DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid. It is a very large molecule. It consists of two strands of smaller molecules called nucleotides. Before learning how DNA is copied, its a good idea to review its structure.
As a cell prepares to divide, its DNA first forms one or more structures called chromosomes. A chromosome consists of DNA and protein molecules coiled into a definite shape. Chromosomes are circular in prokaryotes and rodlike in eukaryotes. You can see an example of a human chromosome in Figure below. The rest of the time, DNA looks like a tangled mass of strings. In this form, it would be very difficult to copy and divide.
As you can see in Figure 5.1, each nucleotide includes a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogen base. The sugar in DNA is called deoxyribose. There are four different nitrogen bases in DNA: adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G). Chemical bonds between the bases hold the two strands of DNA together. Adenine always bonds with thymine, and cytosine always bonds with guanine. These pairs of bases are called complementary base pairs.
cell division in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
How cell division proceeds depends on whether a cell has a nucleus. Prokaryotic cells lack a nucleus. Their DNA is in the cytoplasm. It forms just one circular chromosome. Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus holding their DNA. Their DNA forms multiple rodlike chromosomes, like the one in Figure 5.2. Eukaryotic cells also have other organelles. For these reasons, cell division is more complex in eukaryotic cells.
The process in which DNA is copied is called DNA replication. You can see how it happens in Figure 5.3. An enzyme breaks the bonds between the two DNA strands. Another enzyme pairs new, complementary nucleotides with those in the original chains. Two daughter DNA molecules form. Each contains one new chain and one original chain.
eukaryotic cell division
Before a eukaryotic cell divides, the nucleus and other organelles must be copied. Only then will each daughter cell have all the needed structures. 1. The first step in eukaryotic cell division, as it is in prokaryotic cell division, is DNA replication. As you can see in Figure 5.5, each chromosome then consists of two identical copies. The two copies are called sister chromatids. They are attached to each other at a point called the centromere. 2. The second step in eukaryotic cell division is division of the cells nucleus. This includes division of the chromosomes. This step is called mitosis. It is a complex process that occurs in four phases. The phases of mitosis are described below. 3. The third step is the division of the rest of the cell. This is called cytokinesis, as it is in a prokaryotic cell. During this step, the cytoplasm divides, and two daughter cells form. These three steps are shown in Figure 5.6.
prokaryotic cell division
You can see how a prokaryotic cell divides in Figure 5.4. This type of cell division is called binary fission. The cell simply splits into two equal halves. Binary fission occurs in bacteria and other prokaryotes. It takes place in three continuous steps: 1. The cells chromosome is copied to form two identical chromosomes. This is DNA replication. 2. The copies of the chromosome separate from each other. They move to opposite poles, or ends, of the cell. This is called chromosome segregation. 3. The cell wall grows toward the center of the cell. The cytoplasm splits apart, and the cell pinches in two. This is called cytokinesis.
Mitosis, or division of the nucleus, occurs only in eukaryotic cells. By the time mitosis occurs, the cells DNA has already replicated. Mitosis occurs in four phases, called prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. You can see what happens in each phase in Figure below. The phases are described below. You can also learn more about the phases of mitosis by watching this video: . MEDIA Click image to the left or use the URL below. URL: 1. Prophase: Chromosomes form, and the nuclear membrane breaks down. In animal cells, the centrioles near the nucleus move to opposite poles of the cell. Fibers called spindles form between the centrioles. 2. Metaphase: Spindle fibers attach to the centromeres of the sister chromatids. The sister chromatids line up at the center of the cell. 3. Anaphase: Spindle fibers shorten, pulling the sister chromatids toward the opposite poles of the cell. This gives each pole a complete set of chromosomes. 4. Telophase: The chromosomes uncoil, and the spindle fibers break down. New nuclear membranes form.
the cell cycle
Cell division is just one of the stages that a cell goes through during its lifetime. All of the stages that a cell goes through make up the cell cycle.
prokaryotic cell cycle
The cell cycle of a prokaryotic cell is simple. The cell grows in size, its DNA replicates, and the cell divides.
eukaryotic cell cycle
In eukaryotes, the cell cycle is more complicated. The diagram in Figure 5.7 shows the stages that a eukaryotic cell goes through in its lifetime. There are two main stages: interphase and mitotic phase. They are described below. You can watch a eukaryotic cell going through the phases of the cell cycle at this link: Interphase is longer than mitotic phase. Interphase, in turn, is divided into three phases: Mitotic phase is when the cell divides. It includes mitosis (M) and cytokinesis (C).
