# changes of state

## changes between liquids and gases

If you fill a pot with cool tap water and place the pot on a hot stovetop, the water heats up. Heat energy travels from the stovetop to the pot, and the water absorbs the energy from the pot. What happens to the water next?

## vaporization

If water gets hot enough, it starts to boil. Bubbles of water vapor form in boiling water. This happens as particles of liquid water gain enough energy to completely overcome the force of attraction between them and change to the gaseous state. The bubbles rise through the water and escape from the pot as steam. The process in which a liquid boils and changes to a gas is called vaporization. The temperature at which a liquid boils is its boiling point. The boiling point of water is 100C (212F). Other types of matter may have higher or lower boiling points. For example, the boiling point of table salt is 1413C. The boiling point of nitrogen is -196C.

## freezing

The warmer water in the tray loses heat to the colder air in the freezer. The water cools until its particles no longer have enough energy to slide past each other. Instead, they remain in fixed positions, locked in place by the forces of attraction between them. The liquid water has changed to solid ice. Another example of liquid water changing to solid ice is pictured in Figure 4.19. The process in which a liquid changes to a solid is called freezing. The temperature at which a liquid changes to a solid is its freezing point. The freezing point of water is 0C (32F). Other types of matter may have higher or lower freezing points. For example, the freezing point of iron is 1535C. The freezing point of oxygen is -219C.

## melting

If you took ice cubes out of a freezer and left them in a warm room, the ice would absorb energy from the warmer air around it. The energy would allow the particles of frozen water to overcome some of the forces of attraction holding them together. They would be able to slip out of the fixed positions they held as ice. In this way, the solid ice would turn to liquid water. The process in which a solid changes to a liquid is called melting. The melting point is the temperature at which a solid changes to a liquid. For a given type of matter, the melting point is the same as the freezing point. What is the melting point of ice? What is the melting point of iron, pictured in Figure 4.20?

## energy temperature and changes of state

Energy is always involved in changes of state. Matter either loses or absorbs energy when it changes from one state to another. For example, when matter changes from a liquid to a solid, it loses energy. The opposite happens when matter changes from a solid to a liquid. For a solid to change to a liquid, matter must absorb energy from its surroundings. The amount of energy in matter can be measured with a thermometer. Thats because a thermometer measures temperature, and temperature is the average kinetic energy of the particles of matter. You can learn more about energy, temperature, and changes of state at this URL: http://hogan.chem.lsu.edu/matter/chap26/animate3/an2

## changes between liquids and solids

Think about how you would make ice cubes in a tray. First you would fill the tray with water from a tap. Then you would place the tray in the freezer compartment of a refrigerator. The freezer is very cold. What happens next?

## introduction to changes of state

What causes clouds to form? And in general, how does matter change from one state to another? As you may have guessed, changes in energy are involved.

## what are changes of state

Changes of state are physical changes in matter. They are reversible changes that do not involve changes in matters chemical makeup or chemical properties. Common changes of state include melting, freezing, sublimation, deposition, condensation, and vaporization. These changes are shown in Figure 4.18. Each is described in detail below.

## deposition

The opposite of sublimation is deposition. This is the process in which a gas changes directly to a solid without going through the liquid state. It occurs when gas particles become very cold. For example, when water vapor in the air contacts a very cold windowpane, the water vapor may change to tiny ice crystals on the glass. The ice crystals are called frost. You can see an example in Figure 4.24.

## evaporation

A liquid can also change to a gas without boiling. This process is called evaporation. It occurs when particles at the exposed surface of a liquid absorb just enough energy to pull away from the liquid and escape into the air. This happens faster at warmer temperatures. Look at the puddle in Figure 4.21. It formed in a pothole during a rain shower. The puddle will eventually evaporate. It will evaporate faster if the sun comes out and heats the water than if the sky remains cloudy.

