Middle School DMC Train

The graph below shows the amount of bacteria present during an experiment.

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What can be concluded from this experiment?

  (A) At the beginning of the experiment, there are more B bacteria than A bacteria.

  (B) At the conclusion of the experiment, there are more A bacteria than B bacteria.

  (C) At the beginning of the experiment, B bacteria increased faster than A bacteria.

  (D) At the conclusion of the experiment, B bacteria increased faster than A bacteria.


You use "teeth-b-brite" toothpaste and recently have seen in the store a new and improved version.

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You wonder if it really brightens your teeth better than the original formula. Which method is the best way to test its claim?

  (A) Let three friends try it and tell you what they think.

  (B) Brush your own teeth with the new one for two weeks and see what you think.

  (C) Write the company and ask them to explain how they came up with their new claim.

  (D) Take before and after photos of ten friends, half who used the original formula and half who used Formula B, and compare the photos for differences in tooth color.


You are hiking one day and find a grayish mineral. You take it back to class to identify and note that it is metallic-looking with square-like crystals. You test its hardness and find that it is around 6 and has a reddish streak. Then you look at the table below, which shows the characteristics of different minerals.

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Which mineral did you most likely find?

  (A) hematite

  (B) galena

  (C) pyrite

  (D) sphalerite


The diagram below shows an early step in the development of an embryo.

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Individual units shown in the diagram were formed by the division of which of the following cells?

  (A) A fertilized egg

  (B) A fertilized sperm

  (C) An unfertilized egg

  (D) An unfertilized sperm


A student mixes a spoonful of table salt with a cup of water to form a mixture. The diagram below shows the salt, the water, and the mixture of the two.

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Which correctly identifies the solution, the solute and the solvent?

  (A) Salt is the solution. Water is the solute. The mixture is the solvent.

  (B) Salt is the solvent. Water is the solute. The mixture is the solution.

  (C) Salt is the solute. Water is the solution. The mixture is the solvent.

  (D) Salt is the solute. Water is the solvent. The mixture is the solution.


The table below shows adaptations of different plants.

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Which plant most likely lives in a desert climate?

  (A) Plant 1

  (B) Plant 2

  (C) Plant 3

  (D) Plant 4


Students investigate force, mass, and acceleration. A smaller force and a larger force are applied to two different rolling carts with different masses. The data are shown in the table below.

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Based on the data in the table, in which trial would the cart have the greatest acceleration?

  (A) Trial 1

  (B) Trial 2

  (C) Trial 3

  (D) Trial 4


Mr. Arnold demonstrates a pendulum by tying a ball to a string. The string is tied to a pivot point on the ceiling. The ball is pulled back to position 1 and released from rest. It travels along an arc to position 5 and then back to position 1.

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Which statement about the potential and kinetic energy of the ball is accurate?

  (A) The kinetic energy of the ball is greatest at position 3.

  (B) The kinetic energy of the ball is greatest at position 5.

  (C) The potential energy of the ball is greater at 4 than at 1.

  (D) The potential energy of the ball is greatest at position 3.


A student sets up two identical aquariums to model the greenhouse effect in Earth's atmosphere. Each aquarium contains a thermometer and has a bright light shining into the aquarium. The aquarium on the left is used as a control.

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Which should be done to the aquarium on the right to demonstrate the greenhouse effect?

  (A) Fill the aquarium with water.

  (B) Fill the aquarium with nitrogen gas.

  (C) Line the aquarium with black paper.

  (D) Cover the aquarium with clear plastic wrap.


The diagram below shows a flower with labels pointing to different structures. One structure has been left unlabeled.

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What is the function of the unlabeled structure on this flower diagram?

  (A) attracts pollinators

  (B) receives sperm cells

  (C) produces food for the plant

  (D) protects the bud before blooming


The graph below shows the solubility of two solutes.

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At what temperature is the solubility of solutes A and B the same?

  (A) 35°C

  (B) 45°C

  (C) 55°C

  (D) 65°C


A student investigates the relationship between the length of a launch tube and the distance an object travels. The student tests five launch tubes that are identical except for length. Each tube is used to launch a marshmallow. The distances the marshmallows travel are measured. The diagram below shows the set-up.

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The collected data are shown in the table below.

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Which conclusion is best supported by the data?

  (A) Large objects travel longer distances than small objects.

  (B) Large objects travel shorter distances than small objects.

  (C) As the length of the tube increases, the distance an object travels increases.

  (D) As the length of the tube increases, the distance an object travels decreases.


A student investigates the effect of mass and force on acceleration. The student uses the setup shown in the diagram below.

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When the student releases the cart, the rubber band pulls the cart toward the wall. The student changes the mass of the cart by adding bricks. The student changes the force on the cart by using more rubber bands. The student performs four tests as described in the table below.

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In which test is the acceleration of the cart most likely the greatest?

  (A) Test 1

  (B) Test 2

  (C) Test 3

  (D) Test 4


As part of a science fair experiment, a student measures the heights of five plants. The data are shown in the table below.

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Which set of numbers best represents the mean and the range for the plant heights (cm)?

  (A) mean: 10, range: 20

  (B) mean: 15, range: 25

  (C) mean: 20, range: 10

  (D) mean: 25, range: 15


A student gives a push to a 100 gram cart on a level surface and measures the acceleration of the cart. Each time the student gives the cart a push, it is with a different amount of force. The results are shown in the table below.

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How do the results support Newton's second law of motion?

  (A) Acceleration depends on the mass of an object.

  (B) Acceleration depends on the amount of force given to an object.

  (C) The amount of force given to an object depends on the mass of the object.

  (D) The amount of force given to an object depends on the acceleration of the object.


The graph below represents the distribution of electricity production by energy resource in 2013.

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Which energy sources most likely make up the 'Other' 5% in the graph?

  (A) oil and wood

  (B) wind and solar

  (C) oil and gasoline

  (D) biomass and gasoline


After a baseball is thrown up into the air, it will eventually fall back down to Earth. Which graph best demonstrates the relationship between time and distance from Earth as the baseball falls?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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Students in Ms. Barrett's science class visited a vehicle crash-test facility. The students observed four different types of vehicles crash against a guard-rail barrier at the end of a 45-meter track as shown in the diagram below. They recorded information about each crash test in the table below.

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Two of Ms. Barrett's students would like to design safer automobiles when they grow up. Which subject is least important for an automobile designer to study?

  (A) forces and motion

  (B) human health and biology

  (C) properties of rocks and minerals

  (D) properties of metals and plastics


Use the pictures below of an animal cell and a plant cell to answer question 3.

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Features of plant cells that clearly make them different from animal cells are

  (A) a larger nucleus and fewer chromosomes.

  (B) a rigid cell wall and chloroplasts.

  (C) more cytoplasm and smaller vacuoles.

  (D) a changing size and indefinite shape.


Use the food web below to answer the question.

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Which of these are not represented in the food web?

  (A) producers

  (B) primary consumers

  (C) secondary consumer

  (D) decomposers


A force acting on an object that is free to move will cause a change in the speed of the object. Which graph shows how the speed of an object would change if a single constant force were applied to the object over a period of time?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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Use the diagram below to answer the following question.

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On the Atlantic Ocean floor, there is a long ridge of underwater mountains caused by volcanic eruptions. New volcanoes keep erupting, and new mountains keep forming. Why is this happening?

  (A) A new continent is forming.

  (B) The ocean floor is spreading.

  (C) Earth's center is becoming hotter.

  (D) Crustal plates are colliding.


Use the food chain below to answer the following question.

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What do the arrows in the food chain indicate about the flow of energy in an ecosystem?

  (A) Energy is continuously recycled by the organisms in an ecosystem.

  (B) Energy flows in one direction in an ecosystem, from producers to consumers.

  (C) More of the available energy in an ecosystem is given to large animals than to small animals.

  (D) Organisms at the end of the food chain receive more energy than those at the beginning.


Use the data table and picture to answer the question.

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To model an animal breathing in an enclosed environment, Jackie lit a candle and placed a glass over the candle with the open end down. She measured how long it took for the candle flame to go out. She repeated her experiment with three other glasses, each time using the same candle. Jackie's results are shown in the data table. Based on the data, which statement is most likely true?

  (A) Glass 3 is the largest glass.

  (B) Glass 4 is the hottest glass.

  (C) Glass 1 is the coldest glass.

  (D) Glass 2 is the smallest glass.


Use this diagram to answer the question.

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What is the main purpose of the mitochondria shown by the arrow?

  (A) cell reproduction

  (B) cellular digestion

  (C) energy production

  (D) protein manufacture


Climate Feedback Loops Climate feedback loops are an important area of research for scientists. What is a climate feedback loop? A climate feedback loop happens when a change in our climate causes an environmental impact that produces further climate change. Climate feedback loops can be both negative and positive: Negative feedback loop: A negative feedback loop occurs when an environmental impact offsets the climate change such that they balance out. Under global warming, the impact would create a cooling effect, offsetting the warming trend. Positive feedback loop: A positive feedback loop occurs when an environmental impact increases the climate change such that the first change is amplified. Under global warming, the impact would add to climate warming by creating further heating.

image

Why are feedback loops so important to climate change? Feedback loops have the ability to greatly affect climate change. The big question is what overall effect the world's positive and negative feedback loops will have on climate change. The more we understand about them, the more confidence we have in our climate projections for the future. The better our projections, the better we can understand climate change and prepare for it. Which climate feedback loops are well understood? Some types of feedback loops are fairly well understood, such as those involving water vapor and albedo. Scientists use these feedback loops to improve their predictions about climate change through the use of computer models. This means that scientists have taken into consideration the effect these feedback loops will have as the climate warms in the future. Water Vapor (Positive Feedback) As air gets warmer, its ability to hold moisture increases. Our atmosphere is getting warmer because of climate change and, as a result, it is holding more water vapor. Water vapor is a powerful greenhouse gas-when in the atmosphere, it helps the Earth hold on to more energy from the Sun. So a warming climate means more water vapor, which in turn warms the climate further. Albedo (Positive Feedback) Albedo is the percentage of light reflected by a surface, which is a very important consideration in climate science. A surface with a high albedo, such as snow or sand, will reflect more sunlight back out to space. The lower the albedo, the more energy and heat is absorbed. Global warming is causing ice and snow to melt, revealing the land or ocean underneath. Ice and snow reflect a lot of sunlight-certainly more than land and the oceans. So as the ice melts, more of the Sun's energy is absorbed and so the planet gets warmer still-which in turn melts even more snow and ice. Which climate feedback loops are less well understood? Other feedbacks, such as the global carbon cycle, are not as easy to understand. They are being included in models, but more research is needed to fully understand these processes. The models are updated as new information becomes available. Global Carbon Cycle (Currently Negative Feedback) For every ton of carbon dioxide (CO2) released into the atmosphere, within a year, about half of that will be absorbed by the ocean and land-for example, through trees and plants. This process helps reduce the effect of CO2 emissions on global warming. However, if large quantities of carbon dioxide continue to be emitted, it could decrease the benefit of this cycle, which would have a huge impact on the future of the climate. Global warming could affect the carbon cycle in two areas, the ocean and the land: 1. Ocean changes can result in positive climate change feedback loops, for two reasons: As the ocean absorbs CO2, it becomes more acidic. Acidic water cannot absorb as much additional CO2. As the temperature of the ocean increases, its capacity to absorb CO2 is also reduced.

image

The illustration above is a simplified carbon cycle, showing current CO2 absorption rates of the land and oceans. 2. Land changes can result in positive or negative climate change feedback loops. Examples include: Negative feedback: As temperatures increase, the areas in which trees can grow will extend north to higher latitudes. New trees will absorb CO2, taking it out of the atmosphere. Positive feedback: As temperatures increase, soils, plants, and trees in tropical zones will become more heat stressed. This could cause the release of the huge amounts of carbon they store, threatening the future of important ecologies such as the Amazon Rain Forest. A lot of research continues to go on in this area. Advances in understanding will enable us to improve our confidence in projections resulting from climate models. Which model best shows how increased melting of snow and ice affects climate change?

  (A)

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  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Climate Feedback Loops Climate feedback loops are an important area of research for scientists. What is a climate feedback loop? A climate feedback loop happens when a change in our climate causes an environmental impact that produces further climate change. Climate feedback loops can be both negative and positive: Negative feedback loop: A negative feedback loop occurs when an environmental impact offsets the climate change such that they balance out. Under global warming, the impact would create a cooling effect, offsetting the warming trend. Positive feedback loop: A positive feedback loop occurs when an environmental impact increases the climate change such that the first change is amplified. Under global warming, the impact would add to climate warming by creating further heating.

image

Why are feedback loops so important to climate change? Feedback loops have the ability to greatly affect climate change. The big question is what overall effect the world's positive and negative feedback loops will have on climate change. The more we understand about them, the more confidence we have in our climate projections for the future. The better our projections, the better we can understand climate change and prepare for it. Which climate feedback loops are well understood? Some types of feedback loops are fairly well understood, such as those involving water vapor and albedo. Scientists use these feedback loops to improve their predictions about climate change through the use of computer models. This means that scientists have taken into consideration the effect these feedback loops will have as the climate warms in the future. Water Vapor (Positive Feedback) As air gets warmer, its ability to hold moisture increases. Our atmosphere is getting warmer because of climate change and, as a result, it is holding more water vapor. Water vapor is a powerful greenhouse gas-when in the atmosphere, it helps the Earth hold on to more energy from the Sun. So a warming climate means more water vapor, which in turn warms the climate further. Albedo (Positive Feedback) Albedo is the percentage of light reflected by a surface, which is a very important consideration in climate science. A surface with a high albedo, such as snow or sand, will reflect more sunlight back out to space. The lower the albedo, the more energy and heat is absorbed. Global warming is causing ice and snow to melt, revealing the land or ocean underneath. Ice and snow reflect a lot of sunlight-certainly more than land and the oceans. So as the ice melts, more of the Sun's energy is absorbed and so the planet gets warmer still-which in turn melts even more snow and ice. Which climate feedback loops are less well understood? Other feedbacks, such as the global carbon cycle, are not as easy to understand. They are being included in models, but more research is needed to fully understand these processes. The models are updated as new information becomes available. Global Carbon Cycle (Currently Negative Feedback) For every ton of carbon dioxide (CO2) released into the atmosphere, within a year, about half of that will be absorbed by the ocean and land-for example, through trees and plants. This process helps reduce the effect of CO2 emissions on global warming. However, if large quantities of carbon dioxide continue to be emitted, it could decrease the benefit of this cycle, which would have a huge impact on the future of the climate. Global warming could affect the carbon cycle in two areas, the ocean and the land: 1. Ocean changes can result in positive climate change feedback loops, for two reasons: As the ocean absorbs CO2, it becomes more acidic. Acidic water cannot absorb as much additional CO2. As the temperature of the ocean increases, its capacity to absorb CO2 is also reduced.

image

The illustration above is a simplified carbon cycle, showing current CO2 absorption rates of the land and oceans. 2. Land changes can result in positive or negative climate change feedback loops. Examples include: Negative feedback: As temperatures increase, the areas in which trees can grow will extend north to higher latitudes. New trees will absorb CO2, taking it out of the atmosphere. Positive feedback: As temperatures increase, soils, plants, and trees in tropical zones will become more heat stressed. This could cause the release of the huge amounts of carbon they store, threatening the future of important ecologies such as the Amazon Rain Forest. A lot of research continues to go on in this area. Advances in understanding will enable us to improve our confidence in projections resulting from climate models. What is the main way scientists measure the extent of snow and ice cover in the Arctic and Antarctic?

  (A) data collected from boats

  (B) photographs taken from helicopters

  (C) images taken by satellites

  (D) estimates developed by computer models


Climate Feedback Loops Climate feedback loops are an important area of research for scientists. What is a climate feedback loop? A climate feedback loop happens when a change in our climate causes an environmental impact that produces further climate change. Climate feedback loops can be both negative and positive: Negative feedback loop: A negative feedback loop occurs when an environmental impact offsets the climate change such that they balance out. Under global warming, the impact would create a cooling effect, offsetting the warming trend. Positive feedback loop: A positive feedback loop occurs when an environmental impact increases the climate change such that the first change is amplified. Under global warming, the impact would add to climate warming by creating further heating.

image

Why are feedback loops so important to climate change? Feedback loops have the ability to greatly affect climate change. The big question is what overall effect the world's positive and negative feedback loops will have on climate change. The more we understand about them, the more confidence we have in our climate projections for the future. The better our projections, the better we can understand climate change and prepare for it. Which climate feedback loops are well understood? Some types of feedback loops are fairly well understood, such as those involving water vapor and albedo. Scientists use these feedback loops to improve their predictions about climate change through the use of computer models. This means that scientists have taken into consideration the effect these feedback loops will have as the climate warms in the future. Water Vapor (Positive Feedback) As air gets warmer, its ability to hold moisture increases. Our atmosphere is getting warmer because of climate change and, as a result, it is holding more water vapor. Water vapor is a powerful greenhouse gas-when in the atmosphere, it helps the Earth hold on to more energy from the Sun. So a warming climate means more water vapor, which in turn warms the climate further. Albedo (Positive Feedback) Albedo is the percentage of light reflected by a surface, which is a very important consideration in climate science. A surface with a high albedo, such as snow or sand, will reflect more sunlight back out to space. The lower the albedo, the more energy and heat is absorbed. Global warming is causing ice and snow to melt, revealing the land or ocean underneath. Ice and snow reflect a lot of sunlight-certainly more than land and the oceans. So as the ice melts, more of the Sun's energy is absorbed and so the planet gets warmer still-which in turn melts even more snow and ice. Which climate feedback loops are less well understood? Other feedbacks, such as the global carbon cycle, are not as easy to understand. They are being included in models, but more research is needed to fully understand these processes. The models are updated as new information becomes available. Global Carbon Cycle (Currently Negative Feedback) For every ton of carbon dioxide (CO2) released into the atmosphere, within a year, about half of that will be absorbed by the ocean and land-for example, through trees and plants. This process helps reduce the effect of CO2 emissions on global warming. However, if large quantities of carbon dioxide continue to be emitted, it could decrease the benefit of this cycle, which would have a huge impact on the future of the climate. Global warming could affect the carbon cycle in two areas, the ocean and the land: 1. Ocean changes can result in positive climate change feedback loops, for two reasons: As the ocean absorbs CO2, it becomes more acidic. Acidic water cannot absorb as much additional CO2. As the temperature of the ocean increases, its capacity to absorb CO2 is also reduced.

image

The illustration above is a simplified carbon cycle, showing current CO2 absorption rates of the land and oceans. 2. Land changes can result in positive or negative climate change feedback loops. Examples include: Negative feedback: As temperatures increase, the areas in which trees can grow will extend north to higher latitudes. New trees will absorb CO2, taking it out of the atmosphere. Positive feedback: As temperatures increase, soils, plants, and trees in tropical zones will become more heat stressed. This could cause the release of the huge amounts of carbon they store, threatening the future of important ecologies such as the Amazon Rain Forest. A lot of research continues to go on in this area. Advances in understanding will enable us to improve our confidence in projections resulting from climate models. The flowchart shows some of the causes and effects of global warming.