The diagram shows the process of Meiosis of cells. Five stages are involved in the process of Meiosis. Meiosis is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half. Meiosis begins with a diploid cell, which contains two copies of each chromosome. In meiosis, DNA replication is followed by Pairing and Recombination. After this, the cell goes through two rounds of cell division, called Meiosis I and Meiosis II. These stages produce four potential daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the original parent cell. During Meiosis II, sister chromatids decouple and the resultant daughter chromosomes are segregated into four daughter cells.
The diagram is a representation of the cell cycle. The cell cycle consists of four discrete phases: G1, S, G2, and M. The S or synthesis phase is when DNA replication occurs, and the M or mitosis phase is when the cell actually divides. The other two phases G1 and G2, the so-called gap phases are less dramatic but equally important. During G1, the cell conducts a series of checks before entering the S phase. Later, during G2, the cell similarly checks its readiness to proceed to mitosis. Together, the G1, S, and G2 phases make up the period known as interphase. Cells typically spend far more time in interphase than they do in mitosis. Of the four phases, G1 is most variable in terms of duration, although it is often the longest portion of the cell cycle. Mitosis consists of four basic phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. These phases occur in strict sequential order, and cytokinesis-the process of dividing the cell contents to make two new cells-starts in anaphase or telophase.
The diagram shows two types of cell division process called mitosis (on the left) and meiosis (on the right). Both types of cell division result in the division of the original cell called the parent cell but the difference is that mitosis a cell splits to create two identical copies of the original cell. In meiosis, cells split to form new cells with half the usual number of chromosomes, to produce gametes for sexual reproduction. The two cell division process share a number of stages e.g. doubling of DNA, assembly in center of cell, separation of chromosomes and finally cell division.
The diagram shows the different phases of the cell cycle. There are two main phases: the mitotic phase and the interphase. During the interphase, the cell grows and prepares to divide into daughter cells. The interphase has three main sub-phases. The G1 phase, or the first growth phase, is the longest phase. During G1, the cell grows rapidly. In addition to carrying out its basic cell functions, it also copies some of its organelles and creates the proteins it will need to replicate its DNA. The second phase is called the S stage, or the synthesis phase. During this phase, the cell copies its DNA. This is called DNA replication. The third phase is the second growth phase, or the G2 stage. During G2, the cell prepares for mitosis by making more proteins and copying the rest of its organelles. During the mitotic phase, the cell nucleus divides into two. Each new nucleus then becomes its own cell, forming two daughter cells. This process is called mitosis.
This diagram shows the process of cell division known a mitosis. Mitosis has 5 distinct phases. The interphase is the first phase followed by prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. In the final phase, the Telophase, the cell divides into two new cells.
The diagram below shows the Eukaryotic cell Cycle. The division cycle of most cells consists of four coordinated processes: cell growth, DNA replication, distribution of the duplicated chromosomes to daughter cells, and cell division. In bacteria, cell growth and DNA replication take place throughout most of the cell cycle, and duplicated chromosomes are distributed to daughter cells in association with the plasma membrane. In eukaryotes, however, the cell cycle is more complex and consists of four discrete phases. Although cell growth is usually a continuous process, DNA is synthesized during only one phase of the cell cycle, and the replicated chromosomes are then distributed to daughter nuclei by a complex series of events preceding cell division. Progression between these stages of the cell cycle is controlled by a conserved regulatory apparatus, which not only coordinates the different events of the cell cycle but also links the cell cycle with extracellular signals that control cell proliferation.