## condensation

If you take a hot shower in a closed bathroom, the mirror is likely to "fog" up. The "fog" consists of tiny droplets of water that form on the cool surface of the mirror. Why does this happen? Some of the hot water from the shower evaporates, so the air in the bathroom contains a lot of water vapor. When the water vapor contacts cooler surfaces, such as the mirror, it cools and loses energy. The cooler water particles no longer have enough energy to overcome the forces of attraction between them. They come together and form droplets of liquid water. The process in which a gas changes to a liquid is called condensation. Other examples of condensation are shown in Figure 4.22. A gas condenses when it is cooled below its boiling point. At what temperature does water vapor condense?

## sublimation

The process in which a solid changes directly to a gas is called sublimation. It occurs when the particles of a solid absorb enough energy to completely overcome the force of attraction between them. Dry ice (solid carbon dioxide, CO2 ) is an example of a solid that undergoes sublimation. Figure 4.23 shows a chunk of dry ice changing directly to carbon dioxide gas. Sometimes snow undergoes sublimation as well. This is most likely to occur on sunny winter days when the air is very dry. What gas does snow become?

## changes between solids and gases

Solids that change to gases generally first pass through the liquid state. However, sometimes solids change directly to gases and skip the liquid state. The reverse can also occur. Sometimes gases change directly to solids.

## instructional diagrams

This diagram shows the changes of state in matter. Changes of state are physical changes in matter. They are reversible changes that do not involve changes in matters chemical makeup or chemical properties. They occur when matter absorbs or loses energy. Processes in which matter changes between liquid and solid states are freezing and melting. For a solid to change to a liquid, matter must absorb energy from its surroundings. Freezing happens when the water cools and loses energy until they remain in fixed positions as ice. Processes in which matter changes between liquid and gaseous states are vaporization, evaporation, and condensation. Processes in which matter changes between solid and gaseous states are sublimation and deposition.

The diagram shows the changes of state of matter. The state shifts based from the amount of energy added or removed by the matter. If energy is added to the matter, the particles will slowly disperse away from each other until they are separated from each other. Some examples of this change of state is melting (converting solid to liquid) and evaporation (converting liquid to gas). On the other hand, if the energy is removed, the particles will gather themselves together until they are close to each other. Condensation (converting gas to liquid) and freezing (converting liquid to solid) are some process involving this change.

The image below shows the different changes in states of matter. A material will change from one state or phase to another at specific combinations of temperature and surrounding pressure. Typically, the pressure is atmospheric pressure, so temperature is the determining factor to the change in state in those cases. The names of the changes in state are melting, freezing, boiling, condensation, sublimation and deposition. The temperature of a material will increase until it reaches the point where the change takes place. It will stay at that temperature until that change is completed. Solids are one of the three phase changes. Their structure and their resistance to change their shape or volume characterize solids. In a solid, the molecules are closely packed together. Liquids are the next of the three phase changes. Liquids are very different from solids, their structure is a bit freer, but not as free as gas. In a liquid phase, the molecules will take the shape of its container or the object that it is in. Gases are the last of the three phase changes. A gas phase is one of the simpler phases, because the gas molecules are the freest. This is because theoretically the molecules behave completely chaotically and they roam anywhere and fill every space of an object or container.

The diagram below shows how matter changes state. A material will change from one state or phase to another at specific combinations of temperature and surrounding pressure. Typically, the pressure is atmospheric pressure, so temperature is the determining factor to the change in state in those cases. The states of matter shown are ice (solid), water (liquid) and water vapor (gas). When heat is applied to a material, its change in state typically goes from solid to liquid to gas. There are some exceptions where the material will go directly from a solid to a gas. When a material is cooled, its change in state typically goes from gas to liquid to solid. There are some exceptions where the material will go directly from a gas to a solid.