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Which cause best completes the flowchart?

  (A) Emissions of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) into the atmosphere

  (B) Destruction of forests, especially tropical rain forests

  (C) Increases in particulate pollution, such as soot

  (D) Destruction of ecosystems and loss of biodiversity caused by invasive species


Climate Feedback Loops Climate feedback loops are an important area of research for scientists. What is a climate feedback loop? A climate feedback loop happens when a change in our climate causes an environmental impact that produces further climate change. Climate feedback loops can be both negative and positive: Negative feedback loop: A negative feedback loop occurs when an environmental impact offsets the climate change such that they balance out. Under global warming, the impact would create a cooling effect, offsetting the warming trend. Positive feedback loop: A positive feedback loop occurs when an environmental impact increases the climate change such that the first change is amplified. Under global warming, the impact would add to climate warming by creating further heating.

image

Why are feedback loops so important to climate change? Feedback loops have the ability to greatly affect climate change. The big question is what overall effect the world's positive and negative feedback loops will have on climate change. The more we understand about them, the more confidence we have in our climate projections for the future. The better our projections, the better we can understand climate change and prepare for it. Which climate feedback loops are well understood? Some types of feedback loops are fairly well understood, such as those involving water vapor and albedo. Scientists use these feedback loops to improve their predictions about climate change through the use of computer models. This means that scientists have taken into consideration the effect these feedback loops will have as the climate warms in the future. Water Vapor (Positive Feedback) As air gets warmer, its ability to hold moisture increases. Our atmosphere is getting warmer because of climate change and, as a result, it is holding more water vapor. Water vapor is a powerful greenhouse gas-when in the atmosphere, it helps the Earth hold on to more energy from the Sun. So a warming climate means more water vapor, which in turn warms the climate further. Albedo (Positive Feedback) Albedo is the percentage of light reflected by a surface, which is a very important consideration in climate science. A surface with a high albedo, such as snow or sand, will reflect more sunlight back out to space. The lower the albedo, the more energy and heat is absorbed. Global warming is causing ice and snow to melt, revealing the land or ocean underneath. Ice and snow reflect a lot of sunlight-certainly more than land and the oceans. So as the ice melts, more of the Sun's energy is absorbed and so the planet gets warmer still-which in turn melts even more snow and ice. Which climate feedback loops are less well understood? Other feedbacks, such as the global carbon cycle, are not as easy to understand. They are being included in models, but more research is needed to fully understand these processes. The models are updated as new information becomes available. Global Carbon Cycle (Currently Negative Feedback) For every ton of carbon dioxide (CO2) released into the atmosphere, within a year, about half of that will be absorbed by the ocean and land-for example, through trees and plants. This process helps reduce the effect of CO2 emissions on global warming. However, if large quantities of carbon dioxide continue to be emitted, it could decrease the benefit of this cycle, which would have a huge impact on the future of the climate. Global warming could affect the carbon cycle in two areas, the ocean and the land: 1. Ocean changes can result in positive climate change feedback loops, for two reasons: As the ocean absorbs CO2, it becomes more acidic. Acidic water cannot absorb as much additional CO2. As the temperature of the ocean increases, its capacity to absorb CO2 is also reduced.

image

The illustration above is a simplified carbon cycle, showing current CO2 absorption rates of the land and oceans. 2. Land changes can result in positive or negative climate change feedback loops. Examples include: Negative feedback: As temperatures increase, the areas in which trees can grow will extend north to higher latitudes. New trees will absorb CO2, taking it out of the atmosphere. Positive feedback: As temperatures increase, soils, plants, and trees in tropical zones will become more heat stressed. This could cause the release of the huge amounts of carbon they store, threatening the future of important ecologies such as the Amazon Rain Forest. A lot of research continues to go on in this area. Advances in understanding will enable us to improve our confidence in projections resulting from climate models. One effect of global warming is the retreat of mountain glaciers across the world. This results in less groundwater and water in streams in the summer. What type of feedback loop would most likely be a result of glacial retreat, and why?

  (A) A negative feedback loop because reduced evaporation lowers the amount of water vapor in the air near the ground.

  (B) A negative feedback loop because the rate of decomposition, which releases CO2, is slower when the ground is drier.

  (C) A positive feedback loop because reduced evaporation reduces the amount of high cloud cover.

  (D) A positive feedback loop because a drier landscape is more susceptible to wildfires.


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The graph represents the motion of a body that is moving with

  (A) increasing acceleration.

  (B) decreasing acceleration.

  (C) increasing speed.

  (D) constant speed.


The light bulbs shown in the diagram below are connected in a series circuit.

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Suppose that one of the bulbs is burned out and you want to determine which one it is. What could you do to determine which bulb is burned out?

  (A) Place the plug into an electrical outlet and substitute new bulbs, one at a time, until all three bulbs light.

  (B) Place the plug into an electrical outlet and notice which bulb does not light.

  (C) Place the plug into an electrical outlet and remove one bulb at a time until the other two light.

  (D) There is no way to determine which bulb is burned out when they are connected in a series circuit.


Michael kept a record of his dog's weight from birth on May 1 in order to find out how much dog food to give his dog. The directions on the bag of dog food are as follows:

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The graph below shows Michael's record of his dog's weight.

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In which month should Michael start feeding his dog 4 cups of food per day? Growth of Michael's Dog

  (A) August

  (B) September

  (C) October

  (D) November


Victoria, in Canada's British Columbia, and Minot, North Dakota, are located at about the same latitude and are about the same height above sea level. The chart shows the average temperatures in these cities during January.

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Which best explains why it is warmer in Victoria?

  (A) Victoria is near the ocean and water moderates its temperature.

  (B) Arctic air masses do not move readily into islands such as the one Victoria is on.

  (C) The Pacific Ocean is warmer than the Atlantic.

  (D) Victoria receives more direct sunlight than Minot.


Use the diagrams below to answer the question.

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Which statement about these cells is true?

  (A) Cell Y is rigid; cell Z is not.

  (B) Cell Y uses oxygen; cell Z does not.

  (C) Cell Z makes its own food; cell Y does not.

  (D) Cell Z needs water; cell Y does not.


Use the information below to answer the question. A can was filled with crushed ice, sealed, and massed. The ice was melted by slowly warming the can and its contents. No water vapor escaped and no air entered the can.

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If the can is then massed again, what is the best prediction of the mass?

  (A) The mass would be the same.

  (B) The mass would be more.

  (C) The mass would be less.

  (D) It is impossible to predict without more information.


Use the drawing below to answer the question.

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In rabbits, the gene for black fur is dominant over the gene for white fur. How can the appearance of white baby rabbits be explained when the mother has white fur and the father has black fur?

  (A) The mother rabbit has one gene for black fur and one gene for white fur.

  (B) The father rabbit has one gene for black fur and one gene for white fur.

  (C) The mother rabbit has two genes for black fur.

  (D) The father rabbit has two genes for black fur.


Use the table below to answer the question.

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Which conclusion can be drawn from this table?

  (A) The planets closer to the Sun travel around the Sun faster.

  (B) The planets closer to the Sun absorb the Sun's energy and therefore move faster.

  (C) The outer planets move slower because they are larger.

  (D) The outer planets move slower because they have many moons.


Use the diagram to answer the question.

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You are riding in an airplane that is moving at a speed of 600 km/h. If you walk from the back to the front of the airplane at a speed of 1 km/h, your speed relative to the ground is

  (A) 1 km/h.

  (B) 599 km/h.

  (C) 600 km/h.

  (D) 601 km/h.


Use the topographic map below to answer the question.

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Throughout the area shown in the map, a thunderstorm dropped about three inches of rain in less than two hours. Which point on the map would be in the greatest danger of flooding?

  (A) point A

  (B) point B

  (C) point C

  (D) point D


Use the food web below to answer the question.

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Which list contains all the consumers in the food web?

  (A) grasses, shrubs

  (B) grasses, shrubs, grasshoppers, mice, rabbits

  (C) hawks, foxes

  (D) grasshoppers, mice, rabbits, birds, hawks, foxes


Use the illustration below to answer the question.

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Which of the mountains above has the steepest slope?

  (A) 1

  (B) 2

  (C) 3

  (D) 4


Use the graph below to answer the question.

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A family on vacation drove 220 miles in 6 hours. At which of the following times was their vehicle moving the slowest?

  (A) about 2 hours after their departure

  (B) about 4 hours after their departure

  (C) about 5 hours after their departure

  (D) about 6 hours after their departure


Use the picture below to answer the question.

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In the manufacturing process of this four-legged wooden stool, each leg is angled 15° outward. Which tool or machine should be used to create the most accurate hole for each leg so the stool does not wobble when it rests on a flat surface?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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The graph below shows a beetle's movement along a plant stem.

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During which span of time was the beetle not moving?

  (A) from 0 to 4 minutes

  (B) from 4 to 6 minutes

  (C) from 6 to 14 minutes

  (D) from 14 to 16 minutes


The diagram below shows a river.

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The shaded land areas on either side of the river were most likely formed by

  (A) tectonic activity.

  (B) the deposition of sediments.

  (C) land development by humans.

  (D) compression of preexisting rock.


The maps below show the positions of two continents at two different times.

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The movement of the two continents as shown may best be explained by

  (A) volcanic eruptions.

  (B) magnetic changes.

  (C) coastal flooding.

  (D) plate tectonics.


The diagram below shows a polar projection of Earth, the Sun, and four positions of the Moon.

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Which position of the Moon could cause a solar eclipse?

  (A) 1

  (B) 2

  (C) 3

  (D) 4


The diagram below represents a cross-section of a cliff. It shows several rock layers containing fossils.

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Which of the following layers of rock is most likely the youngest?

  (A) the layer containing trilobites

  (B) the layer containing fishes

  (C) the layer containing amphibians

  (D) the layer containing dinosaurs


Of the following symbols, which represents a biological hazard?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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The illustration below shows Earth and the Sun.

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What season does the Southern Hemisphere experience when Earth and the Sun are in the positions shown?

  (A) fall

  (B) spring

  (C) summer

  (D) winter


The pictures below show bone structures in three animals.

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The similarity in structure of the bones of these animals suggests that

  (A) the size of these bones is the same.

  (B) these species share common ancestors.

  (C) these species developed at the same time and location.

  (D) the chemical make-up of these animals is exactly the same.


The figures below represent two chromosomes from an animal.

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Using the table below that describes the traits carried on Chromosome #6, which trait can the animal inherit only from its mother?

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  (A) long hair

  (B) black hair

  (C) white hair

  (D) short hair


The graph below relates speed and time of four cars (1, 2, 3, and 4) traveling along a straight highway.

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Which two cars move with zero acceleration?

  (A) 1 and 4

  (B) 2 and 3

  (C) 1 and 2

  (D) 3 and 4


A skateboarder travels from location 1 to location 4 as shown below.

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At which location does the skateboarder have the most kinetic energy and the least potential energy?

  (A) 1

  (B) 2

  (C) 3

  (D) 4


The diagram below shows a wave trace.

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Distance Z is a measure of

  (A) amplitude.

  (B) frequency.

  (C) wavelength.

  (D) wave speed.


The figure below shows a pressure cooker.

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In selecting a material for the pressure cooker's handle, which of the following is most important?

  (A) low thermal conductivity

  (B) high thermal expansion

  (C) low hardness

  (D) high elasticity


The diagram below shows a speedboat with a hydrofoil.

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Which of the following best describes how Bernoulli's principle can be used to explain why the bow rises?

  (A) The hydrofoil hangs below the boat, so it lifts the bow up.

  (B) The hydrofoil is at a different angle to the water than to the boat, so it moves upward.

  (C) The bow of a fast-moving boat always comes out of the water, so the hydrofoil supports the bow.

  (D) Water pressure on top of the hydrofoil is less than on the bottom, so the higher pressure on the bottom pushes the bow up.


The scale diagram below represents an athletic field.

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If the diagram is drawn to the scale of 1 in. = 40 ft., the athletic field would have an area of

  (A) 1200 sq. ft.

  (B) 3200 sq. ft.

  (C) 4000 sq. ft.

  (D) 8000 sq. ft.


The diagram below shows the path of a jet from Washington, D.C. to Dallas, TX.

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The trip takes approximately 2 hours and covers approximately 1900 km. Which of the following best describes the speed and direction of the jet's flight?

  (A) 475 km/h southwest

  (B) 950 km/h southwest

  (C) 1900 km/h southwest

  (D) 3800 km/h southwest


The drawing below represents a bit used in a power drill.

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Which of the following metals is most suitable for making this drill bit?

  (A) aluminum

  (B) copper

  (C) gold

  (D) steel


The diagram below shows the supports of a proposed bridge.

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Which of the following wooden bridge designs, if built from one support to the other, would withstand the heaviest load?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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The axes below relate the temperature to the depth below Earth's surface.

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Which of the following graphs best represents temperatures inside Earth?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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The diagram below shows a three-dimensional object.

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Which of the following diagrams correctly shows an orthographic projection of this three-dimensional object?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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The drawing below shows an entrance to a building with both steps and a ramp.

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The ramp in front of this building most likely functions as which of the following?

  (A) an assistive device

  (B) a structural support

  (C) a prosthetic device

  (D) a suspension system


The diagram below shows a cell.

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Where would this cell most likely be found?

  (A) bark

  (B) frog

  (C) leaf

  (D) mushroom


Four containers of water with different temperatures are placed on a table as shown below. The temperature of the room is 25°C.

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After four hours, which beaker of water will have exchanged the most heat energy with the environment?

  (A) W

  (B) X

  (C) Y

  (D) Z


Students in a physics lab are studying the circuit shown in the diagram below.

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Which of the following options will double the current through the ammeter?

  (A) replacing the battery with a 5 V battery

  (B) adding a 30 ohms resistor in parallel with R

  (C) replacing the resistor with a 30 ohms resistor

  (D) adding a second 60 ohms resistor in series with R


The diagram below shows a thin sheet of metal that has been rolled and fastened to make a cylinder.

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Which manufacturing process was used to create the cylinder?

  (A) conditioning

  (B) finishing

  (C) forming

  (D) molding


The picture below shows a microwave oven.

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This microwave is labeled "Convection Microwave Oven." According to this label, what is one way heat is transferred in this oven?

  (A) by the movement of air inside the oven

  (B) by standing waves in air outside the oven

  (C) by electrostatic charges on atoms in the food

  (D) by direct contact between the oven and the food


The figure below shows regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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Which of the following waves has the highest frequency?

  (A) visible light

  (B) microwaves

  (C) ultraviolet rays

  (D) infrared radiation


The diagram below shows a machine used in a factory.

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In this machine, fluid pressure is used to stamp sheets of metal with a large piston. Which type of system is illustrated?

  (A) hydraulic lift

  (B) hydraulic press

  (C) pneumatic lift

  (D) pneumatic press


A student combs her hair with a hard rubber comb and then hangs the comb on a loop of light thread that is suspended from a hook as shown below.

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She immediately combs her hair with a second identical comb and hangs it on the second suspended loop of light thread. If the combing has caused a charge to accumulate on the combs, which of the following shows what will occur?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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The drawing below shows a block with a groove along one side.

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Which of the following sets of views could be the front and right-side views of this block?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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The diagram below shows a circuit.

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The current in this circuit is 3 A. The resistance of R1 is 2 ohms. R2 and R3 each have a resistance of 4 ohms. What is the voltage for this circuit?

  (A) 6 V

  (B) 10 V

  (C) 30 V

  (D) 90 V


The diagram below shows a circuit.

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If the resistance in this circuit is 3 ohms and the voltage is 12 V, what is the expected current in this circuit?

  (A) 4 A

  (B) 9 A

  (C) 15 A

  (D) 36 A


The diagram below illustrates a step in the assembly process for a swing set.

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Which of the following is the best reason to use this type of drawing when assembling this swing set?

  (A) to indicate the tools needed

  (B) to warn of potential hazards

  (C) to increase the scale of the parts

  (D) to show how the parts go together


Which of the following diagrams best represents the relationship between galaxies, the universe, and solar systems?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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The illustration below shows three types of unicellular organisms commonly found in pond water.

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Based on the illustration, which of the following can be used to separate these organisms into three different groups?

  (A) length of lifespan

  (B) number of offspring

  (C) presence of a nucleus

  (D) method of movement


Which of the following graphs best represents the relationship between density and depth of material below Earth's surface?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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The diagram below shows a balance being used to measure a burning candle in a sealed glass ball before and after the burning is complete.

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As the candle burns, the size of the candle decreases, but the reading on the balance does not change. Which of the following is demonstrated by this experiment?

  (A) The total mass of the system is constant.

  (B) Energy is converted to mass when the candle is burned.

  (C) Smoke particles have more mass than molecules of candle wax.

  (D) Kinetic energy is converted to potential energy when the candle is burned.


On the map below, dark circles indicate the positions of volcanoes in the "Ring of Fire" in and around the Pacific Ocean. Dark lines indicate tectonic plate boundaries of Earth's crust.

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According to this map, which of the following describes where volcanoes are most likely to form in the Ring of Fire?

  (A) Volcanoes form in the middle of a tectonic plate.

  (B) Volcanoes form below the surface of tectonic plates.

  (C) Volcanoes form where tectonic plates meet other plates.

  (D) Volcanoes form where earthquakes are least likely to occur.


The illustration below shows an architect's model of an office building.

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Which of the following is most likely the purpose of this model?

  (A) to guide the drafting of the building's plans

  (B) to test the strength of the construction technique

  (C) to inventory the materials needed for construction

  (D) to show some of the characteristics of the finished structure


The diagram below shows the chromosomes from a cell after they were photographed under a microscope.

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Which of the following questions may best be answered by studying an organism's chromosomes ?

  (A) What sex is the organism?

