century tsunami

boxing day tsunami 2004

Not everyone had the same warning the people on Tillys beach had. The Boxing Day Tsunami of December 26, 2004 was by far the deadliest of all time (Figure 1.1). The tsunami was caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake. With a magnitude of 9.2, it was the second largest earthquake ever recorded. The extreme movement of the crust displaced trillions of tons of water along the entire length of the rupture. Several tsunami waves were created with about 30 minutes between the peaks of each one. The waves that struck nearby Sumatra 15 minutes after the quake reached more than 10 meters (33 feet) in height. The size of the waves decreased with distance from the earthquake and were about 4 meters (13 feet) high in Somalia. The tsunami did so much damage because it traveled throughout the Indian Ocean. About 230,000 people died in eight countries. There were fatalities even as far away as South Africa, nearly 8,000 kilometers (5,000 miles) from the earthquake epicenter. More than 1.2 million people lost their homes and many more lost their ways of making a living. The countries that were most affected by the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami.

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japan tsunami 2011

The Japanese received a one-two punch in March 2011. The 2011 Tohoku earthquake offshore was a magnitude 9.0 and damage from the quake was extensive. People didnt have time to recover before massive tsunami waves hit the island nation. As seen in Figure 1.2, waves in some regions topped 9 meters (27 feet). The tsunami did much more damage than the massive earthquake (Figure 1.3). Worst was the damage done to nuclear power plants along the northeastern coast. Eleven reactors were automatically shut down. Power and backup power were lost at the Fukushima plant, leading to equipment failures, meltdowns, and the release of radioactive materials. Control and cleanup of the disabled plants will go on for many years.

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tsunami warning systems

As a result of the 2004 tsunami, an Indian Ocean warning system was put into operation in June 2006. Prior to 2004, no one had thought a large tsunami was possible in the Indian Ocean. In comparison, a warning system has been in effect around the Pacific Ocean for more than 50 years. The system was used to warn of possible tsunami waves after the Tohoku earthquake, but most were too close to the quake to get to high ground in time. Further away, people were evacuated along many Pacific coastlines, but the waves were not that large.

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instructional diagrams

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questions

most tsunami are caused by

-->  a) earthquakes.

b) meteorites.

c) volcanic eruptions.

d) collisions of ships at sea.

the 2004 boxing day tsunami killed people all around this ocean basin

a) pacific ocean

b) atlantic ocean

-->  c) indian ocean

d) arctic ocean

the tsunami went around the indian ocean over the course of about one hour.

a) true

-->  b) false

the boxing day tsunami was so huge because the earthquake displaced trillions of tons of water.

-->  a) true

b) false

the magnitude of the earthquake that caused the boxing day tsunami of 2004 was

a) 7.2

b) 8.2

-->  c) 9.2

d) 10.2

tilly smith saved about 100 people on a beach in thailand because she

a) saw the tsunami coming and screamed.

-->  b) noticed the bubbling sea and thought it was like a tsunami video shed seen in a class.

c) fainted and they all rushed uphill to help her, getting out of the path of the wave.

d) all of these.

in japan in 2011, a tsunami in that followed an offshore earthquake

a) severely damaged nuclear power plants.

b) killed thousands of people.

c) kept rescuers from being able to put out fires and get to people who needed help.

-->  d) all of these.

nearly all of japan experienced the tsunami to some degree.

-->  a) true

b) false

why wasnt there a tsunami warning system in the indian ocean in 2004?

a) the region is too poor to afford one.

-->  b) no one thought such a large tsunami would happen there.

c) the technology didnt exist yet.

d) the people didnt want one.

why didnt the tsunami warning system in the pacific ocean save more lives in the japan tsunami of 2011?

a) the people heard the warning but thought it was a false alarm.

b) there was nowhere to go once the people heard the warning.

-->  c) the quake was so close that there wasnt time to get to high ground once the warning

d) the quake was too small to activate the warning system and so the tsunami was unexpected.

diagram questions

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