There are 4 states of matter observable in everyday life: solid, liquid, gas and plasma. This diagram shows 3 of these states: solid, liquid and gas and the processes that cause matter to change states. When a gas changes to a liquid, a liquid changes to a solid or a gas changes to a solid, heat is given out. Conversely, when a solid changes to a liquid, a liquid changes to a gas and a solid changes to a gas, heat is taken in. The names of these processes are provided in the diagram. For example: the process of state change from gas to liquid is called condensation. The process of change from liquid to solid is called freezing. The process of change from solid to liquid is called melting and the process of change from solid to gas is called sublimation.

## questions

The process in which clouds form is

``````a. sublimation.

b. evaporation.

-->  c. condensation.

d. none of the above
``````

What is the scientific definition of temperature?

``````-->  a. average kinetic energy of particles

b. amount of heat given off by objects

c. melting and boiling points of substances

d. none of the above
``````

Which statement is true about changes of state?

``````-->  a. They involve energy.

b. They cannot be undone.

c. They involve chemical processes.

d. They change the chemical makeup of matter..
``````

For liquid water to change to water vapor, the water must

``````a. lose energy.

-->  b. gain energy.

c. boil.

d. two of the above
``````

Liquid water changes to ice when

``````-->  a. the water loses energy.

b. the water gains energy.

c. melting occurs.

d. two of the above
``````

What happens when you make ice cubes by putting a tray of water in the freezer?

``````a. The water gains cold from the freezer.

b. The particles of water stop moving.

-->  c. The temperature of the water falls.

d. The water vaporizes.
``````

Fog forms by the process of

``````a. evaporation.

b. freezing.

-->  c. condensation.

d. deposition.
``````

Melting point is the temperature at which matter changes to a

``````a. gas.

-->  b. liquid.

c. solid.

d. plasma.
``````

The boiling point of water is

``````a. 0 C.

b. 32 F.

c. 98 F.

-->  d. 100 C.
``````

Snow sublimates to form

``````a. ice.

b. liquid water.

-->  c. water vapor.

d. plasma.
``````

The bubbles in boiling water contain

``````a. air.

b. salt.

c. liquid water.

-->  d. water vapor.
``````

Which statement is true about evaporation?

``````a. It occurs when a liquid boils.

b. It occurs when a liquid reaches its boiling point.

-->  c. It happens more quickly at higher temperatures.

d. all of the above
``````

Matter rarely changes state.

``````a. true

-->  b. false
``````

A gas changes directly to a solid by freezing.

``````a. true

-->  b. false
``````

The average kinetic energy of particles of matter can be measured with a thermometer.

``````-->  a. true

b. false
``````

Changes of state occur because matter loses or gains energy.

``````-->  a. true

b. false
``````

All matter has the same freezing and boiling points.

``````a. true

-->  b. false
``````

The boiling point of water is 100 F.

``````a. true

-->  b. false
``````

A liquid can change to a gas without boiling.

``````-->  a. true

b. false
``````

The melting point of a substance is the same as its freezing point.

``````-->  a. true

b. false
``````

Changes of state are chemical changes in matter.

``````a. true

-->  b. false
``````

Iron melts at a lower temperature than water.

``````a. true

-->  b. false
``````

Water in a mud puddle disappears because it vaporizes.

``````a. true

-->  b. false
``````

Freezing changes a liquid to a solid.

``````-->  a. true

b. false
``````

Evaporation occurs only at the exposed surface of a liquid.

``````-->  a. true

b. false
``````

Vaporization explains why a mud puddle dries up on a sunny day.

``````a. true

-->  b. false
``````