  (B) Is the organism endangered?

  (C) Where is the organism's ecosystem?

  (D) How does the organism obtain its food?


The illustration below shows a Siamese cat.

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In Siamese cats, an enzyme determines the color of the fur. On the cooler places of the body, the enzyme causes darker fur. On the warmer parts of the body, the enzyme does not function. Which of the following statements best explains how temperature affects this enzyme?

  (A) Cooler temperatures denature the enzyme.

  (B) Cooler temperatures cause more enzyme production.

  (C) The enzyme is active in a specific temperature range.

  (D) Heat allows the enzyme to break down white pigment.


Which of the organisms shown below is not correctly labeled with its kingdom?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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The figure below shows a spring with a wave traveling through it.

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Which type of wave is illustrated?

  (A) sound

  (B) transverse

  (C) longitudinal

  (D) electromagnetic


A food web in a rain forest is shown below.

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Which of the following most likely occupies the location marked X in this food web?

  (A) decomposers

  (B) primary consumers

  (C) producers

  (D) secondary consumers


The figure below shows a wagon that moves from point X to point Y.

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Which of the following best describes the wagon's change in energy as it coasts from point X to point Y?

  (A) The wagon has the same kinetic energy at point Y and at point X.

  (B) The wagon has more kinetic energy at point Y than at point X.

  (C) The wagon has the same gravitational potential energy at point Y and at point X.

  (D) The wagon has more gravitational potential energy at point Y than at point X.


The diagram below represents a fat molecule.

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A fat molecule belongs to which category of organic molecules?

  (A) proteins

  (B) lipids

  (C) nucleic acids

  (D) carbohydrates


The Sun's gravitational attraction causes a comet's path to curve as shown in the illustration below.

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Which of the following statements best explains the fact that the Sun does not appear to move due to the comet's gravitational attraction?

  (A) The Sun's mass is much greater than the comet's mass.

  (B) The comet is too far away for its gravity to affect the Sun.

  (C) In this gravitational interaction only the comet exerts a pull on the Sun.

  (D) The path of the comet reduces the Sun's gravity.


The figure below shows the regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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Which of the following statements best compares the wavelengths of the regions 35 of the electromagnetic spectrum? 30

  (A) Microwaves are shorter than x-rays.

  (B) Infrared waves are longer than 15 gamma rays.

  (C) Radio waves are shorter than visible light waves.

  (D) Ultraviolet waves are longer than visible light waves.


The forces acting on a skateboarder moving at a constant velocity along a sidewalk are shown in the figure below.

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Which of the following is the net force on the skateboarder?

  (A) 0 N

  (B) 70 N

  (C) 670 N

  (D) 1270 N


The figure below shows a neutral glass rod and a positively charged metal sphere.

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Which of the following best describes the movement of charges as this glass rod touches the sphere?

  (A) Negative charges move from the sphere to the glass rod.

  (B) Negative charges move from the glass rod to the sphere.

  (C) Positive charges move from the sphere to the glass rod.

  (D) Positive charges move from the glass rod to the sphere.


The circuit diagram below shows three resistors, an ammeter, and a battery.

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How much current flows through the ammeter?

  (A) 1.0 A

  (B) 6.0 A

  (C) 13.0 A

  (D) 24.0 A


The diagram below represents an experiment on different types of soil.

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The thermometers are measuring the temperature of the center of the soil samples. Which of the following is a cause of the measured difference in the temperature of the two soils?

  (A) conduction within different soil types

  (B) condensation within different soil types

  (C) radiation emitted by different soil types

  (D) convection in the air above different soil types


Which of the following diagrams best represents a mixture?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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The diagrams below show a section of a bridge before and after more beams were added.

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What is the main reason more beams were added to the bridge?

  (A) to reduce shear forces

  (B) to increase tension forces

  (C) to spread tension and compression forces over a wider area

  (D) to create torsion forces in the vertical and diagonal directions


Students measured the water depth at several locations across the channel of a river. They plan to show the data they collected to their class. Which of the following is the most appropriate representation to show the river's depth across the channel?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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The table below shows the approximate wavelengths of violet and red colors.

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What range of wavelengths is visible to human eyes?

  (A) less than 400 nm

  (B) more than 700 nm

  (C) less than 400 nm and more than 700 nm

  (D) more than 400 nm and less than 700 nm


The map below shows the locations of Seattle, Washington and Kansas City, Missouri.

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Which statement best explains why Seattle has warmer winters and cooler summers than Kansas City?

  (A) Seattle is closer to an ocean.

  (B) Seattle is located at a higher latitude.

  (C) Seattle is located near an active volcano.

  (D) Seattle has longer summer days and shorter winter days.


Which diagram best shows asexual reproduction?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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The diagrams below depict an original population of peppered moths and the population many generations later. Lightly colored trees in this area were gradually replaced by darker-colored ones.

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Which concept is best shown by the diagrams?

  (A) Genetic changes lead to the extinction of many species.

  (B) All genetic information comes from one parent in asexual reproduction.

  (C) Variations in traits help offspring survive a changing environment.

  (D) New varieties of plants and animals are developed through genetic engineering.


The diagram below shows a marine food web.

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Which organism captures energy for the food web?

  (A) herring

  (B) krill

  (C) algae

  (D) leopard seal


The diagram below shows the energy transformation of one liter of gasoline in a car.

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Which statement describes the energy transformation that one liter of gasoline undergoes?

  (A) Chemical energy is converted to 9 MJ of kinetic and electric energy and 26 MJ of wasted heat energy.

  (B) Heat energy is converted to 9 MJ of kinetic and chemical energy and 26 MJ of wasted electrical energy.

  (C) Chemical energy is converted to 9 MJ of potential and electric energy and 26 MJ of wasted heat energy.

  (D) Heat energy is converted to 9 MJ of potential and chemical energy and 26 MJ of wasted heat energy.


The table below shows a page from a student's notebook that describes two different demonstrations.

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Which statement is the best analysis of the student's conclusion about the change in the material?

  (A) The conclusion is correct because water was created in both demonstrations.

  (B) The conclusion is correct because condensation occurred in both demonstrations.

  (C) The conclusion is incorrect because the ethanol in Demonstration 2 underwent a chemical change.

  (D) The conclusion is incorrect because the atoms in the water in Demonstration 1 were rearranged to make a new substance.


Which diagram best shows a container with gas molecules?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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Leaves from different species of trees are shown in the diagram below.

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Which characteristic of leaves can best be used to classify trees?

  (A) age

  (B) color

  (C) shape

  (D) size


The diagram below shows the formation of carbon dioxide.

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Which statement about this reaction is correct?

  (A) One atom of carbon combines with two atoms of oxygen to form one molecule of carbon dioxide.

  (B) One molecule of carbon combines with two molecules of oxygen to form one atom of carbon dioxide.

  (C) One element of carbon combines with two molecules of oxygen to form one element of carbon dioxide.

  (D) One element of carbon combines with two elements of oxygen to form one atom of carbon dioxide.


The diagram below shows a euglena.

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Which pair of cell parts found in a euglena make it different from plants?

  (A) chloroplasts and vacuole

  (B) nucleus and cell membrane

  (C) eyespot and flagella

  (D) chloroplasts and cell membrane


Red-Dead Canal The water in the Dead Sea is some of the saltiest water in the world. The only major river that flows into the Dead Sea is the Jordan River. Israel, Syria, and Jordan use much of the freshwater from the Jordan River for agricultural purposes. Because so little of the river water actually flows into the Dead Sea, the water level of the Dead Sea is decreasing. Much of the river water that enters the sea evaporates quickly because of the warm climate, leaving behind salts and minerals. The decreasing water level and the leftover salts and minerals have negatively affected the Dead Sea environment. A canal that would carry salt water from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea might restore increased water levels in the Dead Sea and benefit the surrounding environment. The altered ecology might also help to generate tourism revenue. Scientists worry, however, that a saltwater canal might leak and pollute underground sources of freshwater in the region.

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The natural process that is most affected by the decreased water levels in the Dead Sea is

  (A) the water cycle

  (B) mountain building

  (C) tectonic plate movement

  (D) convection currents in the ocean


Red-Dead Canal The water in the Dead Sea is some of the saltiest water in the world. The only major river that flows into the Dead Sea is the Jordan River. Israel, Syria, and Jordan use much of the freshwater from the Jordan River for agricultural purposes. Because so little of the river water actually flows into the Dead Sea, the water level of the Dead Sea is decreasing. Much of the river water that enters the sea evaporates quickly because of the warm climate, leaving behind salts and minerals. The decreasing water level and the leftover salts and minerals have negatively affected the Dead Sea environment. A canal that would carry salt water from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea might restore increased water levels in the Dead Sea and benefit the surrounding environment. The altered ecology might also help to generate tourism revenue. Scientists worry, however, that a saltwater canal might leak and pollute underground sources of freshwater in the region.

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Salt water leaking from the canal would most likely cause

  (A) a decrease in Red Sea tourism

  (B) a decrease in freshwater sources

  (C) an increase in the human population in the area

  (D) an increase in the amount of crops that are harvested


A teacher builds an electromagnet using a nail, a battery, and five coils of wire wrapped around the nail, as shown below.

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Which change to the electromagnet would produce the strongest magnetic field?

  (A) 1 battery and 2 coils of wire

  (B) 1 battery and 20 coils of wire

  (C) 2 batteries and 2 coils of wire

  (D) 2 batteries and 20 coils of wire


A group of students used lab equipment to investigate 25 milliliters each of three different liquids. The students then researched additional information about the three liquids. The results of the investigations and research are shown in the table below.

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The masses for equal volumes of the three liquids are different because the liquids

  (A) react differently

  (B) are different colors

  (C) contain different atoms

  (D) melt at different temperatures


A group of students used lab equipment to investigate 25 milliliters each of three different liquids. The students then researched additional information about the three liquids. The results of the investigations and research are shown in the table below.

image

Which change occurs when heat energy is added to the liquids?

  (A) The liquids change mass.

  (B) The liquids change state of matter.

  (C) The molecules in the liquids become larger.

  (D) The molecules in the liquids become lighter.


Micro-hydropower Micro-hydropower systems generate small amounts of electricity from moving water. These small systems are able to supply electricity to farms, ranches, and homes. Some of the moving water from a stream or river is redirected by an intake through a pipeline to a small turbine in a power station. The turbine turns coils of wires in a magnetic field to produce electricity. A simple diagram of a micro-hydropower system is shown below.

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Which sequence represents the transformation of energy from moving water to a generator and then to a battery?

  (A) electrical to chemical to light

  (B) electrical to chemical to sound

  (C) mechanical to chemical to electrical

  (D) mechanical to electrical to chemical


Partial Forest Food Web The movement of energy and matter through some organisms in a forest ecosystem is shown in this food web.

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Which food chain best shows the flow of matter in organisms in the food web?

  (A) tick -> mouse -> red oak

  (B) grass -> deer -> blue jay

  (C) cranberry bush -> deer -> coyote

  (D) blue jay -> caterpillar -> cedar waxwing


Partial Forest Food Web The movement of energy and matter through some organisms in a forest ecosystem is shown in this food web.

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Which two organisms in the food web share the most similarities in external structures?

  (A) the mouse and the deer

  (B) the tick and the caterpillar

  (C) the grass and the red oak

  (D) the blue jay and the cedar waxwing


Zebra Mussels Zebra mussels have been found in the Chesapeake Bay. These small, nonnative mussels sometimes cause economic, environmental, and ecological problems. They block the water intake pipes of industrial plants and limit the ability of the plants to generate power, provide drinking water, or treat sewage. The mussel populations grow rapidly and spread to other bodies of water by attaching to boats and equipment below the surface of the water. They consume large amounts of the algae in the water and may decrease the oxygen level of the water. Many beaches are also littered with the sharp shells of decaying zebra mussels.

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Which outcome of the increase in the population of zebra mussels would most affect fishermen in Maryland?

  (A) sharp shells from zebra mussels littering the beaches

  (B) zebra mussels blocking power plant intake tubes

  (C) increased odor from decaying zebra mussels

  (D) decreased oxygen levels in the waterways


Zebra Mussels Zebra mussels have been found in the Chesapeake Bay. These small, nonnative mussels sometimes cause economic, environmental, and ecological problems. They block the water intake pipes of industrial plants and limit the ability of the plants to generate power, provide drinking water, or treat sewage. The mussel populations grow rapidly and spread to other bodies of water by attaching to boats and equipment below the surface of the water. They consume large amounts of the algae in the water and may decrease the oxygen level of the water. Many beaches are also littered with the sharp shells of decaying zebra mussels.

image

Zebra mussels most likely compete with other organisms for

  (A) air

  (B) habitat

  (C) sunlight

  (D) carbon dioxide


Zebra Mussels Zebra mussels have been found in the Chesapeake Bay. These small, nonnative mussels sometimes cause economic, environmental, and ecological problems. They block the water intake pipes of industrial plants and limit the ability of the plants to generate power, provide drinking water, or treat sewage. The mussel populations grow rapidly and spread to other bodies of water by attaching to boats and equipment below the surface of the water. They consume large amounts of the algae in the water and may decrease the oxygen level of the water. Many beaches are also littered with the sharp shells of decaying zebra mussels.

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An increase in a population of zebra mussels would best be supported by a body of water which has

  (A) many beaches

  (B) few intake pipes

  (C) many algae plants

  (D) few boating activities


Waste Not: Energy from Garbage and Sewage A hundred years ago, gas was collected from rotting sewage and used to light street lamps. New technologies hope to update this concept-tapping garbage as well as human waste-for an energy-hungry world. One promising device is called a microbial fuel cell. It makes electricity much like a hydrogen fuel cell, but it runs off wastewater. Sewage-eating bacteria drive a chemical process that generates current and, as a bonus, helps purify the water. Bruce Logan of Pennsylvania State University and his colleagues have constructed small microbial fuel cells, no bigger than a can that can power various devices, including a small fan. "If you had 100,000 people and you treat their sewage, you could get up to 2.3 megawatts of continuous power, which is enough to supply electricity for 1,500 homes," Logan said. A megawatt is one million watts. A self-sufficient water-treatment device is also something that NASA is interested in. Bruce Rittman of Northwestern University is currently devising a microbial fuel cell that could be used on manned space missions. "You have to recycle everything up in space," Rittman said. "You want to capture food waste and human waste, as well as recycle water." A microbial fuel cell has some advantages over the more traditional method, called an anaerobic digester, which collects the methane, or "biogas," that bacteria belch out when they consume organic material in the absence of oxygen. The methane is later burned to turn a turbine generator. "Instead of going through the intermediate step of combustion, a cell makes the electricity directly," Rittman said. This direct route means that a microbial fuel cell could potentially extract more energy from a given amount of sewage. It also would avoid the pollution that burning methane produces. But both Rittman and Logan are quick to add that cells are still early in development, whereas digesters are in use, mostly in agriculture settings where the concentration of organic material is higher than from urban sewers. Which graph best displays the relationship between human population size and energy demand?

  (A)

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  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Wave Motion in a Plastic Spring Two students investigated wave motion in a plastic spring. Each student held an end of the spring on a table 1.5 meters long. Student A compressed and released a portion of the spring. This action produced a wave that traveled through the spring across the table. Using a stopwatch, the students determined that the wave traveled through the spring in 0.5 seconds.

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The wave motion produced by the spring transfers

  (A) energy

  (B) friction

  (C) mass

  (D) particles


A student conducted an investigation to determine which condition caused the greatest amount of rust to form on an iron nail. Iron Nail 1 was placed on a table. Iron Nail 2 was submerged in a beaker of water. Iron Nail 3 was partially submerged in another beaker of water. The setup for the investigation is illustrated below.

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The student recorded observations about the nails on Day 1 and Day 8 in the table below.

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Which statement best describes the physical properties of the nail after the rust developed?

  (A) Most of the nail dissolved and the color remained the same.

  (B) The nail remained a solid and the color remained the same.

  (C) Most of the nail dissolved and the color changed.

  (D) The nail remained a solid and the color changed.


A student conducted an investigation to determine which condition caused the greatest amount of rust to form on an iron nail. Iron Nail 1 was placed on a table. Iron Nail 2 was submerged in a beaker of water. Iron Nail 3 was partially submerged in another beaker of water. The setup for the investigation is illustrated below.

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The student recorded observations about the nails on Day 1 and Day 8 in the table below.

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The beaker with Iron Nail 2 was placed in a freezer. Which result most likely occurred when the heat energy was removed from the water in the beaker?

  (A) The nail floated.

  (B) The nail dissolved.

  (C) The water solidified.

  (D) The water evaporated.


A student conducted an investigation to determine which condition caused the greatest amount of rust to form on an iron nail. Iron Nail 1 was placed on a table. Iron Nail 2 was submerged in a beaker of water. Iron Nail 3 was partially submerged in another beaker of water. The setup for the investigation is illustrated below.

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The student recorded observations about the nails on Day 1 and Day 8 in the table below.

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Which statement best explains why rust formed on two of the iron nails?

  (A) The iron nail physically reacted with the air.

  (B) The iron nail physically reacted with the water.

  (C) The iron nail chemically reacted with carbon in the air.

  (D) The iron nail chemically reacted with oxygen in the water.


Micro-hydropower Micro-hydropower systems generate small amounts of electricity from moving water. These small systems are able to supply electricity to farms, ranches, and homes. Some of the moving water from a stream or river is redirected by an intake through a pipeline to a small turbine in a power station. The turbine turns coils of wires in a magnetic field to produce electricity. A simple diagram of a micro-hydropower system is shown below.

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A student moved a compass near the wires of the power lines next to a house. The compass needle then changed direction.

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The compass needle moved because

  (A) an electric field surrounded the wires

  (B) a magnetic field surrounded the house

  (C) an electrical current produced in the wires stopped

  (D) a magnetic field was produced by the electric current


Micro-hydropower Micro-hydropower systems generate small amounts of electricity from moving water. These small systems are able to supply electricity to farms, ranches, and homes. Some of the moving water from a stream or river is redirected by an intake through a pipeline to a small turbine in a power station. The turbine turns coils of wires in a magnetic field to produce electricity. A simple diagram of a micro-hydropower system is shown below.

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Which action would increase the amount of electricity produced by a generator?

