acid base neutralization

acids bases and ions

An acid is a compound that produces positive hydrogen ions (H+ ) and negative nonmetal ions when it dissolves in water. (Ions are atoms that have become charged by losing or gaining electrons.) Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is an example of an acid. When it dissolves in water, it produces positive hydrogen ions and negative chloride ions (Cl ). This can be represented by the chemical equation: H O 2 HCl H+ + Cl A base is a compound that produces negative hydroxide ions (OH ) and positive metal ions when it dissolves in water. For example, when the base sodium hydroxide (NaOH) dissolves in water, it produces negative hydroxide ions and positive sodium ions (Na+ ). This can be represented by the chemical equation: H O 2 NaOH OH + Na+ Q: If you were to combine acid and base solutions, what products do you think would be produced? A: Combining acid and base solutions produces water and a neutral ionic compound.

reactions of acids and bases

When an acid and a base react, the reaction is called a neutralization reaction. Thats because the reaction produces neutral products. Water is always one product, and a salt is also produced. A salt is a neutral ionic compound. Lets see how a neutralization reaction produces both water and a salt, using as an example the reaction between solutions of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide. The overall equation for this reaction is: NaOH + HCl H2 O and NaCl Now lets break this reaction down into two parts to see how each product forms. Positive hydrogen ions from HCl and negative hydroxide ions from NaOH combine to form water. This part of the reaction can be represented by the equation: H+ + OH H2 O Positive sodium ions from NaOH and negative chloride ions from HCL combine to form the salt sodium chloride (NaCl), commonly called table salt. This part of the reaction can be represented by the equation: Na+ + Cl NaCl Another example of a neutralization reaction can be seen in the Figure 1.1. Q: What products are produced when antacid tablets react with hydrochloric acid in the stomach? A: The products are water and the salt calcium chloride (CaCl2 ). Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) is also produced. The reaction is represented by the chemical equation: CaCO3 + 2HCl H2 O + CaCl2 + CO2

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instructional diagrams

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questions

pure water is an example of a neutral substance.

-->  a. true

b. false

when an acid dissolves in water, it produces

a) positive hydrogen ions.

b) negative nonmetal ions.

c) negative metal ions.

-->  d) two of the above

when a base dissolves in water, it produces

a) positive hydroxide ions.

-->  b) positive metal ions.

c) negative nonmetal ions.

d) two of the above

the reaction of hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate produces

a) water.

b) calcium chloride.

c) carbon dioxide.

-->  d) all of the above

diagram questions

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