Ice changes directly to water vapor through the process of deposition.

``````a. true

-->  b. false
``````

process in which a liquid changes to a gas without boiling

``````a. condensation

b. deposition

-->  c. evaporation

d. freezing

e. melting

f. sublimation

g. vaporization
``````

process in which a liquid changes to a solid

``````a. condensation

b. deposition

c. evaporation

-->  d. freezing

e. melting

f. sublimation

g. vaporization
``````

process in which a gas changes to a liquid

``````-->  a. condensation

b. deposition

c. evaporation

d. freezing

e. melting

f. sublimation

g. vaporization
``````

process in which a solid changes to a liquid

``````a. condensation

b. deposition

c. evaporation

d. freezing

-->  e. melting

f. sublimation

g. vaporization
``````

process in which a liquid boils and changes to a gas

``````a. condensation

b. deposition

c. evaporation

d. freezing

e. melting

f. sublimation

-->  g. vaporization
``````

process in which a gas changes directly to a solid

``````a. condensation

-->  b. deposition

c. evaporation

d. freezing

e. melting

f. sublimation

g. vaporization
``````

process in which a solid changes directly to a gas

``````a. condensation

b. deposition

c. evaporation

d. freezing

e. melting

-->  f. sublimation

g. vaporization
``````

## diagram questions

Which label shows the freezing process?

``````a. U

b. W

c. H

-->  d. M
``````

With which letter the stage of melting is represented?

``````a. M

b. W

c. U

-->  d. H
``````

Which group of red circles represents a solid mass?

``````a. W

b. S

-->  c. P

d. Y
``````

Which part represents the boiling point?

``````a. D

b. H

c. K

-->  d. A
``````

Identify the solid state:

``````a. V

b. H

c. J

-->  d. E
``````

Which letter represents the liquid state of the material?

``````a. J

b. E

c. H OR J

-->  d. H
``````

Identify the evaporating process.

``````a. U

b. Y

-->  c. P

d. M
``````

What label does the ice cube receive?

``````a. V

b. U

-->  c. W

d. S
``````

Which letter corresponds to the process of evaporation?

``````a. N

-->  b. L

c. P

d. F
``````

Which label represents water in its solid state?

``````a. N

b. D

-->  c. W

d. F
``````

Which letter represents water in gas form?

``````-->  a. N

b. S

c. U

d. T
``````

Which label refers to the liquid?

``````a. D

b. W

-->  c. K

d. T
``````

Which letter stands for the heat released to environment?

``````-->  a. N

b. A

c. L

d. W
``````

What state of matter is produced when the ice sublimates?

``````a. NO CHANGE IN STATUS

b. SOLID

-->  c. VAPOUR (GAS)

d. LIQUID
``````

Which label marks the liquid state of matter?

``````a. V

-->  b. E

c. F

d. U
``````

Which label represents the solid state?

``````a. E

-->  b. F

c. U

d. R
``````

Which of the ones processes is referred to the evaporation?

``````-->  a. E

b. U

c. H

d. K
``````

Sublimation avoids the.... stage

``````a. gaseous

b. solid

-->  c. liquid

d. deposition
``````

How does water vapor turn into ice?

``````-->  a. Condensation, and then freezing.

b. Melting

c. Sublimation

d. Heat energy from the environment
``````

What is Evaporation making the water into?

``````a. Rain

-->  b. Vapor

c. Ice

d. Liquid
``````

How many processes are involved in turning vapor into ice?

``````a. 3

b. 5

-->  c. 2

d. 4
``````

Identify the name of process when an ice is directly converted to vapor.

``````-->  a. sublimation

b. melting

c. condensation

d. deposition
``````

If liquid turns into vapors, which process has occurred?

``````a. Sublimation

b. Condensation

c. Deposition

-->  d. Evaporation
``````

What process did liquid go through to become vapor?

``````a. Deposition

-->  b. Evaporation

c. Condensation

d. Freezing
``````

The changing of a solid to a liquid is known as what?

``````a. condensation

b. sublimation

c. freezing

-->  d. melting
``````

What is condensation to freezing?

``````a. melting

-->  b. sublimation

c. changed of state

d. gas
``````

Which process occurs after evaporation boiling?

``````-->  a. Deposition

b. Freezing

c. Sublimation

d. Melting
``````

How many states of matter are there?

``````a. 4

b. 2

c. 1

-->  d. 3
``````

Which process converts a solid directly to a gas?

``````a. Deposition

b. Evaporation

-->  c. Sublimation

d. Condensation
``````