  (A) adding more coils of wire

  (B) removing the iron magnet

  (C) using water that moves slowly

  (D) using additional poles for power lines


The Mars Lander In 2004, two robots called rovers landed on the surface of Mars. Scientists using remote control units on Earth were able to start the robots exploring the surface of Mars. One rover, named Opportunity, was still moving across the Martian surface in 2011, which lasted more than seven years longer than expected. The rovers used solar-powered cells on solar arrays that were able to generate 140 units of power using the weak Martian sunlight which filters through the thin atmosphere. The power was stored in rechargeable batteries that could be used at night.

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Heat energy is most likely transferred to Opportunity's internal instruments during the cold Martian nights by

  (A) conduction

  (B) convection

  (C) radiation

  (D) reflection


The Mars Lander In 2004, two robots called rovers landed on the surface of Mars. Scientists using remote control units on Earth were able to start the robots exploring the surface of Mars. One rover, named Opportunity, was still moving across the Martian surface in 2011, which lasted more than seven years longer than expected. The rovers used solar-powered cells on solar arrays that were able to generate 140 units of power using the weak Martian sunlight which filters through the thin atmosphere. The power was stored in rechargeable batteries that could be used at night.

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Opportunity generates power using cells in an array which converts solar energy to electrical energy. How is energy transferred from the sun to the rover?

  (A) conduction

  (B) convection

  (C) radiation

  (D) reflection


A student walked around the track at school and recorded the time every meter. The student constructed the graph below using the data.

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Which type of motion is represented in the graph?

  (A) accelerated

  (B) constant

  (C) periodic

  (D) variable


Ocean Waves Ocean waves are generated by natural forces such as wind, earthquakes, and tides. A simple water wave is shown in the diagram below.

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The number in the diagram that represents the wavelength is

  (A) 1

  (B) 2

  (C) 3

  (D) 4


Ocean Waves Ocean waves are generated by natural forces such as wind, earthquakes, and tides. A simple water wave is shown in the diagram below.

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The arrow in the ocean wave diagram below represents the direction of the transfer of

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  (A) energy

  (B) force

  (C) matter

  (D) speed


The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary ecosystem in the United States. Organisms living there have developed food webs in which they depend upon one another for energy. A partial Chesapeake Bay food web is shown below.

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Which two organisms are most likely to compete for the same resources in this food web?

  (A) bay grasses and blue crab

  (B) algae and microscopic animals

  (C) bay anchovies and striped bass

  (D) common goldeneye duck and human


The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary ecosystem in the United States. Organisms living there have developed food webs in which they depend upon one another for energy. A partial Chesapeake Bay food web is shown below.

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The amount of dissolved oxygen in the water needed by several organisms found in the Chesapeake Bay is shown in the table below.

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If the oxygen level in the water dropped below 3 milligrams per liter of water, blue crabs would most likely

  (A) relocate to the shore

  (B) move closer to plants

  (C) decrease in population

  (D) increase rapidly in size


The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary ecosystem in the United States. Organisms living there have developed food webs in which they depend upon one another for energy. A partial Chesapeake Bay food web is shown below.

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The common goldeneye duck and striped bass share many similar structures. However, they belong to different animal groups. Which system is most different in these groups of animals?

  (A) circulatory

  (B) digestive

  (C) reproductive

  (D) respiratory


Chromosomes, thread-like structures located inside the nucleus of animal and plant cells, contain the genetic information for organisms. The number of chromosomes for some species is given in the table below.

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How many chromosomes are transferred from each parent horse to a colt?

  (A) 128

  (B) 64

  (C) 32

  (D) 16


Power of Urine Runs a Battery Scientists have developed a way to turn urine into electricity. Cheap, disposable, and renewable, urine-powered batteries may be the perfect power source for disposable health care test kits called biochips, the researchers say. "We are striving to develop cheap, disposable credit card-sized biochips for disease detection," said battery developer Ki Bang Lee. "Our battery can be easily integrated into such devices, supplying electricity upon contact with biofluids such as urine." Scientists around the world are clamoring to design inexpensive biochips to quickly test for a variety of diseases. But no one has been able to make a similarly small and inexpensive power source. Lee and his team of researchers at Singapore's Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology have tackled this problem by using the very substance being tested-urine-to power the test. To make the battery, Lee and his team soaked a piece of paper in copper chloride and then sandwiched it between strips of magnesium and copper. Then they laminated the credit card-sized unit between transparent plastic films. When a drop of urine is added to the copper chloride paper, a chemical reaction takes place and produces electricity, which is harnessed by the battery. A few drops will generate about 1.5 volts, the same as a AA battery. The battery needs to be developed further to make it commercially viable. "Our urine-activated battery would be integrated into biochip systems for health care diagnostic applications," Lee said. Lee and his team also found that they could alter the battery's performance- voltage, power, or duration-by adjusting the design or materials. The chemical composition of urine indicates a person's general health and is widely used in diagnostic tests. For instance, doctors measure the concentration of the sugar glucose to determine whether someone is diabetic. Lee predicts that one day people will be able to monitor their own health at home using biochips powered by this type of battery. The diagram below represents water molecules.

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Which diagram represents a chemical change in the water molecules?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

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Uranus Uranus is a giant ice planet, much larger and farther from the sun than Earth. Uranus's axis of rotation is tilted more than 90°.

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Uranus is part of a group of celestial objects that are in

  (A) the same galaxy as Earth

  (B) a different universe than Earth

  (C) a different solar system than Earth

  (D) the same asteroid belt orbiting the sun


Uranus Uranus is a giant ice planet, much larger and farther from the sun than Earth. Uranus's axis of rotation is tilted more than 90°.

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The length of a day on Uranus is approximately 17.2 hours. Uranus has a shorter day than Earth because Uranus

  (A) is farther from the sun

  (B) rotates faster on its axis

  (C) has a greater tilt to its axis

  (D) revolves at a faster rate around the sun


Uranus Uranus is a giant ice planet, much larger and farther from the sun than Earth. Uranus's axis of rotation is tilted more than 90°.

image

Which pattern of planetary motion is most similar between Earth and Uranus?

  (A) size of orbit

  (B) shape of orbit

  (C) time of revolution

  (D) direction of rotation


A student placed a container of soup in a freezer. After a few hours, the soup became solid.

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The soup changed to a solid because

  (A) heat energy was added to the soup

  (B) heat energy was removed from the soup

  (C) the kinetic energy of the molecules increased

  (D) the potential energy of the molecules increased


Water Water is an important natural resource. Surface water is located in glaciers, lakes, and rivers. Some sources of water pollution are shown in the diagram below.

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How does pollution of surface water affect rivers?

  (A) The amount of water increases.

  (B) The number of floods decreases.

  (C) The quality of the water decreases.

  (D) The quantity of organisms increases.


Water Water is an important natural resource. Surface water is located in glaciers, lakes, and rivers. Some sources of water pollution are shown in the diagram below.

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Rivers and lakes sometimes receive an excessive amount of nutrients that increase algae and plant growth. Which type of human activity contributes most directly to the increase in nutrients?

  (A) allowing landfill leakage

  (B) use of pesticides

  (C) use of fertilizers

  (D) allowing oil spills


Water Water is an important natural resource. Surface water is located in glaciers, lakes, and rivers. Some sources of water pollution are shown in the diagram below.

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An increase in human population would most likely cause Earth's freshwater supply to

  (A) increase and become less polluted

  (B) decrease and become less polluted

  (C) increase and become more polluted

  (D) decrease and become more polluted


Students compared two different geological models.

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Which model is best used to show an earthquake?

  (A) Model 2 because there are layers of rock

  (B) Model 1 because the fault lines are visible

  (C) Model 2 because the pieces are moveable

  (D) Model 1 because there are details shown


The diagram shows five different Celsius thermometers. The body temperature of sick people ranges from about 36°C to 42°C. Which thermometer would be most suited for accurately measuring body temperature?

  (A) thermometer A

  (B) thermometer B

  (C) thermometer C

  (D) thermometer D

  (E) thermometer E

image


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Which statement is consistent with the data in the table?

  (A) More oxygen production occurs near the surface because there is more light there.

  (B) More oxygen production occurs near the bottom because there are more plants there.

  (C) The greater the water pressure, the more oxygen production occurs.

  (D) The rate of oxygen production is not related to depth


The diagram below shows an example of interdependence among aquatic organisms. During the day the organisms either use up or give off [a] or [b] as shown by the arrows.

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Choose the right answer for [a] and [b] from the alternatives given.

  (A) [a] is oxygen and [b] is carbon dioxide.

  (B) [a] is oxygen and [b] is carbohydrate.

  (C) [a] is nitrogen and [b] is carbon dioxide.

  (D) [a] is carbon dioxide and [b] is oxygen.

  (E) [a] is carbon dioxide and [b] is carbohydrate.


A student put 100 mL of water in each of these open containers, and let them stand in the sun for one day. Which container probably lost the most water due to evaporation?

  (A)

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  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

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A girl had an idea that plants needed minerals from the soil for healthy growth. She placed a plant in the Sun, as shown in the diagram below.

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In order to check her idea she also needed to use another plant. Which of the following should she use?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image

  (E)

image


A curved groove is placed on a level table as shown in the diagram. A ball is pushed in the groove at P, so that it leaves at Q.

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These diagrams show the level table and the groove from above. Which shows how the ball will move when it leaves the groove at Q?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

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The graph shows the progress made by an ant moving along a straight line.

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If the ant keeps moving at the same speed, how far will it have traveled at the end of 30 seconds?

  (A) 5 cm

  (B) 6 cm

  (C) 20 cm

  (D) 30 cm


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The diagram above shows a map of the world with the lines of latitude marked. Which of the following places marked on the map is most likely to have an average yearly temperature similar to location X?

  (A) location A

  (B) location B

  (C) location C

  (D) location D


A girl has an idea that green plants need sand in the soil for healthy growth. In order to test her idea she uses two pots of plants. She sets up one pot of plants as shown below.

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Which ONE of the following should she use for the second pot of plants?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image

  (E)

image


A ray of light strikes a mirror as shown.

image

Which picture best shows the direction of the reflected light?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The pictures show two different mountains. The mountains in Picture A are rough and jagged. The mountains in Picture B are smooth and rounded.

image

Which statement about these mountains is probably true?

  (A) The mountains in Picture A are older.

  (B) The mountains in Picture B are older.

  (C) The mountains are about the same age but were formed in different ways.

  (D) The mountains are about the same age but are in different hemispheres.


The diagrams show a flashlight and three ways to put batteries in it.

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In order to make the flashlight work, which way must the batteries be placed?

  (A) Only as in K

  (B) Only as in L

  (C) Only as in M

  (D) None of these ways would work.


The diagrams show nine different trials Usman carried out using carts with wheels of two different sizes and different numbers of blocks of equal mass. He used the same ramp for all trials, starting the carts from different heights.

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He wants to test this idea: The higher the ramp is placed, the faster the cart will travel at the bottom of the ramp. Which three trials should he compare?

  (A) G, H and I

  (B) I, W and Z

  (C) I, V and X

  (D) U, W and X

  (E) H, V and Y


The table gives the temperature at a certain place at different times of the day for three days.

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When did the wind become much colder?

  (A) Monday morning

  (B) Monday afternoon

  (C) Tuesday morning

  (D) Tuesday afternoon

  (E) Wednesday afternoon


A person sorted some animals into the two groups listed on the table. Which characteristic of animals was used for the sorting?

image

  (A) Legs

  (B) Eyes

  (C) Nervous system

  (D) Skin


The table shows some information about the planets Venus and Mercury.

image

Which of the following best explains why the surface temperature of Venus is higher than that of Mercury?

  (A) There is less absorption of sunlight on Mercury because of the lack of atmospheric gases.

  (B) The high percentage of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of Venus causes a greenhouse effect.

  (C) The longer time for Venus to revolve around the Sun allows it to absorb more heat from the Sun.

  (D) The Sun's rays are less direct on Mercury because it is closer to the Sun.


A science class had been assigned to find the density of a can that holds soda. Four groups were formed to do the task. Each group was given a can of soda. After each group had completed its work, they presented their results, as shown in the table below.

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The class was surprised that the results for the densities of the can were so different. They looked at the methods each group had used to find the mass and the volume of each soda can. Table 1 shows how each group found the mass of the soda can.

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Table 2 shows how each group found the volume of the soda can.

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The table below shows the mass, volume, and density results for each group.

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Based on the methods used, which group found the density of the metal from which the can was made?

  (A) Group A

  (B) Group B

  (C) Group C

  (D) Group D


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The diagram above shows the Earth's path around the Sun and the tilt of Earth's axis. Which of the following patterns on Earth is caused by the tilt of Earth's axis?

  (A) seasons

  (B) day and night

  (C) years

  (D) time zones


Which of the following graphs best shows how the human population of the world has changed over the last 300 years?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Which model shows the correct positions of protons (p+), electrons (e-) and neutrons (n) in an atom?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Towns 1, 2, and 3 are located north of towns 4 and 5. They are all built on a plain. It was sunny in town 1 on Monday but was raining in towns 2 and 3. A wind is blowing in all the towns from the north.

image

If the wind continues to blow from the north, what will the weather most likely be like in towns 4 and 5 on Tuesday?

  (A) rainy in both

  (B) sunny in both

  (C) sunny in 4 and rainy in 5

  (D) rainy in 4 and sunny in 5


image

The diagram shows four identical size rods each of a different material sealed into the bottom of a container. The same amount of wax is placed on the end of each rod and then the container is filled with boiling water. On which rod will the wax melt first?

  (A) Glass rod

  (B) Wooden rod

  (C) Metal rod

  (D) Plastic rod


image

The figure shows a iron nail with an insulated wire coiled around it. The wire is connected to a batter. What will happen to the nail when current flows through the wire?

  (A) The nail will melt.

  (B) Electric current will flow through the nail.

  (C) The nail will become a magnet.

  (D) Nothing will happen to the nail.


The diagram represents the arrangement of particles in a metal before it has been heated.

image

Which diagram represents the arrangement of particles in the metal after it has been heated?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


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The graph indicates the number of antelopes in a certain area over a period of time. Which of the following factors is most likely to have caused the sudden change in population between 1999 and 2000?

  (A) global warming

  (B) absence of predators

  (C) depletion of the ozone layer

  (D) brush fires that destroyed the food supply


Which of these diagrams best represents the structure of matter, starting with the more complex particles at the top and ending with the more fundamental particles at the bottom?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


image

Which of the following best explains why some railroad tracks are laid down with gaps between the metal rail spans?

  (A) To allow for the metal tracks to expand on hot days.

  (B) To allow for the metal tracks to expand on cold days.

  (C) To allow for cooling of the tracks by air in the gaps.

  (D) To allow for vibration of the tracks due to the train.


Susie has a potted plant. She sets up an experiment that shows that water travels through a plant into the air.

image

Which experiment would show this?

  (A) Put water in a container under the pot; water will disappear from the container.

  (B) Cover one of the stems of the plant with a plastic bag and water the plant; drops of water will be seen in the bag.

  (C) Place a cut stem from the plant in a plastic bag; water will be seen in the bag.

  (D) Place a cut stem from the plant in a glass colored water; the plant's leaves will change color.


Some volcanic rocks have many holes in them.

image

How were the holes made?

  (A) Insects dug into the rock when it was soft.

  (B) Gas bubbles were trapped in the rock when it cooled.

  (C) Rain dropped on the rock when it was soft.

  (D) Small stones fell out of the rock when it cooled.


A student attaches four drawing pins to a copper rod using candle wax as shown in the diagram. The rod is then heated continuously at one end and the pins fall off in the order 4, 3, 2, 1.

image

By which process does heat reach the pine?

  (A) expansion

  (B) radiation

  (C) conduction

  (D) convection


image

The diagram shows a plant cell. What is the function of the part of the cell labeled X?

  (A) It stores water.

  (B) It makes food.

  (C) It absorbs energy.

  (D) It controls activities.


Roller Coaster Jemond's favorite ride at the amusement park is the roller coaster. He especially likes the Coasting Thunder and Timber Coaster rides. These rides cause his heart to beat faster and harder. It takes a while for his body to get back to normal, but Jemond thinks the ride is worth it. Jemond decided to make a model of a roller coaster at home. He got some plastic track, a marble, and masking tape. He made a model with one big loop and two small loops, using the plastic track. He held one end of the track in the air and placed a marble at the top of that end. He let go of the marble to see of it would go through the entire length of the track without falling out. After several trials and adjustments, Jemond was successful at getting the marble to go through the entire length without falling out. Which graph best represents the speed of the roller coaster from point A to point B?

image

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Paul and Dalia live in eastern Washington. They want to build a new dog house for their dog, Fido, that will keep him warm in the winter. They built a model of their dog house using a shoebox as shown in the diagram below.

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Paul and Dalia conducted the following investigation using their dog house model. Question: How does insulating the walls and ceiling of a dog house model with different materials affect the inside temperature of the dog house model? Hypothesis (prediction): The inside temperature of the dog house model will be warmest when insulated with foam insulation. The reason for our prediction is foam insulation is used when building houses for people. Materials: dog house model timer thermometer freezer insulating materials • cardboard • foam insulation

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Procedure: 1. Measure the inside temperature of the dog house model and record as "Before" temperature. 2. Place the dog house model in the freezer. 3. After five minutes in the freezer, measure the inside temperature of the dog house model and record as "After" temperature. 4. Remove the dog house model from the freezer and let the model return to room temperature. 5. Insulate the inside walls and ceiling of the dog house model with cardboard insulation, then repeat steps 2, 3, and 4. 6. Repeat step 5 using foam insulation. 7. Starting at Step 1, repeat the entire investigation twice for Trials 2 and 3. Data:

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Which variable in the investigation was the responding (dependent) variable?

  (A) Temperature inside the freezer

  (B) Temperature inside the dog house model

  (C) Length of time the dog house model was in the freezer

  (D) Type of insulating material added to the dog house model


Paul and Dalia live in eastern Washington. They want to build a new dog house for their dog, Fido, that will keep him warm in the winter. They built a model of their dog house using a shoebox as shown in the diagram below.

image

Paul and Dalia conducted the following investigation using their dog house model. Question: How does insulating the walls and ceiling of a dog house model with different materials affect the inside temperature of the dog house model? Hypothesis (prediction): The inside temperature of the dog house model will be warmest when insulated with foam insulation. The reason for our prediction is foam insulation is used when building houses for people. Materials: dog house model timer thermometer freezer insulating materials • cardboard • foam insulation

image

Procedure: 1. Measure the inside temperature of the dog house model and record as "Before" temperature. 2. Place the dog house model in the freezer. 3. After five minutes in the freezer, measure the inside temperature of the dog house model and record as "After" temperature. 4. Remove the dog house model from the freezer and let the model return to room temperature. 5. Insulate the inside walls and ceiling of the dog house model with cardboard insulation, then repeat steps 2, 3, and 4. 6. Repeat step 5 using foam insulation. 7. Starting at Step 1, repeat the entire investigation twice for Trials 2 and 3. Data:

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Sunlight can raise the inside temperature of a real dog house. Which of the following changes to a real dog house would result in warmer inside temperatures due to sunlight?

