bony fish

bony fish

There are about 27,000 species of bony fish ( Figure 1.1), which are divided into two classes: ray-finned fish and lobe-finned fish. Most bony fish are ray-finned. These thin fins consist of webs of skin over flexible spines. Lobe- finned fish, on the other hand, have fins that resemble stump-like appendages. Fins of bony fish: ray fin (left) and lobe fin (right).

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characteristics of bony fish

Most fish are bony fish, making them the largest group of vertebrates in existence today. They are characterized by: 1. A head and pectoral girdles (arches supporting the forelimbs) that are covered with bones derived from the skin. 2. A lung or swim bladder, which helps the body create a balance between sinking and floating by either filling up with or emitting gases such as oxygen. Controlling the volume of this organ helps fish control their depth. 3. Jointed, segmented rods supporting the fins. 4. A cover over the gill called the operculum, which helps them breathe without having to swim. 5. The ability to see in color, unlike most other fish.

rayfinned fish

Most vertebrates are ray-finned fish, with close to 27,000 known species. By comparison, there are "only" about 10,000 species of birds. The ray-finned fish have fin rays, with fins supported by bony spines known as rays. The ray-finned fish are the dominant class of vertebrates, with nearly 99% of fish falling into this category. They live in all aquatic environments, from freshwater and marine environments from the deep sea to the highest mountain streams.

lobefinned fish

The lobe-finned fish are characterized by fleshy lobed fins, as opposed to the bony fins of the ray-finned fish. There are two types of living lobe-finned fish: the coelacanths and the lungfish. The pectoral and pelvic fins have joints resembling those of tetrapod (four-limbed land vertebrates) limbs. These fins evolved into legs of amphibians, the first tetrapod land vertebrates. They also possess two dorsal fins with separate bases, as opposed to the single dorsal fin of ray-finned fish. All lobe-finned fishes possess teeth covered with true enamel. The lungfish also possess both gills and lungs, solidifying this class as the ancestors of amphibians.

how big are bony fish

The ocean sunfish is the most massive bony fish in the world, up to 11 feet long and weighing up to 5,070 pounds ( Figure 1.2). Other very large bony fish include the Atlantic blue marlin, the black marlin, some sturgeon species, the giant grouper, and the goliath grouper. The long-bodied oarfish can easily be over 30 feet long, but is not nearly as massive as the ocean sunfish. In contrast, the dwarf pygmy goby measures only 0.6 inches. Fish can also be quite valuable. In January 2013, at an auction in Tokyos Tsukiji fish market, a 222-kilogram (489-pound) tuna caught off northeastern Japan sold for 155.4 million yen, which is $1,760,000. An ocean sunfish, the most massive bony fish in the world, can reach up to 11 feet long and weigh up to 5,070 pounds!

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instructional diagrams

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questions

most vertebrates are bony fish.

-->  a. true

b. false

the lobe-finned fish have fins that seem like appendages.

-->  a. true

b. false

amphibians evolved from fish. what type of fish was the ancestor of amphibians?

a) ray-finned fish

-->  b) lobe-finned fish

c) cartilaginous fish

d) hagfish

what is the role of the swim bladder?

a) allows the fish to breathe without having to swim.

b) stores oxygen that supports the fins.

-->  c) helps the fish create a balance between sinking and floating.

d) stores urine prior to release by the fish.

what are the types of living lobe-finned fish?

a) the long-bodied oarfish and the lungfish

b) the coelacanths and the ocean sunfish

-->  c) the coelacanths and the lungfish

d) the atlantic blue marlin, the black marlin, and the sturgeon

roles of bones in bony fish include which of the following?

a) for general protection and support

b) as places of attachment for muscles

c) to protect the fishs brain

-->  d) all of the above

most fish are what type?

a) jawless fish

b) cartilaginous fish

-->  c) ray-finned fish

d) lobe-finned fish

diagram questions

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