What is it called when Liquid turns to Gas?

``````a. Sublimation

-->  b. Evaporation

c. Condensation

d. Melting
``````

What will be the state of a solid object after it goes sublimation?

``````a. will remain solid

b. will turn into plasma

c. liquid

-->  d. Gas
``````

How many phase change stages occur in the cycle?

``````a. 3

-->  b. 6

c. 5

d. 4
``````

In how many ways can the matter change its state?

``````a. 6

-->  b. 2

c. 8

d. 4
``````

How would you expect change of state to be achieved?

``````a. Deposition

b. Melting

c. Evaporation

-->  d. Transfer of energy
``````

What is made when melting solid?

``````-->  a. Liquid

b. Solid

c. Gas

d. Air
``````

How do you make liquid a solid?

``````a. Evaporation

-->  b. Freezing

c. Melting

d. Sublimation
``````

What happens to the solid during sublimation, according to this diagram?

``````-->  a. It turns into a gas

b. Not enough information provided

c. It stays a solid

d. It turns into a liquid
``````

What change of state occurs when a liquid changes to a gas?

``````a. freezing

b. sublimation

-->  c. evaporation

d. condensation
``````

What type of change of state has occurred when matter moves from solid to gas?

``````a. Melting

b. Deposition

c. Freezing

-->  d. Sublimation
``````

How many states of matter are referred to in the diagram?

``````a. 8

-->  b. 3

c. 6

d. 5
``````

How many states of matter do we know?

``````-->  a. 3

b. 2

c. 9

d. 6
``````

What is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase without passing through the intermediate liquid phase?

``````-->  a. Sublimation

b. Evaporation

c. Condensation

d. Melting
``````

The process in which a solid change directly to a gas is called what?

``````a. melting

-->  b. sublimation

c. freezing

d. deposition
``````

What process comes after melting?

``````a. Condensation

-->  b. Evaporation

c. Freezing

d. Deposition
``````

When a liquid substance freezes, what happens?

``````a. It turns into gas

b. It looses it's shape

-->  c. It becomes solid

d. It condenses
``````

How many processes are involved in below cycle?

``````a. 3

b. 4

c. 5

-->  d. 6
``````

How many processes are shown in the picture?

``````a. 4

-->  b. 6

c. 5

d. 7
``````

What causes solid to turn to gas?

``````a. condensation

b. evaporation

-->  c. sublimation

d. melting
``````

What happens when no melting occurs in the change of state from ice to clouds?

``````a. It's not possible for ice to turn into clouds directly. There always have to be melting before evaporation.

-->  b. Sublimation occurs where the passing from one state to another is direct without intermediate states.

c. Deposition occurs where the passing from one state to another is direct without intermediate states.

d. It's not possible for ice to turn into clouds directly. There always have to be condensation before evaporation.
``````

Which change of state is called evaporation?

``````a. Gas to Liquid

b. Liquid to Solid

-->  c. Liquid to Gas

d. Solid to Liquid
``````

Which process changes a liquid to a gas?

``````a. melting

-->  b. evaporation

c. freezing

d. condensation
``````

How many states are shown in the diagram?

``````a. 5

b. 2

-->  c. 3

d. 1
``````

How many water states are there?

``````-->  a. 3

b. 4

c. 7

d. 5
``````

What causes liquid to turn to gas?

``````a. erosion

-->  b. evaporation

c. melting

d. condensation
``````

What is a type of vaporization of a liquid that occurs from the surface of a liquid into a gaseous phase that is not saturated with the evaporating substance?

``````a. Melting

-->  b. Evaporation

c. Freezing

d. Condensation
``````

Which process is made to turn vapor into water?

``````a. Heat is released from ice

-->  b. Heat is released from vapor

c. Heat is absorbed from vapor

d. Heat is released from water
``````

What happens to heat when ice is turned into a water vapor?

``````a. Heat is released

-->  b. Heat is absorbed

c. Heat expands

d. Heat disappears
``````