  (A) Covering the dog house roof with a shiny metal material

  (B) Making the dog house roof thicker with the same material

  (C) Changing the dog house roof from a light color to a dark color

  (D) Adding a small metal air vent to the middle of the dog house roof


Paul and Dalia live in eastern Washington. They want to build a new dog house for their dog, Fido, that will keep him warm in the winter. They built a model of their dog house using a shoebox as shown in the diagram below.

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Paul and Dalia conducted the following investigation using their dog house model. Question: How does insulating the walls and ceiling of a dog house model with different materials affect the inside temperature of the dog house model? Hypothesis (prediction): The inside temperature of the dog house model will be warmest when insulated with foam insulation. The reason for our prediction is foam insulation is used when building houses for people. Materials: dog house model timer thermometer freezer insulating materials • cardboard • foam insulation

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Procedure: 1. Measure the inside temperature of the dog house model and record as "Before" temperature. 2. Place the dog house model in the freezer. 3. After five minutes in the freezer, measure the inside temperature of the dog house model and record as "After" temperature. 4. Remove the dog house model from the freezer and let the model return to room temperature. 5. Insulate the inside walls and ceiling of the dog house model with cardboard insulation, then repeat steps 2, 3, and 4. 6. Repeat step 5 using foam insulation. 7. Starting at Step 1, repeat the entire investigation twice for Trials 2 and 3. Data:

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Paul and Dalia considered using a solar-powered fan in Fido's dog house. The solar fan system is pictured below.

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Where is energy stored in the solar fan system?

  (A) Solar panel

  (B) Battery

  (C) Motor

  (D) Fan


What's Your Angle? Sunlight strikes Earth at different angles due to the shape of Earth, as shown below.

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Two students, Amy and Chris, wanted to know if the shape of Earth affects surface temperatures on Earth. They investigated this phenomenon with a model of the Earth-Sun system as described in the Earth-Sun Model. Question: What is the effect of the angle at which light strikes a wooden block on the surface temperature of that block? Hypothesis (prediction): As the angle that the light strikes the block increases to 90°, the block's surface temperature will increase because the light will strike the block more directly. Materials: wooden block thermometer black paper lamp protractor meter stick stand and clamp timer

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Procedure: 1. Lay the thermometer on the wooden block. 2. Cover the lower end of the thermometer with black paper and attach the paper to the wooden block. 3. Tilt the block so the light beams will strike at a 15° angle as shown in the Investigation Setup diagram. 4. Record the starting temperature of the block's surface. 5. Turn on the lamp. Record the temperature after 2.5 minutes and again after 5 minutes. 6. Turn off the lamp and wait 10 minutes for the thermometer to return to room temperature. 7. Repeat steps 3 through 6 using 30°, 60°, and 90° angles. Keep the lamp at the same distance from the wooden block for each condition. 8. Repeat steps 1 through 7 two more times as trials 2 and 3. Data:

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Which variable was the responding (dependent) variable in Chris and Amy's investigation?

  (A) Surface temperature of the wooden block

  (B) Distance of the lamp from the wooden block

  (C) Color of the paper covering the wooden block

  (D) Angle that light beams strike the wooden block


What's Your Angle? Sunlight strikes Earth at different angles due to the shape of Earth, as shown below.

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Two students, Amy and Chris, wanted to know if the shape of Earth affects surface temperatures on Earth. They investigated this phenomenon with a model of the Earth-Sun system as described in the Earth-Sun Model. Question: What is the effect of the angle at which light strikes a wooden block on the surface temperature of that block? Hypothesis (prediction): As the angle that the light strikes the block increases to 90°, the block's surface temperature will increase because the light will strike the block more directly. Materials: wooden block thermometer black paper lamp protractor meter stick stand and clamp timer

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Procedure: 1. Lay the thermometer on the wooden block. 2. Cover the lower end of the thermometer with black paper and attach the paper to the wooden block. 3. Tilt the block so the light beams will strike at a 15° angle as shown in the Investigation Setup diagram. 4. Record the starting temperature of the block's surface. 5. Turn on the lamp. Record the temperature after 2.5 minutes and again after 5 minutes. 6. Turn off the lamp and wait 10 minutes for the thermometer to return to room temperature. 7. Repeat steps 3 through 6 using 30°, 60°, and 90° angles. Keep the lamp at the same distance from the wooden block for each condition. 8. Repeat steps 1 through 7 two more times as trials 2 and 3. Data:

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Sunlight strikes Earth at different angles due to the shape of Earth as shown below.

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At which location would shadows be longest at noon on a clear summer day?

  (A) Location A

  (B) Location B

  (C) Location C

  (D) Location D


What's Your Angle? Sunlight strikes Earth at different angles due to the shape of Earth, as shown below.

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Two students, Amy and Chris, wanted to know if the shape of Earth affects surface temperatures on Earth. They investigated this phenomenon with a model of the Earth-Sun system as described in the Earth-Sun Model. Question: What is the effect of the angle at which light strikes a wooden block on the surface temperature of that block? Hypothesis (prediction): As the angle that the light strikes the block increases to 90°, the block's surface temperature will increase because the light will strike the block more directly. Materials: wooden block thermometer black paper lamp protractor meter stick stand and clamp timer

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Procedure: 1. Lay the thermometer on the wooden block. 2. Cover the lower end of the thermometer with black paper and attach the paper to the wooden block. 3. Tilt the block so the light beams will strike at a 15° angle as shown in the Investigation Setup diagram. 4. Record the starting temperature of the block's surface. 5. Turn on the lamp. Record the temperature after 2.5 minutes and again after 5 minutes. 6. Turn off the lamp and wait 10 minutes for the thermometer to return to room temperature. 7. Repeat steps 3 through 6 using 30°, 60°, and 90° angles. Keep the lamp at the same distance from the wooden block for each condition. 8. Repeat steps 1 through 7 two more times as trials 2 and 3. Data:

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Amy and Chris want to repeat their investigation with a different color paper over the thermometer. Which color would result in the lowest surface temperature of the block?

  (A) Red

  (B) Blue

  (C) White

  (D) Green


Soccer Soaker Rachel and José decided to help their town choose a site for a new soccer field. All four possible sites for the soccer field are next to the river that flows through the town. Rachel and José focused on finding the site that would probably not be affected by a flood. They documented the process they used as follows. Problem: Select a site for a new soccer field that will not be affected by the river flooding. Gather Information: Survey and map the sites. Note the types of sands, rocks, and soil. Evidence of past flooding was observed at each site. Investigate the measures that have been taken to prevent flooding such as remodeling the bridge and adding boulders to the riverbanks. Explore Ideas: Add more boulders to the riverbank. Use a stream table. Observe all of the sites for a year. Plan Summary: Use the stream table because the stream table can be set up to be a model of the different sites and the river. Steps to do the Plan: 1. Using information from the site survey, build a model of the river using the same sands, rocks, and soil from the actual river as shown in the Stream Table Model diagram. 2. Run water in the model stream for 10 minutes. 3. Observe and record the effect of the flowing water on the four sites. 4. Select the site in the model that is least affected by flooding.

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Test Solution:

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Which change to the Stream Table Model would make the test results more valid?

  (A) Move the bridge upstream of the four proposed sites.

  (B) Turn on the water hose for a longer period of time.

  (C) Move the sites most affected by the water flow.

  (D) Straighten the path of the river.


Soccer Soaker Rachel and José decided to help their town choose a site for a new soccer field. All four possible sites for the soccer field are next to the river that flows through the town. Rachel and José focused on finding the site that would probably not be affected by a flood. They documented the process they used as follows. Problem: Select a site for a new soccer field that will not be affected by the river flooding. Gather Information: Survey and map the sites. Note the types of sands, rocks, and soil. Evidence of past flooding was observed at each site. Investigate the measures that have been taken to prevent flooding such as remodeling the bridge and adding boulders to the riverbanks. Explore Ideas: Add more boulders to the riverbank. Use a stream table. Observe all of the sites for a year. Plan Summary: Use the stream table because the stream table can be set up to be a model of the different sites and the river. Steps to do the Plan: 1. Using information from the site survey, build a model of the river using the same sands, rocks, and soil from the actual river as shown in the Stream Table Model diagram. 2. Run water in the model stream for 10 minutes. 3. Observe and record the effect of the flowing water on the four sites. 4. Select the site in the model that is least affected by flooding.

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Test Solution:

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Which of these energy forms caused riverbank erosion in the Stream Table Model?

  (A) Chemical energy in the soil

  (B) Potential energy of the riverbank

  (C) Kinetic energy of the flowing water

  (D) Heat energy from lights in the room


Soccer Soaker Rachel and José decided to help their town choose a site for a new soccer field. All four possible sites for the soccer field are next to the river that flows through the town. Rachel and José focused on finding the site that would probably not be affected by a flood. They documented the process they used as follows. Problem: Select a site for a new soccer field that will not be affected by the river flooding. Gather Information: Survey and map the sites. Note the types of sands, rocks, and soil. Evidence of past flooding was observed at each site. Investigate the measures that have been taken to prevent flooding such as remodeling the bridge and adding boulders to the riverbanks. Explore Ideas: Add more boulders to the riverbank. Use a stream table. Observe all of the sites for a year. Plan Summary: Use the stream table because the stream table can be set up to be a model of the different sites and the river. Steps to do the Plan: 1. Using information from the site survey, build a model of the river using the same sands, rocks, and soil from the actual river as shown in the Stream Table Model diagram. 2. Run water in the model stream for 10 minutes. 3. Observe and record the effect of the flowing water on the four sites. 4. Select the site in the model that is least affected by flooding.

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Test Solution:

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Based on Rachel and José's test results, which site was probably least likely to flood?

  (A) Site A

  (B) Site B

  (C) Site C

  (D) Site D


Soccer Soaker Rachel and José decided to help their town choose a site for a new soccer field. All four possible sites for the soccer field are next to the river that flows through the town. Rachel and José focused on finding the site that would probably not be affected by a flood. They documented the process they used as follows. Problem: Select a site for a new soccer field that will not be affected by the river flooding. Gather Information: Survey and map the sites. Note the types of sands, rocks, and soil. Evidence of past flooding was observed at each site. Investigate the measures that have been taken to prevent flooding such as remodeling the bridge and adding boulders to the riverbanks. Explore Ideas: Add more boulders to the riverbank. Use a stream table. Observe all of the sites for a year. Plan Summary: Use the stream table because the stream table can be set up to be a model of the different sites and the river. Steps to do the Plan: 1. Using information from the site survey, build a model of the river using the same sands, rocks, and soil from the actual river as shown in the Stream Table Model diagram. 2. Run water in the model stream for 10 minutes. 3. Observe and record the effect of the flowing water on the four sites. 4. Select the site in the model that is least affected by flooding.

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Test Solution:

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Rachel and José would like to use their Stream Table Model to solve other problems in their community. Which question could best be investigated using only their Stream Table Model?

  (A) How does the shape of the land affect how fast the river flows?

  (B) How does vegetation type affect the health of the river?

  (C) Which type of canoe is easiest to navigate in the river?

  (D) Which river location would support the most fish?


Bean Machine Directions: Use the following information to answer the question. Sharon knew that water was necessary for seeds to germinate and develop roots. She wondered how water affects seed roots so she did the following investigation. Question: How does the volume of water given to bean seeds affect the direction of root growth? Hypothesis (prediction): Bean seeds given 3 milliliter (mL) or more of water daily will develop roots that grow straight down because that will be enough water for the seed to perform its life functions. Materials: clear plastic container soil bean seeds (all the same) toothpicks water graduated cylinder

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Procedure: 1. Set-up the plastic rectangular box as shown in the Investigation Setup Before Trial 1 diagram. 2. Water Seed A with 6 mL, Seed B with 5 mL, Seed C with 4 mL, Seed D with 3 mL, Seed E with 2 mL, and Seed F with 1 mL of water. Add the water every day directly to the soil that covers each seed. Do not water Seed G. 3. Record observations of the root development of each seed after 8 days. 4. Repeat steps 1-3 for a second trial.

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Sharon noticed that Seed E in Trial 2 sprouted differently than Seed E in Trial 1. Which of the following actions should Sharon take regarding this difference in her data? o

  (A) She should repeat the investigation to verify the results. o

  (B) She should ignore Trial 2 because Trial 1 was correct. o

  (C) She should change Trial 2 results to match Trial 1. o

  (D) She should look up the answer on the Internet.


Bean Machine Directions: Use the following information to answer the question. Sharon knew that water was necessary for seeds to germinate and develop roots. She wondered how water affects seed roots so she did the following investigation. Question: How does the volume of water given to bean seeds affect the direction of root growth? Hypothesis (prediction): Bean seeds given 3 milliliter (mL) or more of water daily will develop roots that grow straight down because that will be enough water for the seed to perform its life functions. Materials: clear plastic container soil bean seeds (all the same) toothpicks water graduated cylinder

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Procedure: 1. Set-up the plastic rectangular box as shown in the Investigation Setup Before Trial 1 diagram. 2. Water Seed A with 6 mL, Seed B with 5 mL, Seed C with 4 mL, Seed D with 3 mL, Seed E with 2 mL, and Seed F with 1 mL of water. Add the water every day directly to the soil that covers each seed. Do not water Seed G. 3. Record observations of the root development of each seed after 8 days. 4. Repeat steps 1-3 for a second trial.

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Which variable was the controlled (kept the same) variable in this investigation?

  (A) Length of root sprouted by each seed

  (B) Volume of water added to each seed

  (C) Direction the root sprouted

  (D) Type of seed sprouted


Bean Machine Directions: Use the following information to answer the question. Sharon knew that water was necessary for seeds to germinate and develop roots. She wondered how water affects seed roots so she did the following investigation. Question: How does the volume of water given to bean seeds affect the direction of root growth? Hypothesis (prediction): Bean seeds given 3 milliliter (mL) or more of water daily will develop roots that grow straight down because that will be enough water for the seed to perform its life functions. Materials: clear plastic container soil bean seeds (all the same) toothpicks water graduated cylinder

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Procedure: 1. Set-up the plastic rectangular box as shown in the Investigation Setup Before Trial 1 diagram. 2. Water Seed A with 6 mL, Seed B with 5 mL, Seed C with 4 mL, Seed D with 3 mL, Seed E with 2 mL, and Seed F with 1 mL of water. Add the water every day directly to the soil that covers each seed. Do not water Seed G. 3. Record observations of the root development of each seed after 8 days. 4. Repeat steps 1-3 for a second trial.

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Sharon"s bean seeds become bean plants. Bean plants make their own food. Which of the following factors is an input of this food-making process?

  (A) Sugar

  (B) Oxygen

  (C) Sunlight

  (D) Nitrogen


Bean Machine Directions: Use the following information to answer the question. Sharon knew that water was necessary for seeds to germinate and develop roots. She wondered how water affects seed roots so she did the following investigation. Question: How does the volume of water given to bean seeds affect the direction of root growth? Hypothesis (prediction): Bean seeds given 3 milliliter (mL) or more of water daily will develop roots that grow straight down because that will be enough water for the seed to perform its life functions. Materials: clear plastic container soil bean seeds (all the same) toothpicks water graduated cylinder

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Procedure: 1. Set-up the plastic rectangular box as shown in the Investigation Setup Before Trial 1 diagram. 2. Water Seed A with 6 mL, Seed B with 5 mL, Seed C with 4 mL, Seed D with 3 mL, Seed E with 2 mL, and Seed F with 1 mL of water. Add the water every day directly to the soil that covers each seed. Do not water Seed G. 3. Record observations of the root development of each seed after 8 days. 4. Repeat steps 1-3 for a second trial.

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Which statement describes why bean plants are classified as producers?

  (A) Bean plants produce their own food using sunlight.

  (B) Bean plants produce carbon dioxide using sugar.

  (C) Bean plants produce food for humans.

  (D) Bean plants produce seeds.


Garage Band Directions: Use the following information to answer the question. Dani and Angie wanted to practice playing music with their band in the garage. They used a model of a garage to do the following investigation to find out how to make the garage walls soundproof. Question: What is the effect of different materials inside a wall on the decrease in loudness of the sound that travels through the wall? Hypothesis (prediction): Air will decrease the loudness of the sound the most, because sound does not travel as well through air. Materials: wallboard box (large) wallboard box (small) materials to put inside the wall: fiberglass, stiff foam, packing peanuts, air, and wallboard sound generator with speaker sound measuring devices

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Procedure: 1. Put the materials together as shown in the Garage Model Setup Diagram. 2. Fill the space between the outer and inner boxes with fiberglass. 3. Turn on the sound generator to the loud setting. 4. Measure and record the loudness of the sound inside and outside the Garage Model. 5. Calculate and record the decrease in loudness of the sound as Trial 1. 6. Repeat steps 2 through 5 twice as Trials 2 and 3. 7. Remove the fiberglass. 8. Repeat the entire investigation using stiff foam, packing peanuts, air, and more wallboard as the materials between the inner and the outer boxes. 9. Calculate and record the average decrease in loudness for each material. Data:

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Sound changes speed as the sound moves from air through the wallboard. What causes this change in speed?

  (A) The sound travels a shorter distance in the wallboard.

  (B) The sound is moving through a different substance.

  (C) The sound spreads out more in air.

  (D) The sound is absorbed in the air.


Garage Band Directions: Use the following information to answer the question. Dani and Angie wanted to practice playing music with their band in the garage. They used a model of a garage to do the following investigation to find out how to make the garage walls soundproof. Question: What is the effect of different materials inside a wall on the decrease in loudness of the sound that travels through the wall? Hypothesis (prediction): Air will decrease the loudness of the sound the most, because sound does not travel as well through air. Materials: wallboard box (large) wallboard box (small) materials to put inside the wall: fiberglass, stiff foam, packing peanuts, air, and wallboard sound generator with speaker sound measuring devices

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Procedure: 1. Put the materials together as shown in the Garage Model Setup Diagram. 2. Fill the space between the outer and inner boxes with fiberglass. 3. Turn on the sound generator to the loud setting. 4. Measure and record the loudness of the sound inside and outside the Garage Model. 5. Calculate and record the decrease in loudness of the sound as Trial 1. 6. Repeat steps 2 through 5 twice as Trials 2 and 3. 7. Remove the fiberglass. 8. Repeat the entire investigation using stiff foam, packing peanuts, air, and more wallboard as the materials between the inner and the outer boxes. 9. Calculate and record the average decrease in loudness for each material. Data:

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How are the particles in the walls of the Garage Model affected when sound travels through?