The sugar in DNA is called
a. ribose --> b. deoxyribose c. glucose d. none of the above
_phase of the cell cycle in which the cytoplasm splits apart and the cell pinches in two
a. telophase b. prophase --> c. cytokinesis d. interphase e. mitotic phase f. metaphase g. anaphase
_stage of mitosis in which chromosomes form and the nuclear membrane breaks down
a. telophase --> b. prophase c. cytokinesis d. interphase e. mitotic phase f. metaphase g. anaphase
Which nitrogen base binds with cytosine?
a. adenine b. thymine --> c. guanine d. uracil
Which organisms have rodlike chromosomes?
a. bacteria b. archaea --> c. protists d. all of the above
_stage of mitosis in which chromosomes uncoil and spindle fibers break down
--> a. telophase b. prophase c. cytokinesis d. interphase e. mitotic phase f. metaphase g. anaphase
_phase of the cell cycle in which a eukaryotic cell divides
a. telophase b. prophase c. cytokinesis d. interphase --> e. mitotic phase f. metaphase g. anaphase
Which statement about sister chromatids is false?
a. They are attached at a point called a centromere --> b. They are found in all cells during cell division c. They form when the DNA in a cell replicates d. They separate from each other during anaphase
_stage of mitosis in which spindle fibers attach to the centromeres of sister chromatids
a. telophase b. prophase c. cytokinesis d. interphase e. mitotic phase --> f. metaphase g. anaphase
The two main stages of the cell cycle in a eukaryotic cell are interphase and
a. prophase b. synthesis phase c. growth phase --> d. mitotic phase
_phase of the cell cycle in which the cell grows, DNA replicates, and the cell prepares to divide
a. telophase b. prophase c. cytokinesis --> d. interphase e. mitotic phase f. metaphase g. anaphase
_stage of mitosis in which sister chromatids move toward opposite poles of the cell
a. telophase b. prophase c. cytokinesis d. interphase e. mitotic phase f. metaphase --> g. anaphase
The last phase of mitosis is telophase.
--> a. true b. false
Interphase is divided into four phases.
a. true --> b. false
The cell cycle of a prokaryotic cell includes mitotic phase.
a. true --> b. false
Sister chromatids line up at the center of a cell during metaphase.
--> a. true b. false
DNA replication occurs during the second phase of mitosis.
a. true --> b. false
___A eukaryotic cell generally spends most of its lifetime in the mitotic phase.
a. true --> b. false
___The mitotic phase includes mitosis and cytokinesis.
--> a. true b. false
___The cell cycle is more complicated in prokaryotic than eukaryotic cells.
a. true --> b. false
___In mitosis, new nuclear membranes form during metaphase.
a. true --> b. false
___The first phase of mitosis is anaphase.
a. true --> b. false
___Mitosis occurs only in eukaryotic cells.
--> a. true b. false
___Sister chromatids are two identical copies of the same chromosome.
--> a. true b. false
The smaller, repeating molecules that make up a DNA or RNA molecule are called
a. amino acids. b. fatty acids. c. deoxyriboses. --> d. nucleotides.
The two strands of DNA are held together by chemical bonds between the
a. sugars. b. phosphates. --> c. nitrogen bases. d. none of the above
After DNA is copied, each new DNA molecule contains
a. two new strands. b. two original strands. --> c. one new strand and one original strand. d. two original strands and one new stran
Which organisms have circular chromosomes?
a. plants b. protists c. animals --> d. none of the above
Which of the following is an example of a complementary base pair in DNA?
a. adenine and guanine b. cytosine and thymine c. adenine and cytosine --> d. cytosine and guanine
In prokaryotes, cell division occurs by
a. mitosis. b. mitotic division. --> c. binary fission. d. cell replication.
What is the first step in the division of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
a. mitosis b. interphase c. cytokinesis --> d. DNA replication
What is the haplotype of the cells in letter R?
--> a. 4N b. 3N c. 2N d. N
Can you see the mother cell?
--> a. YES b. J c. T d. F
Identify Metaphase I.
--> a. L b. H c. U d. M
Which label refers to the anaphase?
a. T b. D --> c. U d. L
Which label shows the Interphase?
a. X b. N --> c. D d. U
Which letter represents prophase?
--> a. T b. U c. X d. D
When does the cell actually separate into two separate cells?
--> a. X b. L c. D d. T
What is produced by a cell division?
a. Mitochondrion b. Eggs c. Three cells --> d. Daughter cells
What is the best description of the cell division as represented in this diagram?
--> a. binary fission b. cell duplication c. cell replication d. mitosis
Cell division creates how many daughter cells?
--> a. 2 b. 1 c. 4 d. 3
Which phase is shown in the picture below?