How many processes are involved in the state of change cycle?

``````a. 7

-->  b. 6

c. 5

d. 4
``````

What happens when the water absorbs heat?

``````-->  a. It turns into gas

b. It turns into ice

c. It turns into nothing

d. It turns into water
``````

When water vapor releases heat, what does it become?

``````a. oil

-->  b. water

c. ice

d. plasma
``````

What is the name of the process through which a gas becomes a liquid?

``````-->  a. Condensation

b. Vaporization

c. Deposition

d. Melting
``````

What happens after the solid melts?

``````a. recombination

b. condensation

c. ionization

-->  d. it turns liquid
``````

What is the name of the process by which a solid becomes a liquid?

``````a. Deposition

b. Freezing

c. Condensation

-->  d. Melting
``````

What is the name of the process by which gas becomes plasma?

``````a. Recombination

b. Vaporization

c. Freezing

-->  d. Ionization
``````

How many ways are there to change state in this diagram?

``````a. 3

b. 4

c. 6

-->  d. 8
``````

If gas condensates, what does it turn into?

``````a. Ion

-->  b. Liquid

c. Solid

d. Plasma
``````

When a gas ionizes, what does it become?

``````a. inert gas

b. liquid

c. solid

-->  d. plasma
``````

Which change of state is called deposition?

``````a. Liquid to Gas

-->  b. Gas to Solid

c. Gas to Liquid

d. Solid to Gas
``````

What is the process of a solid turning into a liquid called?

``````a. Condensation

-->  b. Melting

c. Freezing

d. Sublimation
``````

How many forms of water are shown in the diagram?

``````a. 2

-->  b. 3

c. 4

d. 1
``````

How many processes are involved in below cycle?

``````-->  a. 6

b. 3

c. 5

d. 4
``````

How does gas change into a solid?

``````a. Melting

b. Deposition

c. Evaporation

-->  d. Sublimation
``````

What is shown in the picture?

``````a. Photosynthesis

b. Solar Power

-->  c. Changes of State

d. Erosion
``````

How does liquid change into gas?

``````a. Deposition

-->  b. Evaporation

c. Condensation

d. Melting
``````

From the diagram, identify the process in which solid becomes gas.

``````a. evaporation

b. deposition

-->  c. sublimation

d. melting
``````

Which mechanism represents the largest relative increase in energy?

``````-->  a. sublimation

b. deposition

c. evaporation

d. melting
``````

What is the opposite of sublimation?

``````a. Evaporation

-->  b. Deposition

c. Melting

d. Condensation
``````

How many intensities of energies exist in the diagram?

``````a. 2

b. 1

-->  c. 3

d. 4
``````

In order for a gas to become a liquid, what has to happen?

``````-->  a. Condensation

b. Evaporation

c. Sublimation

d. Deposition
``````

What is the type of vaporization of a liquid that occurs from the surface of a liquid into a gaseous phase?

``````a. Sublimation

b. Deposition

-->  c. Evaporation

d. Condensation
``````

To change directly from a solid to a gas is to what?

``````a. evaporate

b. condense

-->  c. sublimate

d. melt
``````

During sublimation, what does water turn into after evaporation?

``````a. Water

b. No change

c. Ice

-->  d. Steam
``````

What is the process of ice turning immediately to steam called?

``````-->  a. Sublimation

b. Evaporation

c. Desublimation

d. Melting
``````

How many arrows are shown in the diagram?

``````-->  a. 6

b. 2

c. 4

d. 8
``````

How many water states are there in this picture?

``````a. 6

b. 4

c. 5

-->  d. 3
``````

What action causes ice to turn to steam?

``````a. solidify

b. condense

-->  c. sublimate

d. evaporate
``````

How many calories have to be removed in order to turn water (liquid) into ice?

``````a. 100 calories

-->  b. 0 calories

c. 540 calories

d. 80 calories
``````