  (A) The particles in the walls slow down.

  (B) The particles in the walls stop moving.

  (C) The particles in the walls spin in place.

  (D) The particles in the walls vibrate more.


Garage Band Directions: Use the following information to answer the question. Dani and Angie wanted to practice playing music with their band in the garage. They used a model of a garage to do the following investigation to find out how to make the garage walls soundproof. Question: What is the effect of different materials inside a wall on the decrease in loudness of the sound that travels through the wall? Hypothesis (prediction): Air will decrease the loudness of the sound the most, because sound does not travel as well through air. Materials: wallboard box (large) wallboard box (small) materials to put inside the wall: fiberglass, stiff foam, packing peanuts, air, and wallboard sound generator with speaker sound measuring devices

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Procedure: 1. Put the materials together as shown in the Garage Model Setup Diagram. 2. Fill the space between the outer and inner boxes with fiberglass. 3. Turn on the sound generator to the loud setting. 4. Measure and record the loudness of the sound inside and outside the Garage Model. 5. Calculate and record the decrease in loudness of the sound as Trial 1. 6. Repeat steps 2 through 5 twice as Trials 2 and 3. 7. Remove the fiberglass. 8. Repeat the entire investigation using stiff foam, packing peanuts, air, and more wallboard as the materials between the inner and the outer boxes. 9. Calculate and record the average decrease in loudness for each material. Data:

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How could Dani and Angie be more sure of the results of their investigation?

  (A) Use a new sound generator.

  (B) Change the size of the inner box.

  (C) Repeat the investigation the same way.

  (D) Use different materials between the boxes.


Susan gently pushes the tip of her finger against the eraser on her pencil and the pencil does not move. Which of the following figures best illustrates the interaction of forces between Susan's finger and her pencil?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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The figure below shows a Punnet Square for an inherited trait.

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The arrow is pointing to a circled genotype in the square. What genotype does the circled "dd" represent?

  (A) the genotype in the mother's egg

  (B) the genotype that only the girls will inherit

  (C) the genotype that any of the children could inherit

  (D) the genotype that exactly 1/4 of the children will inherit


Part of a topographical map is shown below.

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Which feature is most likely shown on the map?

  (A) lake

  (B) river

  (C) island

  (D) mountain


An incomplete energy transformation diagram is shown below.

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Wind turns a turbine and creates electricity. Which types of energy complete this energy transformation diagram for the turbine?

  (A) X: solar energy Y: mechanical energy

  (B) X: mechanical energy Y: nuclear energy

  (C) X: chemical energy Y: solar energy

  (D) X: nuclear energy Y: chemical energy


A teacher lights a candle that is placed inside a beaker.

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What will most likely happen to the flame if carbon dioxide is added to the beaker?

  (A) It will go out.

  (B) It will stay the same.

  (C) It will burn explosively.

  (D) It will burn more brightly.


The diagram below shows the top view of a student swinging a ball above her head.

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This ball continues to move in a circular path because

  (A) gravity pulls the ball downward.

  (B) some air resistance is present.

  (C) the string applies a force against the ball.

  (D) the weight of the string is the same weight as the ball.


The graph below shows the effect of temperature on the volume of a gas.

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Which generalization can be made about the relationship between the temperature and volume of a gas?

  (A) As the temperature of a gas decreases, its volume increases.

  (B) As the temperature of a gas decreases, its volume stays the same.

  (C) As the temperature of a gas increases, its volume increases.

  (D) As the temperature of a gas increases, its volume stays the same.


A marine food web is shown below.

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Which chart correctly shows three of the organisms according to their roles in cycling matter in the marine food web?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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Study the table below.

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Which question is most likely answered using the data in the table?

  (A) Will eagles and brown bears eat fish?

  (B) Do eagles and brown bears hunt at the same time?

  (C) Do brown bears affect the eagle population in the area?

  (D) Is the number of fish in the area due to seasonal changes?


The table below shows the characteristics of four stars.

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Based on the table, which star appears brightest to an observer on Earth?

  (A) star 1

  (B) star 2

  (C) star 3

  (D) star 4


Students are given two models below to plan a hiking trip to the top of a small mountain.

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Which model will give the best information for the students to prepare for their hike?

  (A) model W because it shows the top view

  (B) model W because it shows changes in elevation

  (C) model X because it shows the top view

  (D) model X because it shows changes in elevation


Use the topographic map to answer the question

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What are the shaded features shown on this topographic map?

  (A) lakes

  (B) valleys

  (C) islands

  (D) mountains


A student swings a ball attached to a string.

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The string breaks when the ball is in the location shown. Which arrow best shows the direction of the ball's motion immediately after the string breaks?

  (A) arrow W

  (B) arrow X

  (C) arrow Y

  (D) arrow Z


The graph below shows the speed of a vehicle over time.

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How far did the vehicle travel during the first two seconds?

  (A) 0.

  (B) m B 5 m

  (C) 10 m

  (D) 20 m


Data from an experiment are presented below.

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The slope of the graph represents what characteristic of an object?

  (A) displacement

  (B) force

  (C) speed

  (D) inertia


A diagram of the periodic table of the elements is shown below.

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In which region of the table would nonmetals be found?

  (A) 1

  (B) 2

  (C) 3

  (D) 4


The graph below shows how the position of an object changes over time.

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What is the speed of the object during the time interval from 4 seconds to 10 seconds?

  (A)

  (B) m/s B

  (C) m/s C 8 m/s

  (D) 16 m/s


A force is acting on each of the objects below.

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What can be concluded about these forces?

  (A) They are the same because they point toward the objects.

  (B) They are the same because they have the same magnitude.

  (C) They are different because they have different magnitudes.

  (D) They are different because they have different directions.


The table below shows the atomic mass of four stable calcium (Ca) isotopes.

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What characteristic is different in each isotope?

  (A) the position in the periodic table of the elements

  (B) the net charge of the nucleus

  (C) the mass of the protons in the nucleus

  (D) the number of neutrons in the nucleus


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The galaxies pictured above would best be classified as

  (A) barred galaxies.

  (B) spiral galaxies.

  (C) irregular galaxies.

  (D) symmetrical galaxies.


Mr. Roberts drives his car away from his house at a constant speed. Which of the following graphs best shows the relationship between the distance traveled and the time spent driving?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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Ice forms in the cracks of a basalt rock formation and breaks some rock into smaller pieces. The diagram below shows part of the rock cycle.

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At which point in the cycle shown above would the process of breaking down rocks occur?

  (A) J

  (B) K

  (C) L

  (D) M


Students in Ms. Alvarez's eighth grade science class are investigating how temperature, in degrees Celsius (°C), affects the solubility of a compound in 100 milliliters (mL) of water. Ms. Alvarez provides the students with a graph that shows the solubility of a certain compound, as shown below.

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She then tells the students that she will demonstrate how many grams (g) of the compound will dissolve in 100 mL of water at 40°C. Based on the information in the graph, which of the following is the best prediction of how many grams of the compound will dissolve at 40°C?

  (A) 40 g

  (B) 65 g

  (C) 85 g

  (D) 100 g


The map of Massachusetts below shows where physical evidence of changes can be found.

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Which of these is the best indication that Massachusetts' climate has changed over time?

  (A) earthquake

  (B) forest fire

  (C) beach erosion

  (D) glacial deposit


Which of the following lists is in order from smallest to largest?

  (A) universe -> solar system -> galaxy

  (B) galaxy -> solar system -> universe

  (C) solar system -> universe -> galaxy

  (D) solar system -> galaxy -> universe


Which of the following diagrams best shows the relative positions of Earth, the Moon, and the Sun during a lunar eclipse?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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The diagram below shows the evolutionary relationship of several primates.

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Based on the diagram, which of the following statements is true?

  (A) Lemurs were the most recent to evolve.

  (B) Gorillas evolved directly from chimpanzees.

  (C) Spider monkeys and lemurs evolved at the same time.

  (D) Gorillas and baboons evolved from a common ancestor.


The diagrams below represent forms of reproduction. In which form of reproduction will the offspring differ most from the parent?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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The numbered drawings below show the organization within a multicellular organism from simple to complex.

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Which of these numbered drawings represents a tissue? A.

  (A)

  (B) 2

  (C) 3

  (D) 4


The diagrams below illustrate two blocks composed of different materials.

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If Block A is located on the Moon and Block B is located on Earth, what property do these two blocks have in common?

  (A) They have the same mass.

  (B) They have the same weight.

  (C) They have the same volume.

  (D) They have the same surface area.


During a remodeling project, homeowners want to remove a wall that separates two rooms in their house. The wall and the two rooms are shown in the diagram below.

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According to building codes, the homeowners must add a beam in the ceiling when they remove the existing wall. Which statement best explains why the homeowners must do this?

  (A) The wall provides heat insulation for the rooms.

  (B) The wall provides structural support for the house.

  (C) The wall provides a sound barrier between the rooms.

  (D) The wall provides a place to hang objects in the house.


Four different-colored blocks are placed outside in bright sunlight. The blocks are identical except for color. The diagram below shows the amount of light reflected from each block.

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Which block will increase in temperature most rapidly?

  (A) block 1

  (B) block 2

  (C) block 3

  (D) block 4


The diagram below shows four layers of Earth. Each layer is identified by a number.

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Which layer of Earth is composed primarily of solid iron? A. layer

  (A)

  (B) layer 2

  (C) layer 3

  (D) layer 4


The picture below shows a machine used in a factory to make metal parts for toy cars.

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What is the most likely purpose of this machine in making the metal parts?

  (A) to sand the parts

  (B) to make holes in the parts

  (C) to fasten the parts together

  (D) to measure the size of the parts


  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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The illustration below represents two protists.

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What do these two organisms have in common?

  (A) They are unicellular.

  (B) They cause diseases.

  (C) They live underground.

  (D) They are photosynthetic.


The diagram below shows the X chromosomes in a female fruit fly and the X and Y chromosomes in a male fruit fly.

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The two fruit flies are crossed with each other. The female offspring of the fruit flies will receive which pair of chromosomes?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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The graph below represents the motion of a runner during a 2000-meter race.

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During which of the following time periods is the runner's speed constant?

  (A) 0 -8 min

  (B) 2-8 min

  (C)

  (D) -8 min D. 6 -8 min


The picture below shows an airplane wing with the flaps down.

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A pilot lowers the flaps before takeoff to increase which of the following forces?

  (A) drag

  (B) gravity

  (C) lift

  (D) thrust


The diagram below shows the outline of a box that is closed on all sides.

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Which of the following patterns could be used to create the box?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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The diagram below represents a cycle in an ecosystem.

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Which of the following do the arrows most likely represent?

  (A) heat

  (B) nutrients

  (C) sunlight

  (D) water


The X on the map below shows the location of a physical feature.

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Which of the following is most likely marked by the X on the map?

  (A) a cliff

  (B) a plain

  (C) a river

  (D) a valley


A natural process is represented in the box below.

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Which of the following processes is represented in the box?

  (A) decomposition

  (B) metamorphosis

  (C) photosynthesis

  (D) respiration


The table below compares the average daily temperatures during the month of July in two cities. Both cities are along the Atlantic Ocean. Baltimore, Maryland, is in the Northern Hemisphere, and Buenos Aires, Argentina, is in the Southern Hemisphere

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Which statement best explains why Baltimore is warmer in July?

  (A) Ocean waves keep Baltimore warmer in July.

  (B) There are fewer hours of daylight in Baltimore in July.

  (C) The Northern Hemisphere is tilted toward the sun in July.

  (D) The Southern Hemisphere is tilted toward the sun in July.


Use the information and the map below to answer the question. The map shows a site for a proposed housing development near a town. A wastewater treatment plant for the housing area will be built along the stream, between the proposed development and the landfill. The stream flows through a saltwater marsh and into a river. The river empties into an estuary, similar to the Chesapeake Bay.

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Which outcome will most likely have a positive effect on the environment of the town downstream from the proposed development?

  (A) increased traffic on local roads

  (B) decreased marsh land for marsh organisms

  (C) decreased land devoted for human recreation

  (D) increased awareness of human impact on the area


Use the diagram below to answer the question. A student produces a series of waves, as shown below.

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Which number in the diagram represents a wavelength?

  (A) 1

  (B) 2

  (C) 3

  (D) 4


Use the diagram below to answer the question. A student produces a series of waves, as shown below.

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Which of the following changes in wave properties is a result of an increase in wavelength?

  (A) higher crests

  (B) reduced height

  (C) lower frequency

  (D) faster movement


Use the diagram below to answer the question. A student produces a series of waves, as shown below.

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Which change in wave properties increases wave amplitude?

  (A) greater length

  (B) increased height

  (C) decreased frequency

  (D) shortened wavelength


The data table below includes information about how temperature affects the state of matter for three substances.

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The information in the table indicates that

  (A) the atoms in matter slow when heated

  (B) temperature physically changes matter

  (C) temperature chemically changes matter

  (D) the atoms in matter change shape when heated


Strip cropping is a method of farming that plants two types of crops at the same time. The crops are planted in alternating sections across the slope of a field or at a right angle to the prevailing winds.

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Why do farmers most likely use strip cropping?

  (A) to provide shelter for animals

  (B) to protect the soil from erosion

  (C) to protect the crops from weeds

  (D) to provide different types of food


Use the information below to answer the question. The rock cycle is a process that alters sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous rocks. The diagram below shows the rock cycle.

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Which process forms igneous rock?

  (A) weathering of rock

  (B) cooling of liquid magma

  (C) heat and pressure changing solid rock

  (D) compaction and cementation of loose material


Use the information below to answer the question. The rock cycle is a process that alters sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous rocks. The diagram below shows the rock cycle.

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Which type of rock contains the best fossil record?

  (A) igneous

  (B) magma

  (C) metamorphic

  (D) sedimentary


An electromagnet is shown below.

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Which change would decrease the strength of the electromagnet?

  (A) using an iron nail

  (B) using an additional battery

  (C) using more wire coils around the nail

  (D) using fewer wire coils around the nail


Kidneys are bean-shaped organs that filter waste from the bloodstream. Which model best demonstrates how a kidney functions?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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Use the information and the picture below to answer the question. Engineers tested the safety of a new model of car. The engineers designed safety tests and collected data from those tests. One test is pictured below.

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An apple was placed on the back seat of the car. The car was then accelerated toward the barrier at 60 kilometers per hour (kph). Which statement best describes the motion of the apple immediately after the car hit the barrier?

  (A) The apple moved forward at 30 kph.

  (B) The apple moved forward at 60 kph.

  (C) The apple moved backward at 30 kph.

  (D) The apple moved backward at 60 kph.


Use the information and the picture below to answer the question. Engineers tested the safety of a new model of car. The engineers designed safety tests and collected data from those tests. One test is pictured below.

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Which part of a car transforms chemical energy into electrical energy?

  (A) the brakes

  (B) the battery

  (C) the wheels

  (D) the accelerator


The diagram below shows the moon in one of its crescent phases.

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Which statement best explains the cause of the phases of the moon?

  (A) The sun hides part of the surface of the moon.

  (B) The sun, the moon, and Earth are in a straight line in space.

  (C) Only part of the illuminated moon is visible from Earth.

  (D) Only the light from the back side of the sun is reflected by the moon.


Use the information below to answer the question. The data table below shows the time of sunrise and sunset in four different cities on May 2. Each city is located within the same time zone of the United States.

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On which of these days will the total hours of daylight be the greatest in each of the four cities?

  (A) January 28

  (B) March 21

  (C) June 21

  (D) November 30


Use the picture below to answer the question.

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The picture shows a close-up view of fossils found within the cliff wall. This cliff is most likely composed of

  (A) igneous rock

  (B) molten rock

  (C) metamorphic rock

  (D) sedimentary rock


Use the picture below to answer the question.

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Why do scientists study fossils?

  (A) to learn how the planet was formed

  (B) to study how organisms changed over time

  (C) to observe how drought affected the landscape

  (D) to understand how weathering affected rock layers


Use the information below to answer the question. Silver nitrate (AgNO3) a colorless powder, consists of the metallic element silver (Ag) and two non-metallic elements, nitrogen and oxygen (N and O). Silver nitrate mixed with water (H2O) forms a clear solution. When a piece of copper wire (Cu) is put into a silver nitrate solution, the clear solution turns blue. A silvery white substance forms on the wire and falls to the bottom of the solution.

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What is the best method for separating the silvery white substance from the liquid in the beaker?

  (A) absorption

  (B) chromatography

  (C) condensation

  (D) filtration


Use the information and diagrams below to answer the question. Astrammina rara is a unicellular organism that is several millimeters long. This organism lives on the ocean floor of Antarctica in an area called Explorer's Cove. Astrammina rara builds a shell by cementing grains of sand from the ocean floor together. The organism either absorbs nutrients from the water or eats other organisms on the ocean floor. The offspring of Astrammina rara have genes identical to the parent. Below is a diagram of an Astrammina rara and a map showing where the organism lives.

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Asexual reproduction by Astrammina rara

  (A) involves an egg and a sperm

  (B) requires a male and a female

  (C) reduces the variation in the offspring

  (D) increases the variation in the offspring


Use the information and diagrams below to answer the question. Astrammina rara is a unicellular organism that is several millimeters long. This organism lives on the ocean floor of Antarctica in an area called Explorer's Cove. Astrammina rara builds a shell by cementing grains of sand from the ocean floor together. The organism either absorbs nutrients from the water or eats other organisms on the ocean floor. The offspring of Astrammina rara have genes identical to the parent. Below is a diagram of an Astrammina rara and a map showing where the organism lives.

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Which statement best describes how genetic information is passed to the offspring of Astrammina rara?

  (A) The genetic information comes from the egg.

  (B) The genetic information comes from the sperm.

  (C) All of the genetic information comes from one parent.

  (D) Half of the genetic information comes from one parent.


