker on an electric hot plate and heated the beaker of ice for 10 minutes. The students read the thermometer every minute, recorded the temperature, and then constructed the graph below.

image

The type of energy that most directly caused the ice in the beaker to melt was

  (A) heat energy

  (B) solar energy

  (C) chemical energy

  (D) electrical energy


Use the information below to answer the question. Our solar system consists of the sun, planets, moons, and other objects. Each planet revolves around the sun and rotates on an axis. A data table comparing the four inner planets of the solar system is shown below.

image

Which planet has the longest solar day?

  (A) Mercury

  (B) Venus

  (C) Earth

  (D) Mars


Use the information below to answer the question. Our solar system consists of the sun, planets, moons, and other objects. Each planet revolves around the sun and rotates on an axis. A data table comparing the four inner planets of the solar system is shown below.

image

Which planet takes the most time to revolve around the sun?

  (A) Mercury

  (B) Venus

  (C) Earth

  (D) Mars


Use the information and graph below to answer the question. Heating Distilled Water A group of students conducted an investigation.They placed 10 grams of ice at -5°C and a thermometer into a beaker. The students then placed the beaker on an electric hot plate and heated the beaker of ice for 10 minutes. The students read the thermometer every minute, recorded the temperature, and then constructed the graph below.

image

Adding heat energy to the water in this investigation caused a

  (A) physical change from a solid to a liquid

  (B) physical change from a liquid to a solid

  (C) chemical change from a solid to a liquid

  (D) chemical change from a liquid to a solid


Use the information below to answer the question. The diagram below shows how rocks are formed.

image

Layers of sedimentary rocks are exposed in a deep canyon. A geologist finds fossils of shelled animals within these layers. The geologist can best conclude that the canyon area was once

  (A) covered by an ocean

  (B) part of a mountain range

  (C) in a tropical environment

  (D) home to many volcanoes


Use the information below to answer the question. The diagram below shows how rocks are formed.

image

What two processes can change sedimentary rock into metamorphic rock?

  (A) melting and uplifting

  (B) melting and pressing

  (C) heating and pressing

  (D) heating and crystallizing