--> a. Mitosis b. Prophase c. Interphase d. Mitotic
How many daughter cells are thereafter cell division?
a. 3 b. 1 --> c. 2 d. 4
What stage occurs after cell division?
a. Son cells are formed b. Grandmother cells are formed --> c. Daughter cells are formed d. Grandfather cells are formed
What happens after DNA replication?
a. gametes b. S-phase c. diploid cell --> d. chromosome segregation
What comes before cytokinesis?
a. Meiosis b. DNA replication --> c. Chromosome segregation d. Mitosis
What happens after DNA replication in binary fission?
a. Cytokinesis b. Mitosis c. Meiosis --> d. Chromosome segregation
What is the first stage of binary fission?
a. Chromosome segregation --> b. DNA replication c. Diploid cell d. S-phase
In which major stage of cell division do chromosomes duplicate?
a. Diploid b. Phagocytosis c. DNA Replication --> d. Mitosis
Mitosis produces what?
a. One diploid cell --> b. Two diploid cells c. One haploid cell d. Two haploid cells
How many steps are involved in mitosis?
--> a. 2 b. 4 c. 3 d. 1
In how many figures are there identical copies of DNA within 1 cell?
a. 4 --> b. 3 c. 2 d. 6
What is cell division called?
a. mitochondria b. diploid --> c. mitosis d. meiosis
In meiosis, what comes after 2 daughter cells?
a. mitosis --> b. 4 daughter cells c. DNA replicates d. parent cell
What is the result of DNA replicating in Mitosis?
--> a. 2 Daughter Cells b. Meiosis c. 4 Daughter Cells d. Parent Cell
How many daughter cells are initially created from the parent cell?
--> a. 2 b. 4 c. 6 d. 1
How many daughter cells are represented in mitosis?
--> a. 2 b. 3 c. 4 d. 1
How many daughter cells are created after complete meiosis?
a. 16 --> b. 4 c. 8 d. 2
What happens when the chromatids separate during mitosis?
a. DNA replicates --> b. Chromosomes align c. 2 Diploid cells are created d. Chromatids are copied
During Meiosis, what is produced after meiotic cell division?
a. spindles b. ATP --> c. gametes d. RNA
What happens after DNA Replication after Mitotic Cell Division?
a. cell division 2 --> b. Duplicated chromosomes line up individually on the spindle c. Pairing of duplicated homologous chromosomes d. Cell division 1
How many cells are produced from the second meiotic cell division?
a. 1 b. 2 c. 8 --> d. 4
How many steps are listed in Mitotic cell division?
--> a. 5 b. 6 c. 4 d. 3
Which stage depicts the start of mitosis?
a. 1 --> b. 3 c. 5 d. 4
How many cells does one cell become after mitosis?
a. one b. six --> c. two d. five
How many steps come before the final Mitosis step?
a. 4 b. 2 c. 1 --> d. 3
What happens if the DNA replication is unsuccessful?
a. Mitosis will still occur and the cell will divide normally. b. The cell will multiply by other means. --> c. Mitosis will not occur and the cell will not divide. d. The new cells will have no DNA.
What comes directly after Metaphase II?
--> a. Anaphase II b. Telophase II and Cytokinesis c. None d. Prophase II
What happens after Metaphase II?
--> a. Anaphase II b. Haploid daughter cells forming c. Telophase II and Cytokinesis d. Prophase II
What happens right before anaphase II?
--> a. Metaphase II b. Anaphase I c. Telophase II d. Prophase II
How many phases are represented in this diagram?
--> a. 8 b. 6 c. 2 d. 5
How many phases are there in the cell division?
a. 7 b. 5 c. 6 --> d. 4
How many parts do you have this diagram?
--> a. 7 b. 3 c. 2 d. 5
What phase comes after metaphase?
a. Pro-Metaphase b. Prophase --> c. Anaphase d. Interphase
In which phase do the chromatids separate?
--> a. Anaphase b. Pro-Metaphase c. Metaphase d. Prophase
How many phases before telophase?