Use the information and diagrams below to answer the question. Astrammina rara is a unicellular organism that is several millimeters long. This organism lives on the ocean floor of Antarctica in an area called Explorer's Cove. Astrammina rara builds a shell by cementing grains of sand from the ocean floor together. The organism either absorbs nutrients from the water or eats other organisms on the ocean floor. The offspring of Astrammina rara have genes identical to the parent. Below is a diagram of an Astrammina rara and a map showing where the organism lives.

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Which of the following reasons best explains why Astrammina rara builds a shell?

  (A) to grind food

  (B) to attract a mate

  (C) to absorb sunlight

  (D) to blend with the ocean floor


Use the information below to answer the question. Coal-burning power plants in Maryland release sulfur and nitrogen products into the air that contribute to soot, smog, and acid rain.These have direct effects on the air quality and are thought to increase the temperatures on Earth. Mercury is also released from coal-burning power plants and is often found in organisms in water. Humans who eat these mercury-contaminated organisms develop brain and nerve tissue more slowly than humans who do not eat mercury-contaminated organisms.

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What is the most likely effect on the Maryland environment if increased temperatures melt ice at the North Pole?

  (A) an increase in sea level

  (B) an increase in waste production

  (C) a decrease in area plant species

  (D) a decrease in local fish populations


Use the information below to answer the question. Coal-burning power plants in Maryland release sulfur and nitrogen products into the air that contribute to soot, smog, and acid rain.These have direct effects on the air quality and are thought to increase the temperatures on Earth. Mercury is also released from coal-burning power plants and is often found in organisms in water. Humans who eat these mercury-contaminated organisms develop brain and nerve tissue more slowly than humans who do not eat mercury-contaminated organisms.

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Which human action would most likely decrease the release of mercury?

  (A) limiting the number of boats in waterways

  (B) building more hydroelectric power plants

  (C) limiting the number of vehicles on roads

  (D) building more coal-burning power plants


Students measured the length of a flagpole shadow several times during a day. The students recorded their data in the table below.

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What is the length of the flagpole shadow at 1 P.M.?

  (A) 0 meters

  (B) 2 meters

  (C) 4 meters

  (D) 6 meters


Waves produced by different sources are shown in the data table below.

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Which statement best describes the relationship among the waves?

  (A) All transfer energy.

  (B) All are the same frequency.

  (C) All have equal wavelengths.

  (D) All travel at the same speed.


Use the information below to answer the question. The Aleutian Trench is an underwater feature, near Alaska, formed by the movement of two tectonic plates. As the North American Plate moves toward the Pacific Plate, the lower edge of the Pacific Plate becomes part of the mantle.

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Which geologic event often occurs along crustal plate boundaries?

  (A) glacial erosion

  (B) delta formation

  (C) volcanic activity

  (D) sand dune formation


Use the information below to answer the question. The Aleutian Trench is an underwater feature, near Alaska, formed by the movement of two tectonic plates. As the North American Plate moves toward the Pacific Plate, the lower edge of the Pacific Plate becomes part of the mantle.

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The core of Earth is best described as

  (A) a hot mass of metal

  (B) a cold mass of metal

  (C) less dense than the crust

  (D) less dense than the mantle


A human baby and adult are pictured below.

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Which of the following processes enables the baby to become an adult?

  (A) development of new genes

  (B) genetic changes

  (C) production of sex cells

  (D) repeated cell divisions


Use the information below to answer the question. Coal-burning power plants in Maryland release sulfur and nitrogen products into the air that contribute to soot, smog, and acid rain.These have direct effects on the air quality and are thought to increase the temperatures on Earth. Mercury is also released from coal-burning power plants and is often found in organisms in water. Humans who eat these mercury-contaminated organisms develop brain and nerve tissue more slowly than humans who do not eat mercury-contaminated organisms.

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How does air pollution in Maryland most likely affect residents of surrounding states?

  (A) The residents experience more respiratory illnesses.

  (B) The residents experience fewer eye infections.

  (C) The residents harvest more vegetable crops.

  (D) The residents produce less electricity.


Use the information below to answer the question. Students investigated how the design of a paper airplane affects the amount of time the airplane stays in the air and the distance the airplane travels. The students tested two airplane designs and kept all other variables constant. The students recorded their data in the tables below.

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Which graph best represents the data for distance traveled?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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Use the information below to answer the question. Students investigated how the design of a paper airplane affects the amount of time the airplane stays in the air and the distance the airplane travels. The students tested two airplane designs and kept all other variables constant. The students recorded their data in the tables below.

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After Trial 1, a group of students decided that Airplane Y would travel farther and stay in the air a greater amount of time than Airplane Z. Which is the best scientific reason the students should repeat the trial at least three times?

  (A) to follow the teacher's instructions

  (B) to reduce the likelihood of a design defect

  (C) to change the unit of measurement for distance

  (D) to reduce the likelihood of inaccurate results


Use the information and data table below to answer the question. A scientist prepared six mixtures in glass beakers, as indicated in the data table below. Each beaker was tightly covered, labeled, and left undisturbed for several days. After several days, the scientist observed that the gray iron filings in Mixture 4 had turned red.

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Which process would best separate the substances of Mixture 3?

  (A) chromatography

  (B) crystallization

  (C) filtration

  (D) precipitation


Use the information and data table below to answer the question. A scientist prepared six mixtures in glass beakers, as indicated in the data table below. Each beaker was tightly covered, labeled, and left undisturbed for several days. After several days, the scientist observed that the gray iron filings in Mixture 4 had turned red.

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The color change in Mixture 4 indicates that

  (A) a precipitate formed

  (B) gases were produced

  (C) the iron filings evaporated

  (D) a chemical reaction occurred


Use the information and table below to answer the question. The table below compares Earth and Saturn.

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The amount of time in a day on Saturn is less than the amount of time in a day on Earth because Saturn

  (A) has a shorter axis

  (B) has a more tilted axis

  (C) rotates more slowly on its axis

  (D) rotates more quickly on its axis


Use the information and table below to answer the question. The table below compares Earth and Saturn.

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Earth and Saturn are tilted on their axes at similar angles. What feature of both planets do the angles affect?

  (A) different seasons

  (B) prevailing wind direction

  (C) average atmospheric pressure

  (D) average atmospheric tempera


Organisms that have physical features common to both plants and animals are difficult to classify. The diagram below shows physical features of a euglena.

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Which euglena feature caused some scientists to classify the euglena as a plant?

  (A) chloroplast

  (B) eyespot

  (C) flagellum

  (D) nucleus


Use the information below to answer the question. The gypsy moth was accidentally brought into the United States.The caterpillars of these moths eat the leaves of hardwood trees. Eating these leaves decreases the growth of the trees and may cause the trees to die. A gypsy moth and gypsy moth caterpillar are pictured below.

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Why do gypsy moth caterpillars eat leaves?

  (A) to destroy the hardwood tree

  (B) to extract energy for growth

  (C) to obtain trapped oxygen

  (D) to produce their own food


Use the information below to answer the question. The gypsy moth was accidentally brought into the United States.The caterpillars of these moths eat the leaves of hardwood trees. Eating these leaves decreases the growth of the trees and may cause the trees to die. A gypsy moth and gypsy moth caterpillar are pictured below.

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How would an increase in the number of gypsy moth caterpillars affect an environment?

  (A) Air temperatures would decrease.

  (B) Tree populations would decrease.

  (C) The diversity of trees would increase.

  (D) The amount of oxygen in the air would increase.


Use the information below to answer the question. Unknown Liquid Demonstrations A science teacher played a short video of two demonstrations that used the same unknown clear liquid. Demonstration 1: The teacher in the video placed one drop of the unknown clear liquid onto a piece of pH paper. The pH paper turned red, indicating a pH of 2.

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Demonstration 2: The teacher in the video placed a beaker containing a copper penny under an operating fume hood, which safely removes gases. With the fume hood running, the teacher placed one drop of the unknown clear liquid on the copper penny. A dark red gas and a blue liquid immediately formed. The chemical property of copper shown in the second demonstration is identified as

  (A) a reaction with acid

  (B) the formation of rust

  (C) a reaction with oxygen

  (D) the formation of a base


Use the information below to answer the question. Unknown Liquid Demonstrations A science teacher played a short video of two demonstrations that used the same unknown clear liquid. Demonstration 1: The teacher in the video placed one drop of the unknown clear liquid onto a piece of pH paper. The pH paper turned red, indicating a pH of 2.

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Demonstration 2: The teacher in the video placed a beaker containing a copper penny under an operating fume hood, which safely removes gases. With the fume hood running, the teacher placed one drop of the unknown clear liquid on the copper penny. A dark red gas and a blue liquid immediately formed. The unknown clear liquid used in the demonstrations is best classified as

  (A) a weak acid

  (B) a weak base

  (C) a strong acid

  (D) a strong base


Use the information and the table below to answer the question. A group of students used lab equipment to investigate 25 milliliters each of three different liquids. The students then researched additional information about the three liquids. The results of the investigations and research are shown in the table below.

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Which change occurs when heat energy is added to the liquids?

  (A) The liquids change mass.

  (B) The liquids change state of matter.

  (C) The molecules in the liquids become larger.

  (D) The molecules in the liquids become lighter.


Use the following data table to answer the question.

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According to the data table, which two organisms are most closely related?

  (A) 1 and 2

  (B) 1 and 5

  (C) 2 and 4

  (D) 4 and 5


The graph below represents the distance an object traveled in 12 seconds.

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Which statement describes the motion of the object between 4 seconds and 8 seconds?

  (A) The object is not moving.

  (B) The object is moving sideways.

  (C) The speed of the object is increasing.

  (D) The speed of the object is decreasing.


Use the information below to answer the question. Wind Energy or Coal Energy Most of Maryland's electricity comes from coal-fired power plants. Coal-fired power plants are inexpensive to operate but release harmful gases and solid particles into the air. These harmful gases contain chemicals that combine with water vapor, turning ordinary rain into acid rain. Wind turbines transform wind into electrical energy and do not produce harmful gases. Wind turbines can be constructed offshore in the ocean. Some people object to the turbines because the turbines are expensive and the motion of the blades may affect wildlife.

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Using wind turbines instead of burning coal affects the natural processes in Maryland by

  (A) slowing down the water cycle

  (B) distributing liquid water more evenly

  (C) increasing the amount of liquid water available

  (D) keeping harmful chemicals out of the water cycle


Use the information below to answer the question. Wind Energy or Coal Energy Most of Maryland's electricity comes from coal-fired power plants. Coal-fired power plants are inexpensive to operate but release harmful gases and solid particles into the air. These harmful gases contain chemicals that combine with water vapor, turning ordinary rain into acid rain. Wind turbines transform wind into electrical energy and do not produce harmful gases. Wind turbines can be constructed offshore in the ocean. Some people object to the turbines because the turbines are expensive and the motion of the blades may affect wildlife.

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Which group would be most negatively affected by the appearance of the wind turbines off the coast of Maryland?

  (A) people who like to visit Maryland

  (B) people who construct wind turbines

  (C) Maryland residents who live near wind turbines

  (D) Maryland residents who want to prevent acid rain


Use the information and the diagram below to answer the question. Wave Motion in a Plastic Spring Two students investigated wave motion in a plastic spring. Each student held an end of the spring on a table 1.5 meters long. Student A compressed and released a portion of the spring. This action produced a wave that traveled through the spring across the table. Using a stopwatch, the students determined that the wave traveled through the spring in 0.5 seconds.

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The wave motion produced by the spring transfers

  (A) energy

  (B) friction

  (C) mass

  (D) particles


Use the information and map below to answer the question. The tectonic plates on opposite sides of a rift zone are continuously moving outward, away from a break in the crust of Earth. The Mid-Atlantic Rift Zone is located in the Atlantic Ocean. This rift zone stretches from the Arctic Ocean in the Northern Hemisphere to beyond the southern tip of Africa in the Southern Hemisphere. Within the central rift zone, new crust forms. Iceland is an island sitting atop the northern part of the Mid-Atlantic Rift Zone. Over time, activity along the rift zone has changed the geologic features of Iceland.

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How will movement of the tectonic plates most likely continue to change the geologic features of Iceland?

  (A) The surrounding ocean will cover Iceland.

  (B) The glaciers covering Iceland will increase.

  (C) The surface of Iceland will become smooth and flat.

  (D) The surface of Iceland will increase from east to west.


Use the information and map below to answer the question. The tectonic plates on opposite sides of a rift zone are continuously moving outward, away from a break in the crust of Earth. The Mid-Atlantic Rift Zone is located in the Atlantic Ocean. This rift zone stretches from the Arctic Ocean in the Northern Hemisphere to beyond the southern tip of Africa in the Southern Hemisphere. Within the central rift zone, new crust forms. Iceland is an island sitting atop the northern part of the Mid-Atlantic Rift Zone. Over time, activity along the rift zone has changed the geologic features of Iceland.

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Which action is most likely responsible for the movement of the tectonic plates?

  (A) the rotation of Earth on its axis

  (B) the gravitational force of the sun

  (C) magnetic attraction from the core

  (D) convection currents in the mantle


Which diagram represents the change of ice to water?

  (A)

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  (B)

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  (C)

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  (D)

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The diagram below shows a plant structure.

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Which levels of organization are included in the diagram?

  (A) cell and organ

  (B) cell and tissue

  (C) organ and organism

  (D) organ and organ system


The diagram below shows a moon revolving around a planet in an elliptical orbit.

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At which location is the gravitational pull between the moon and the planet the weakest ? A. location

  (A)

  (B) location 2

  (C) location 3

  (D) location 4


The Venn diagram below shows plant and animal characteristics.

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Which characteristic shared by plants and animals belongs in the space marked X ?

  (A) Locomotion

  (B) Multicellular

  (C) Photosynthetic

  (D) Producer


When electricity passes through water, hydrogen and oxygen are produced. Which table correctly labels the compounds and elements involved in the process?

  (A)

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  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

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A metal pot with hot soup in it is placed on a cool stone countertop, as shown in the diagram below.

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The numbered arrows show the transfer of heat from the pot of soup to the surrounding environment. Which list identifies each method of heat transfer? A. 1 - conduction; 2 - convection; 3 - radiation B. 1 - convection; 2 - conduction; 3 -radiation C. 1 - radiation; 2 - radiation; 3 - convection D.

  (A) - convection;

  (B) - conduction;

  (C) - conduction


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The Percula clownfish can often be seen hiding in the tentacles of the poisonous Carpet anemone. Clownfish are covered with a slime layer that protects them from the poisonous tentacles of the Carpet anemone. These tentacles keep clownfish safe from predators. Bits of food from the clownfish's meals provide the Carpet anemone with food. What type of relationship do the clownfish and the Carpet anemone share?

  (A) parasitic

  (B) competitive

  (C) predator-prey

  (D) mutually benefi


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The graph above shows the range of tolerance to temperature for 4 (four) species of freshwater fish. Which species is most likely to survive large variations in temperature?

  (A) Species 1

  (B) Species 2

  (C) Species 3

  (D) Species 4


Use the information below to answer the question. The picture below shows one possible food web for a Great Lakes ecosystem. Based on your understanding of ecosystem interactions, answer the following questions.

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An increase in salmon and trout fishing by humans in recent years has most likely resulted in

  (A) greater plant productivity.

  (B) a reduced food supply for eagles.

  (C) reduced tourism on the Great Lakes.

  (D) an increase in the life expectancy of ducks.


Use the information below to answer the question. The picture below shows one possible food web for a Great Lakes ecosystem. Based on your understanding of ecosystem interactions, answer the following questions.

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The relationship between the small fish and invertebrates is best described as

  (A) predator - prey.

  (B) producer - predator.

  (C) consumer - parasite.

  (D) consumer - decomposer.


Use the information below to answer the question. The picture below shows one possible food web for a Great Lakes ecosystem. Based on your understanding of ecosystem interactions, answer the following questions.

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Which of the organisms in the food web produces its own food?

  (A) invertebrates

  (B) vegetation

  (C) small fish

  (D) ducks


Use the information below to answer the question. Casey has two glass jars of the same size. He fills one with water; the other contains air. He places a flat magnet on the top of each lid and a metal ball bearing on the inside of each lid under the magnet. He then screws each lid onto a jar. The magnets hold the ball bearings in place under the lids. Casey then removes the magnets at the same time, and the ball bearings drop into the jars.

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How does the molecular arrangement of water differ from the molecular arrangement of air?

  (A) The molecules in water are much larger than the molecules in air.

  (B) The molecules in water are closer together than the molecules in air.

  (C) The molecules in water are vibrating faster than the molecules in air.

  (D) The molecules in water are opaque, and the molecules in air are transparent.


Use the information below to answer the question.

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The sun, Earth, and eight other planets make up our solar system. Other objects that travel around our sun are also included as a part of our solar system. Astronomers have studied the objects in the solar system for thousands of years, but only recently have they been able to study the planets in detail. The chart above shows many of the features and characteristics of the planets in our solar system. According to the chart, Earth makes one full rotation on its axis approximately every 24 hours. Suppose Earth's period of rotation increased to 28 hours. Which of the following changes would occur?

  (A) There would be fewer days in a week.

  (B) The length of daylight and nighttime would increase.

  (C) Earth's distance from the sun would decrease.

  (D) It would take Earth longer to revolve around the sun.


Use the information below to answer the question.

image

The sun, Earth, and eight other planets make up our solar system. Other objects that travel around our sun are also included as a part of our solar system. Astronomers have studied the objects in the solar system for thousands of years, but only recently have they been able to study the planets in detail. The chart above shows many of the features and characteristics of the planets in our solar system. Current scientific evidence indicates that there is no liquid water on Mars, but there is frozen water. This is due to the fact that temperatures on Mars, even during the summer, are well below 0°C (32°F). Which of the following changes would most likely allow for an increase in temperature and the presence of liquid water on Mars?

  (A) a decrease in the tilt of Mars' axis

  (B) an increase in Mars' period of rotation

  (C) an increase in Mars' period of revolution

  (D) a decrease in Mars' distance from the sun


Use the information below to answer the question.

image

The sun, Earth, and eight other planets make up our solar system. Other objects that travel around our sun are also included as a part of our solar system. Astronomers have studied the objects in the solar system for thousands of years, but only recently have they been able to study the planets in detail. The chart above shows many of the features and characteristics of the planets in our solar system. Astronomers believe that there are about 100,000 comets that travel through our solar system. Comets are chunks of ice, dust, and gas that orbit around our sun. Which of the following can be observed from Earth as comets get closer to the sun?

