the rhesus factor
The second most important blood group system in human blood is the Rhesus (Rh) factor. A person either has, or does not have, the Rh antigen on the surface of their RBCs. If they do have it, then the person is positive. If the person does not have the antigen, they are considered negative.
Do you know what your blood type is? Maybe you have heard people say that they have type A or type O blood. Blood type is a way to describe the type of antigens, or proteins, on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs). There are four blood types; A, B, AB, and O. 1. Type A blood has type A antigens on the RBCs in the blood. 2. Type AB blood has A and B antigens on the RBCs. 3. Type B has B antigens on the RBCs. 4. Type O does not have either A or B antigens. The ABO blood group system is important if a person needs a blood transfusion. A blood transfusion is the process of putting blood or blood products from one person into the circulatory system of another person. The blood type of the recipient needs to be carefully matched to the blood type of the donor. Thats because different blood types have different types of antibodies, or proteins, released by the blood cells. Antibodies attack strange substances in the body. This is a normal part of your immune response, which is your defense against disease. For example, imagine a person with type O blood was given type A blood. First, what type of antibodies do people with type O blood produce? They produce anti-A and anti-B antibodies. This means, if a person with type O blood received type A blood, the anti-A antibodies in the persons blood would attack the A antigens on the RBCs in the donor blood ( Figure 1.1). The antibodies would cause the RBCs to clump together, and the clumps could block a blood vessel. This clumping of blood cells could cause death. A person with type O blood has A and B antibodies in his/her plasma; if the person was to get type A blood instead of type O, his/her A antibodies would attach to the antigens on the RBCs and cause them to clump together. People with type A blood produce anti-B antibodies, and people with type B blood produce anti-A antibodies. People with type AB blood do not produce either antibody.
Recall that people with type O blood do not have any antigens on their RBCs. As a result, type O blood can be given to people with blood types A, B, or AB. If there are no antigens on the RBCs, there cannot be an antibody reaction in the blood. People with type O blood are often called universal donors. The blood plasma of AB blood does not contain any anti-A or anti-B antibodies. People with type AB blood can receive any ABO blood type. People with type AB blood are called universal recipients because they can receive any blood type. The antigens and antibodies that define blood type are listed as follows ( Table 1.1). Blood Type Antigen Type Plasma Antibodies A B AB O A B A and B none anti-B anti-A none anti-A, anti-B Can Receive Blood from Types A,O B,O AB, A, B, O O Can Donate Blood to Types A, AB B, AB AB AB, A, B, O
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blood type is based on what is on the surface of a red blood cell.
--> a. true b. false
markers inside a red blood cell can trigger an immune response.
a. true --> b. false
what antibody do people with type ab blood produce?
a) anti-a antibodies b) anti-b antibodies --> c) they do not produce either anti-a or anti-b antibodies. d) anti-o antibodies
a person with blood type a can receive blood from
a) a only. --> b) a and o. c) a and b. d) o only.
a person with blood type ab can receive blood from
a) ab only. b) a and b. --> c) ab and o. d) a, b, ab and o.
a person with blood type b can donate blood to types
a) b only. --> b) b and ab. c) o only. d) b and o.
a person with blood type o can donate blood to types
a) o only. b) a and b. c) ab only. --> d) a, b, ab and o.
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