What is the process of gas turning into liquid?

``````-->  a. Condensing

b. Melting

c. Freezing

d. Evaporating
``````

In what process does ice become liquid water?

``````a. Evaporating

b. Condensing

-->  c. Melting

d. Freezing
``````

What happens after liquid evaporates?

``````-->  a. It becomes gas

b. It stays the same

c. It becomes plasma

d. It becomes solid
``````

How many changes of state are there?

``````a. 2

b. 1

-->  c. 3

d. 4
``````

With the help of the diagram can you determine the boiling point of water?

``````-->  a. 100 Degree Celsius

b. 101 Degree Celsius

c. 90 Degree Celsius

d. 80 Degree Celsius
``````

Which is the process that changes the liquid state of water to water vapor?

``````-->  a. evaporation

b. condensation

c. sublimation

d. deposition
``````

Which process turns ice into vapor?

``````a. deposition

b. evaporation

-->  c. sublimation

d. melting
``````

What happens to the liquid as heat is taken from the environment?

``````a. It turns to ice

-->  b. It vaporizes

c. It condensates

d. It freezes
``````

What happens when heat energy gets taken from the environment?

``````a. deposition

-->  b. sublimation

c. condensation

d. freezing
``````

How many processes are shown in the diagram?

``````a. 10

b. 15

-->  c. 6

d. 20
``````

What does liquid turn to when you remove energy from it?

``````a. gas

b. evaporation

-->  c. solid

d. plasma
``````

Which state of matter has the most energy?

``````a. Solid

-->  b. Gas

c. Liquid

d. Plasma
``````

What happens when matter changes from a liquid to a solid state?

``````-->  a. It loses energy.

b. Energy increases.

c. It absorbs energy.

d. Energy remains the same.
``````

What is the order when adding energy?

``````a. Liquid-Solid-Gas

b. Solid-Gas-Liquid

-->  c. Solid-Liquid-Gas

d. Gas-Liquid-Solid
``````

How many states of matter are there?

``````-->  a. 3

b. 2

c. 4

d. 5
``````

According to the diagram, what happens when energy is added to a liquid?

``````a. It becomes a solid.

b. It becomes a different liquid.

-->  c. It becomes a gas.

d. It stays the same.
``````

If you add energy to a liquid, you get...?

``````a. condensation

b. solid

c. liquid

-->  d. gas
``````

What does someone need to do to convert a solid to gas?

``````a. Depose

b. Freeze

c. Melt

-->  d. Sublimate
``````

What is the state of a liquid that has evaporated?

``````a. Condensation

b. Melting

-->  c. Gas

d. Solid
``````

What is the process called when gas turns into a liquid?

``````a. Deposition

b. Sublimation

-->  c. Condensation

d. Evaporation
``````

Which process changes gas to a solid?

``````a. Condensation

b. Sublimation

-->  c. Deposition

d. Evaporation
``````

How many states of matter are shown in the diagram?

``````a. 2

b. 4

c. 1

-->  d. 3
``````

What is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase without passing through the intermediate liquid phase?

``````a. Deposition

b. Evaporation

-->  c. Sublimation

d. Condensation
``````

When a solid sublimates, what does it become?

``````a. liquid

b. oil

c. plasma

-->  d. gas
``````

What does freezing do?

``````a. Turn a liquid into a gas.

b. Turn a solid into a gas.

-->  c. Turn a liquid into a solid.

d. Turn a solid into a liquid.
``````

What becomes of a liquid when it freezes?

``````a. evaporates

-->  b. becomes a solid

c. becomes a gas

d. condensates
``````

What happens to a substance in the process of condensation?

``````a. gas

b. none

c. solid

-->  d. liquid
``````

How many changes of the states of matter are shown in this diagram?

``````a. 3

b. 9

c. 2

-->  d. 6
``````

In the different changes of state, how many are considered to be reversible processes?

``````a. 4

b. 5

c. 2

-->  d. 6
``````