--> a. 5 b. 4 c. 7 d. 6
What phase comes after the metaphase?
a. pro-metaphase b. telophase --> c. anaphase d. prophase
How many phases are shown in this diagram?
a. 3 b. 5 c. 8 --> d. 7
How many phases are there between Interphase and Metaphase?
a. 3 b. 4 --> c. 2 d. 1
a. cells pull apart b. spindle fibres form --> c. centrosomes replicate and move to the poles of the cell d. spindle fibres pull chromosomes towards the cell poles
Meiosis 1 splits the cell into how many daughter nuclei?
a. 3 b. 4 --> c. 2 d. 6
How many circles are shown in the picture?
a. 6 b. 7 --> c. 8 d. 9
How many types of Meiosis are shown in the diagram?
a. 4 b. 3 c. 1 --> d. 2
After Meiosis II, how many daughter nuclei are there?
a. 8 --> b. 4 c. 0 d. 2
At which phase does the cell split into four?
--> a. Telophase b. Telophase 2 c. Prophase d. Metaphase
What is the last phase of Meiosis I?
a. Telophase II b. Prophase I --> c. Telophase d. Anaphase
How many phases of MEIOSIS I are shown in the diagram?
a. 4 --> b. 5 c. 6 d. 3
How many more cells are formed in Meiosis II compared to Meiosis I?
a. 4 --> b. 2 c. 3 d. 1
What phase comes after anaphase?
a. Interphase b. Metaphase --> c. Telophase d. Prophase
Which phase is when two nuclei reform at poles?
--> a. Telophase b. Anaphase c. Metaphase d. Prophase
How many phases are there before cytokinesis?
a. 2 b. 9 c. 7 --> d. 5
How many stages are there in DNA replication?
a. 7 b. 5 c. 4 --> d. 6
At which phase where chromosomes align with their centrometers on the equator and attach to the spindle?
a. Prophase --> b. Metaphase c. Telophase d. Anaphase
In this diagram of cell division, what phase happens after Anaphase?
a. Prophase b. Metaphase c. Daughter cells --> d. Telophase
What stage of Mitosis does not contain paternal chromosomes?
a. Naphase b. Telophase c. Prophase --> d. Interphase
What comes after metaphase?
--> a. anaphase b. prophase c. interphase d. telophase
The parents' DNA material creates a horizontal line in which phase of mitosis?
--> a. Metaphase b. Anaphase c. Telophase d. Prophase
How many phases are in Mitosis?
a. 2 b. 1 --> c. 5 d. 4
How many phases come before the meta phase in this diagram?
a. 1 b. 4 c. 3 --> d. 2
What is the first step in the cell cycle?
--> a. DNA synthesis b. Cell division c. Mitosis d. Chromosome duplication
During the cell cycle, after what phase does the chromosome duplication happen?
a. Mitosis --> b. DNA synthesis c. Chromosome separation d. Cell division
What process occurs after chromosome separation?
a. Cyclin b. DNA Synthesis --> c. Mitosis d. Chromosome Duplication
What happens just before cell divides?
a. two cells are formed --> b. chromosome separates c. dna synthesis d. chromosome duplicates
When mitosis is complete, how many chromosomes does a daughter cell contain?
a. 24 b. 25 --> c. 23 d. 26
Which letter represents the Synthesis phase?
a. M b. G1 --> c. S d. G2
How many stages are there in the cell cycle?
a. 5 --> b. 4 c. 6 d. 7
The cell cycle is made up of how many phases?
a. 2 b. 5 --> c. 4 d. 3
How many phases of the cell cycle are there?
a. 2 b. 1 c. 3 --> d. 4
The eukaryotic cell spends most time in which of the following phases?
a. S (Synthesis phase) b. G2 (Growth phase 2) --> c. G1 (Growth Phase 1) d. M (Mitotic phase)
What comes directly after first gap?
a. Second gap --> b. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis phase (S) c. Mitotic phase (M) d. Interphase
Which phase is S a label for?
--> a. Synthesis b. Cycle start c. Growth phase 2 d. Growth phase 1
In which phase do the sister chromatids line up at the center of the cell?
a. Anaphase b. Prophase --> c. Metaphase d. Telophase
Which phase in the cell cycle comes after the metaphase?
--> a. anaphase b. interphase s c. prophase d. telophase
What happens after metaphase?