  (A) They explode.

  (B) Their gases burn.

  (C) Their tails get longer.

  (D) They begin to slow down.


The following question refers to the topographic map below, which shows Willow Hill (elevation 312 feet) and Hobbes Creek. On the map, each contour line represents 20 feet of elevation.

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In which general direction does Hobbes Creek flow?

  (A) To the north

  (B) To the east

  (C) To the south

  (D) To the west


In the picture of a cell below, which label indicates the part of the cell that contains most of the cell's genetic material?

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1.

  (A)

  (B) 2

  (C) 3

  (D) 4


A wire is cut into four pieces of different lengths. Each piece is stretched between two supports to the same tightness. Which of the pieces, shown below, would give the highest pitch if it were plucked in the middle?

  (A)

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  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The following question refer to the following information. Meg designs an experiment to see which of three types of sneakers provides the most friction. She uses the equipment listed below. Sneaker 1 Sneaker 2 Sneaker 3 Spring scale She uses the setup illustrated below and pulls the spring scale to the left

image

In what direction does the force of friction act?

  (A) To the left

  (B) To the right

  (C) Upward

  (D) Downward


The following question refer to the following diagram, which represents a portion of Earth's water cycle.

image

Which process is represented by 2?

  (A) Liquid water evaporating

  (B) Cool air warming as it rises

  (C) Clouds blocking the Sun's energy

  (D) Water vapor condensing


Three funnels were filled with equal volumes of pebbles, fine sand, and coarse sand, as shown in the diagram below. The same amount of water was poured into each funnel.

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Which correctly lists the order in which the water passed through the funnels, from fastest to slowest?

  (A) Pebbles, fine sand, coarse sand

  (B) Pebbles, coarse sand, fine sand

  (C) Fine sand, coarse sand, pebbles

  (D) Coarse sand, pebbles, fine sand


The flashlight shown below has no batteries. It is operated by squeezing and letting go of the handle. Inside the body of the flashlight are gears, which are shown below

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Which sequence best identifies the energy transfers that take place within the flashlight to produce light?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The following question refer to the diagram below, showing a food web. The arrows show the direction of energy flow. Each arrow points from the organism that is consumed to the organism that consumes it. Use the information in the food web to answer the

image

Which statement best explains why decomposers are an important part of this food web?

  (A) They use sunlight to make their own food.

  (B) They give off oxygen for animals to breathe.

  (C) They provide camouflage for small animals.

  (D) They make nutrients available to plants.


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The surface of the Moon is covered with craters, as shown above. How were most of these craters formed?

  (A) By eruptions of active volcanoes

  (B) By impacts of many meteoroids

  (C) By shifting rock on the Moon's surface (moonquakes)

  (D) By tidal forces caused by Earth and the Sun


Which graph best represents the relationship between the amount of pollutants in the air and the quality of the air?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The eyes of the owl and the rabbit shown in the diagram below give each animal a different advantage. The front-facing owl eyes allow the bird to accurately judge distance when swooping in on prey. The side-facing rabbit eyes allow the animal to detect the motion of possible predators.

image

The specialized eye types of these animals are examples of

  (A) disruptions of the natural balance

  (B) the interdependence of living things

  (C) adaptations for survival under certain conditions

  (D) involuntary responses to stimuli


The diagram below shows a student making a wet-mount slide.

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Why should the student make sure the edge of the coverslip touches the drop of water before setting the coverslip onto the slide?

  (A) to increase evaporation

  (B) to reduce air bubbles

  (C) to clean the slide

  (D) to prevent the coverslip from breaking


Base your answers on the diagram below. The diagram shows the offspring of a white mouse and a gray mouse. All of the offspring are gray.

image

Which is a correct gene combination for the parents shown in the diagram?

  (A) GG x GG

  (B) gg x gg

  (C) gg x GG

  (D) Gg x Gg


Base your answers on the diagram below. The diagram shows the offspring of a white mouse and a gray mouse. All of the offspring are gray.

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If two gray (Gg) mice mated, what percent of their offspring would have pure white fur?

  (A) 25%

  (B) 50%

  (C) 75%

  (D) 100%


Which of the organisms shown below consists of only one cell?

image

  (A) pine tree

  (B) ameba

  (C) mushroom

  (D) earthworm


The diagrams below show the plant communities present in the same area at different times over a 200-year period following a forest fire.

image

What is the correct sequence of these plant communities following the forest fire?

  (A) B -> A -> D -> C

  (B) B -> C -> D -> A

  (C) B -> D -> C -> A

  (D) B -> A -> C -> D


Base your answers on the diagram below and on your knowledge of science. The diagram below shows some relationships within a natural community.

image

Which statement best explains the relationships shown?

  (A) Water changes over time to a nonrenewable resource.

  (B) Living things exchange materials with their environment.

  (C) Minerals recycle the dead materials in the environment.

  (D) Living things produce other living things.


Base your answers on the diagram below and on your knowledge of science. The diagram below shows some relationships within a natural community.

image

Which process produces oxygen that is released into the atmosphere?

  (A) respiration

  (B) locomotion

  (C) excretion

  (D) photosynthesis


The weather map below shows the locations of a warm and a cold front over part of North America.

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The numbered lines on the weather map connect locations with the same

  (A) wind direction

  (B) wind speed

  (C) air temperature

  (D) air pressure


Which graph best represents the relative distance between the particles of most substances in their solid, liquid, and gas states?

image

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Base your answers on the chart below, which shows various data collected and predicted for Albany, New York, on March 9, 2001.

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The chart shows information about Moon phases, times of sunrise and sunset, and

  (A) climate patterns

  (B) local weather conditions

  (C) seasonal changes

  (D) global warming


Base your answers on the chart below, which shows various data collected and predicted for Albany, New York, on March 9, 2001.

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Which diagram correctly shows the position of the Moon with respect to Earth on March 9, 2001?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Base your answers on the chart below, which shows various data collected and predicted for Albany, New York, on March 9, 2001.

image

Which instrument dial shows a correct airpressure reading for Albany, New York, for this date and time?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The diagram below shows a ball held in place by two blocks. The diameter (width) of the ball is shown between the two blocks.

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What is the diameter of the ball?

  (A) 6.0 cm

  (B) 8.0 cm

  (C) 14.0 cm

  (D) 17.0 cm


The diagram below shows Earth as viewed from space.

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Which season is occurring in the Northern Hemisphere?

  (A) summer

  (B) autumn

  (C) winter

  (D) spring


The bold line on the map below shows the San Andreas Fault.

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The San Andreas Fault is the result of

  (A) overpopulation

  (B) a large glacier

  (C) weathering and erosion

  (D) crustal plate movement


Four identical sand castles are shown below. Which sand castle will most likely be eroded fastest by the wind?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The diagram below shows a boulder rolling down a hill into a valley and then up the opposite hill.

image

At which position does the boulder have the greatest kinetic energy?

  (A) A

  (B) B

  (C) C

  (D) D


Base your answers on the graph below, which shows the solubility (amount that will dissolve in 100 grams of water) of three substances at various water temperatures.

image

Which statement is a correct interpretation of the data in the graph?

  (A) As water temperature increases, solubility decreases.

  (B) As water temperature increases, solubility increases.

  (C) As water temperature increases, solubility increases and then decreases.

  (D) As water temperature increases, solubility decreases and then increases.


Base your answers on the graph below, which shows the solubility (amount that will dissolve in 100 grams of water) of three substances at various water temperatures.

image

As the water temperature is increased from 30°C to 70°C, how many more grams of substance A will dissolve in 100 grams of water?

  (A) 20 g

  (B) 40 g

  (C) 50 g

  (D) 90 g


The diagram below shows a light ray.

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In this diagram, the light ray is being

  (A) transmitted

  (B) absorbed

  (C) reflected

  (D) refracted


The picture below shows a ringing bell inside a vacuum jar.

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As air is pumped from the vacuum jar, the sound level of the ringing bell will decrease until it can no longer be heard. This happens because air must be present in the jar in order for

  (A) sound to be transferred

  (B) electricity to flow through the wires

  (C) the rubber to seal the jar

  (D) the bell clanger to vibrate


The diagram below shows a pinwheel rotating above a lit candle. The arrows indicate the direction of air flow.

image

Which energy transformation is best shown in this diagram?

  (A) heat to mechanical

  (B) mechanical to light

  (C) sound to heat

  (D) heat to sound


The diagram below shows four objects and their orbits around the Sun, as seen from space.

image

Which statement is true about all of the objects shown in the diagram?

  (A) They produce their own light.

  (B) They belong to our solar system.

  (C) They are composed mostly of gases.

  (D) They are the same distance from the Sun.


Base your answers on the diagrams below and your knowledge of science. The diagrams show liquid water changing to water vapor in four different situations.

image

Which observation would be evidence that the water is undergoing a phase change?

  (A) Waves form on the top of the pond.

  (B) Water soaks into the wet sand.

  (C) The water splashes out of the swimming pool.

  (D) The water level in the glass of water decreases.


Base your answers on the diagrams below and your knowledge of science. The diagrams show liquid water changing to water vapor in four different situations.

image

How is heat energy transferred within the liquid water in the pond?

  (A) compound formation

  (B) convection currents

  (C) chemical reactions

  (D) nuclear reactions


The drawing below shows a person about to lift a book using a ruler and pencil.

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This drawing illustrates an example of which simple machine?

  (A) gear

  (B) pulley

  (C) balance

  (D) lever


The diagram below represents a magnified view of an air sac in the human lung. The white arrows indicate blood flow.

image

Which two systems are interacting in this diagram?

  (A) skeletal and muscular

  (B) nervous and endocrine

  (C) reproductive and digestive

  (D) respiratory and circulatory


The diagram below represents a bean seed that has been cut in half to show its various structures.

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Which letter represents the stored food that the new plant will use for early development?

  (A) A

  (B) B

  (C) C

  (D) D


Base your answers on the drawings of bird feet and the dichotomous key below.

image

Bird B is correctly identified as

  (A) a cormorant

  (B) a duck

  (C) an eagle

  (D) a jacana


Base your answers on the drawings of bird feet and the dichotomous key below.

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What is a common feature of both the eagle and the kingfisher?

  (A) claws large

  (B) claws curved

  (C) three toes webbed together

  (D) four toes webbed together


The diagram below shows an incomplete circuit.

image

Which item would allow the bulb to light up if it were used to connect point A to point B?

  (A) a glass rod

  (B) a metal coin

  (C) a plastic comb

  (D) a paper cup


The diagram below shows milk being poured into a measuring cup.

image

Which property of the milk can be directly measured using the cup?

  (A) mass

  (B) density

  (C) solubility

  (D) volume


Which setup below would require the least force to lift a 100-gram mass a distance of 10 centimeters?

  (A)

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  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

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The drawing below shows the original size and shape of a rock sample before it is thrown into a rapidly moving stream.

image

Which drawing best shows the actual size and shape the rock will have after being carried several hundred miles downstream and deposited?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The diagram below shows stages in the development of a certain landscape.

image

When did erosion become the most dominant process in the development of the landscape shown in stage 4?

  (A) at stage 1

  (B) at stage 2

  (C) between stages 2 and 3

  (D) between stages 3 and 4


The diagram below shows a cross section of rock layers in Earth's crust.

image

The forces shown in the diagram caused the rock layers to

  (A) fault

  (B) fold

  (C) form

  (D) expand


The graph below shows tide levels for two days at an ocean location.

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Approximately how many hours are between the high tide on Tuesday and the first high tide on Wednesday?

  (A) 6 hours

  (B) 9 hours

  (C) 12 hours

  (D) 18 hours


The diagram below shows four Moon phases observed during July.

image

On which date would the next New Moon occur?

  (A) August 5

  (B) August 10

  (C) August 19

  (D) August 29


The map below shows the relative size and track of a certain weather event.

image

Which weather event is shown on the map?

  (A) tornado

  (B) blizzard

  (C) hurricane

  (D) thunderstorm


Base your answers on the diagram below, which shows two insulated Styrofoam cups of water connected by an aluminum bar. The thermometers show the temperature of the water in cup A and cup B at the beginning of a heat-flow experiment.

image

Over the next 15 minutes, which changes would most likely occur?

  (A) The temperature in cup A will decrease and the temperature in cup B will increase.

  (B) The temperature in cup A will decrease and the temperature in cup B will decrease.

  (C) The temperature in cup A will increase and the temperature in cup B will increase.

  (D) The temperature in cup A will increase and the temperature in cup B will decrease.


Base your answers on the diagram below, which shows two insulated Styrofoam cups of water connected by an aluminum bar. The thermometers show the temperature of the water in cup A and cup B at the beginning of a heat-flow experiment.

image

Which process is most responsible for the temperature changes that will take place?

  (A) radiation of heat from the water in the cups to the thermometers

  (B) conduction of heat through the aluminum bar

  (C) radiation of heat from the water in the cups into the air

  (D) conduction of heat through the air to the water in the cups


The map below shows an air mass that formed over the Gulf of Mexico at location A.

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Once air mass A reaches location B, the weather conditions at location B will most likely become

  (A) warmer and drier

  (B) warmer and more humid

  (C) colder and more humid

  (D) colder and drier


The diagram below shows a pencil in a glass of water.

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When viewed from the side, the pencil appears to be broken. What process causes this to happen?

  (A) absorption

  (B) evaporation

  (C) reflection

  (D) refraction


The cross section below shows fossils and the rock layers in which they are found. Crustal movement has not displaced the rock layers.

image

Which fossil is considered the oldest in the cross section shown?

  (A) armored fish

  (B) dinosaurs

  (C) early horses

  (D) trilobites


The diagram below shows a human body system.

image

What are two of the functions performed by this body system?

  (A) protects and supports the body

  (B) produces and transports oxygen within the body

  (C) produces and excretes waste products

  (D) controls and coordinates body activities


The labeled organs in the diagram below are part of which human body system?

image

  (A) respiratory

  (B) endocrine

  (C) digestive

  (D) circulatory


Base your answers on the diagram below which shows a model of human inheritance.

image

The parent whose genes are aa

  (A) must be dominant

  (B) has a straight hairline

  (C) has a peaked hairline

  (D) may have AA offspring


Base your answers on the diagram below which shows a model of human inheritance.

image

The diagram shown is called a

  (A) Punnett square

  (B) pedigree chart

  (C) dichotomous key

  (D) flowchart


The table below shows the symptoms of some diseases that are caused by bacteria.

image

Which two diseases listed in the table affect the digestive system?

  (A) botulism and typhoid fever

  (B) botulism and pneumonia

  (C) tetanus and pneumonia

  (D) tetanus and typhoid fever


Base your answers on the diagram below, which shows a partial food web.

image

How many organisms in this food web feed on the mice?

  (A) 5

  (B) 2

  (C) 3

  (D) 4


Base your answers on the diagram below, which shows a partial food web.

image

Which group of organisms is missing from this food web?

  (A) carnivores

  (B) herbivores

  (C) omnivores

  (D) decomposers


The diagram below shows changes that a butterfly undergoes as it develops from an egg into an adult.

image

Which process is illustrated in the diagram?

  (A) mutation

  (B) photosynthesis

  (C) germination

  (D) metamorphosis


Which title best describes the processes shown in the diagram below?

image

  (A) The Rock Cycle

  (B) The Water Cycle

  (C) Plate Tectonics

  (D) Chemical Changes


The diagram below shows a penny scratching the surface of the mineral calcite.

image

Which physical property of the calcite is being tested?

  (A) streak

  (B) hardness

  (C) melting point

  (D) reaction to acid


The diagram below shows the geometric structure of a molecule of water (H2O).

image

What do the symbols

image

and

image

represent in the model?

  (A) genetic material

  (B) chemical bonds

  (C) cells

  (D) atoms


Base your answers on the weather map below, which shows a typical low-pressure system located over part of North America in May. The numbers on the map indicate the air temperature in degrees Fahrenheit.

image

The fronts shown on the weather map are best described as

  (A) boundaries between different air masses

  (B) boundaries between different wind belts

  (C) areas experiencing clear skies with light winds

  (D) areas experiencing extremely warm air temperatures


Base your answers on the weather map below, which shows a typical low-pressure system located over part of North America in May. The numbers on the map indicate the air temperature in degrees Fahrenheit.

image

The symbol

image

shown on the map best represents

  (A) the probable direction of storm movement for the next 12 hours

  (B) ocean currents moving the storm system toward the east

  (C) convection currents associated with the storm system

  (D) the beginning location of the storm system


The data table below shows the mass of an 800-gram block of ice as it melts to a 600-gram block of ice.

image

If the current rate of melting continues, how many more minutes will be required for the 600-gram block of ice to reach a mass of 400 grams?

  (A) 15

  (B) 30

  (C) 45

  (D) 60


The diagrams below show a natural process that weathers rock.

image

Which statement best explains why this process results in weathering?

  (A) Frozen water acts as a solute.

  (B) Water expands when it freezes.

  (C) The mass of water increases when it freezes.

  (D) Frozen water dissolves most types of rocks.


Which graph shows that more grams of a substance can be dissolved in water as the water temperature increases?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


Letters A, B, C, and D represent locations on a bar magnet.

image

Which location has the greatest magnetic force?

  (A) A

  (B) B

  (C) C

  (D) D


The streaks in the time-lapse photograph below show the apparent motion of the stars around the North Star during one hour.

image

This apparent motion of the stars can best be explained by Earth's

  (A) rotation on its axis

  (B) tilted axis

  (C) revolution around the North Star

  (D) changing distance from the North Star


The diagram below represents several forms of electromagnetic energy.

image

Which feature best distinguishes one form of electromagnetic energy from another?

  (A) color

  (B) wavelength

  (C) surface temperature

  (D) distance traveled


Which instrument could be used to determine the volume of an irregularly shaped solid?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The drawings below show four animals.

image

What do all four animals have in common?

  (A) They reproduce asexually.

  (B) They are composed of cells.

  (C) They have similar means of locomotion.

  (D) They have the same internal structures.


In humans, a fertilized egg contains 46 chromosomes. Which bar graph best represents the number of chromosomes contained in the sperm and egg before they united to make the fertilized egg?

  (A)

image

  (B)

image

  (C)

image

  (D)

image


The diagram below shows a microscopic view of a one-celled organism. Four cell structures are labeled.

image

Which statement about the labeled structures is correct?

  (A) They normally can be seen without magnification.

  (B) They can survive outside the cell.

  (C) They help car