A change from liquid to solid state is what process?

``````-->  a. Freezing

b. Deposition

c. Sublimation

d. Melting
``````

What happens when a liquid substance freezes?

``````a. It turns into gas

b. It sublimes

-->  c. It becomes solid

d. It condenses
``````

What causes solid to turn to gas?

``````-->  a. sublimation

b. deposition

c. melting

d. vaporization
``````

What process converts liquid to gas?

``````a. Deposition

-->  b. Vaporization

c. Condensation

d. Freezing
``````

In what process does a liquid become a gas?

``````a. Freezing

b. Condensation

-->  c. Vaporization

d. Sublimation
``````

What is the process a gas goes under to become a solid?

``````a. Sublimation

b. Freezing

-->  c. Deposition

d. Condensation
``````

How many changes of state are shown?

``````-->  a. 3

b. 2

c. 1

d. 4
``````

How many phases can the state of matter go through?

``````a. 5

b. 4

-->  c. 3

d. 1
``````

What process occurs to turn a solid into a liquid?

``````a. Sublimation

b. Freezing

-->  c. Melting

d. Condensation
``````

What phase change causes a solid to become a gas?

``````a. Melting

-->  b. Sublimation

c. Deposition

d. Boiling
``````

What happens when a substance is frozen?

``````a. it boils

b. it becomes gas

-->  c. it becomes solid

d. it melts
``````

How many states are depicted in the diagram?

``````a. 2

-->  b. 3

c. 1

d. 4
``````

How many states of matter are there?

``````a. 5

b. 4

c. 9

-->  d. 3
``````

A change from solid to gas state is known as what process?

``````a. Evaporation

-->  b. Sublimation

c. Condensation

d. Deposition
``````

When a solid melts, what does it become?

``````a. It disappears

-->  b. Liquid

c. Gas

d. Stays solid
``````

What change of state takes place when a liquid is freezes?

``````a. It becomes gas

b. It condenses

c. It becomes vapor

-->  d. It becomes solid
``````

What is a phase transition from the liquid phase to vapor?

``````-->  a. Vaporization

b. Melting

c. Condensation

d. Deposition
``````

If a liquid is heated and becomes a gas, what is the name of the process it goes through to make this change?

``````a. Sublimation

-->  b. Vaporization

c. Condensation

d. Melting
``````

In what process does a gas become a solid?

``````a. Melting

b. Condensation

c. Sublimation

-->  d. Deposition
``````

How many processes are there to change from a particular state to the liquid state of matter?

``````-->  a. 2

b. 3

c. 1

d. 0
``````

What causes solid to turn to gas?

``````a. melting

-->  b. sublimation

c. vaporization

d. condensation
``````

What causes solid to turn to gas?

``````a. vaporization

b. condensation

-->  c. sublimation

d. deionization
``````

This is the process wherein liquid turns into gas.

``````a. Condensation

-->  b. Vaporization

c. Ionization

d. Enthalpy
``````

What comes after melting?

``````a. ionization

b. gas

c. solid

-->  d. vaporization
``````

Condensation turns a gas into what form of matter?

``````a. Freezing

b. Solid

c. Plasma

-->  d. Liquid
``````

What is sublimation?

``````a. change of state from liquid to gas

b. change of state from gas to solid

c. change of state from solid to liquid

-->  d. change of state from solid to gas
``````

How many states can the water be in?

``````a. 1

-->  b. 3

c. 2

d. 4
``````

How many states of matter are there?

``````-->  a. 4

b. 3

c. 2

d. 5
``````

What if there is no Vaporization?

``````a. Solid will turn to plasma

b. Solid can turn to gas

-->  c. Liquid can't turn to gas

d. Gas can't turn to liquid
``````

What process happens before it becomes plasma?

``````-->  a. Ionization

b. Melting

c. Liquid

d. Vaporization
``````

Identify gas

``````a. E

b. V

c. F

-->  d. U
``````