--> a. Anaphase b. Interphase c. Telophase d. Prophase
What phase occurs after the Synthesis phase (S)?
a. Mitotic phase (M) b. Growth phase 1 (G1) c. Resting (G0) --> d. Growth phase 2 (G2)
What does the label S refer to in the diagram?
a. Mitotic phase b. Cytokinesis --> c. Interphase d. DNA synthesis
What does the mitotic phase result in?
a. Telophase b. DNA synthesis --> c. Formation of 2 daughter cells d. Interphase
Which label shows a process of dividing a prokaryotic cell into two daughter cells?
a. Cytokinesis b. Mitosis --> c. Mitotic Phase d. Interphase
What is the S Phase?
a. Nuclear Division b. Cytoplasmic Division c. G2 Phase --> d. DNA Replication
What phase comes after the G2 phase?
a. G1 Phase --> b. M Phase c. S Phase d. G Phase
Which phase comes after the M phase?
a. S Phase b. Mitosis c. G2 Phase --> d. G1 Phase
How many types of phases are shown in the diagram?
a. 8 --> b. 5 c. 3 d. 1
What does the M Phase consist of?
a. G2 Phase b. S Phase c. Interphase --> d. mitosis (nuclear division) and cytokinesis (cytoplasmic division)
At what phase does the cell prepare to divide by creating more proteins and copying the rest of its organelles?
a. M --> b. G2 c. S d. G1
Which step is a result of the DNA synthesis?
a. E --> b. G2 c. G1 d. D
Put the three control mechanisms that evaluate the condition of the genetic information in correct order.
a. DNA Synthesis - Cell Growth - Mitosis b. Cyclin D CDK4 - Cyclin E CDK2 - Cyclin A CDK2 --> c. G1 Checkpoint - G2 Checkpoint - M checkpoint d. S - G2 Checkpoint - M checkpoint
How many stages does the diagram have?
a. 3 b. 4 c. 2 --> d. 5
At what stage does the DNA replication occur?
--> a. interphase b. G1 c. mitosis d. G2
If a cell has gone through the interphase state, what will happen next?
a. Cytokinesis b. Growth c. DNA Replication --> d. Mitosis
Which phase is the label M for?
a. Growth b. Synthesis c. Resting --> d. Mitotic
Identify the letter that indicates the phase in which all preparations to mitosis are done.
a. G1 b. S --> c. I d. M
What do the yellow circles in this diagram represent?
a. Interphase --> b. Formation of 2 daughter cells c. DNA synthesis d. Anaphase
Which phase comes after S phase?
a. M b. G1 --> c. G2 d. G0
Which section represents the DNA synthesis phase?
a. M --> b. S c. G1 d. G2
What is the stage after mitosis and before DNA synthesis?
a. G2 --> b. G1 c. M d. S
In this diagram of cell division, what occurs after G2 or Growth and Preparation for Mitosis?
a. G1 b. DNA Synthesis --> c. Mitosis d. Growth
What is phase 1?
a. synthesis phase b. DNA replication --> c. cell growth d. mitosis
What is the main process in the G1 phase?
a. Mitosis b. Spindle Assembly c. DNA Replication --> d. Cell Growth
What phase is between Gap Phase 1 and 2?
--> a. Synthesis Phase b. Cell Growth c. DNA replication d. Mitosis
How many gap phases does the cell division cycle have?
a. 4 --> b. 2 c. 3 d. 1
What happens in the first phase of the cell cycle?
a. Replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei. --> b. The cell synthesizes mRNA and proteins in preparation for subsequent steps leading to mitosis. c. It goes to a period of rapid cell growth and protein synthesis during which the cell readies itself for mitosis. d. DNA is replicated.
What occurs after mitosis?
a. Synthesis phase b. Gap phase 2 c. DNA damage --> d. Gap phase 1
Which interphase is when the cell double checks the duplicated chromosomes for error?
a. G1 --> b. G2 c. S d. Mitosis
What is the stage right after cytokinesis?
a. S b. Mitosis --> c. G1 d. G2
How many processes are there in the interphase?
a. 2 --> b. 6 c. 4 d. 3
How many stages exist in the eukaryotic cycle?
--> a. 2 b. 5 c. 4 d. 8
How many phases are there to get to mitotic?
--> a. 3 b. 9 c. 2 d. 7
What does S represent in this chart?
a. Cytokinesis b. growth --> c. DNA replicates d. mitosis