changes of state

what are changes of state

The water droplets of fog form from water vapor in the air. Fog disappears when the water droplets change back to water vapor. These changes are examples of changes of state. A change of state occurs whenever matter changes from one state to another. Common states of matter on Earth are solid, liquid, and gas. Matter may change back and forth between any two of these states. Changes of state are physical changes in matter. They are reversible changes that do not change matters chemical makeup or chemical properties. For example, when fog changes to water vapor, it is still water and can change back to liquid water again.

processes that cause changes of state

Several processes are involved in common changes of state. They include melting, freezing, sublimation, deposition, condensation, and evaporation. The Figure 1.1 shows how matter changes in each of these processes. Q: Which two processes result in matter changing to the solid state? A: The processes are deposition, in which matter changes from a gas to a solid, and freezing, in which matter changes from a liquid to a solid.

the role of energy in changes of state

Suppose that you leave some squares of chocolate candy in the hot sun. A couple of hours later, you notice that the chocolate has turned into a puddle like the one pictured in the Figure 1.2. Q: What happened to the chocolate? A: The chocolate melted. It changed from a solid to a liquid. In order for solid chocolate to melt and change to a liquid, the particles of chocolate must gain energy. The chocolate pictured in the Figure 1.2 gained energy from sunlight. Energy is the ability to cause changes in matter, and it is always involved in changes of state. When matter changes from one state to another, it either absorbs energyas when chocolate meltsor loses energy. For example, if you were to place the melted chocolate in a refrigerator, it would lose energy to the cold air inside the refrigerator. As a result, the liquid chocolate would change to a solid Q: Why is energy always involved in changes of state? A: The energy of particles of matter determines the matters state. Particles of a gas have more energy than particles of a liquid, and particles of a liquid have more energy than particles of a solid. Therefore, in order for matter to change from a solid to a liquid or from a liquid to a gas, particles of matter must absorb energy. In order for matter to change from a gas to a liquid or from a liquid to a solid, particles of matter must lose energy.

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textbook_image

instructional diagrams

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questions

matter can change back and forth between any two states of matter.

-->  a. true

b. false

changes of state are chemical changes in matter.

a. true

-->  b. false

processes involved in changes of state include

-->  a) evaporating.

b) tarnishing.

c) combusting.

d) two of the above

the reverse of the process in question 5 is called

a) condensation.

b) vaporization.

c) freezing.

-->  d) deposition.

matter always absorbs energy when it changes state.

a. true

-->  b. false

which process does not involve matter in the liquid state?

a) melting

b) condensation

c) evaporation

-->  d) sublimation

diagram questions

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