chemical bonding

chemical bonding

Ions come together to create a molecule so that electrical charges are balanced; the positive charges balance the negative charges and the molecule has no electrical charge. To balance electrical charge, an atom may share its electron with another atom, give it away, or receive an electron from another atom. The joining of ions to make molecules is called chemical bonding. There are three main types of chemical bonds that are important in our discussion of minerals and rocks: Ionic bond: Electrons are transferred between atoms. An ion will give one or more electrons to another ion. Table salt, sodium chloride (NaCl), is a common example of an ionic compound. Note that sodium is on the left side of the periodic table and that chlorine is on the right side of the periodic table. In the Figure 1.2, an atom of lithium donates an electron to an atom of fluorine to form an ionic compound. The transfer of the electron gives the lithium ion a net charge of +1, and the fluorine ion a net charge of -1. These ions bond because they experience an attractive force due to the difference in sign of their charges. Covalent bond : In a covalent bond, an atom shares one or more electrons with another atom. Periodic Table of the Elements. Lithium (left) and fluorine (right) form an ionic compound called lithium fluoride. In the picture of methane (CH4 ) below (Figure 1.3), the carbon ion (with a net charge of +4) shares a single electron from each of the the four hydrogens. Covalent bonding is prevalent in organic compounds. In fact, your body is held together by electrons shared by carbons and hydrogens! Covalent bonds are also very strong, meaning it takes a lot of energy to break them apart. Hydrogen bond: These weak, intermolecular bonds are formed when the positive side of one polar molecule is attracted to the negative side of another polar molecule. Water is a classic example of a polar molecule because it has a slightly positive side, and a slightly negative side. In fact, this property is why water is so good at dissolving things. The positive side of the molecule is attracted to Methane is formed when four hydrogens and one carbon covalently bond. negative ions and the negative side is attracted to positive ions.

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instructional diagrams

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questions

in chemical bonds,

a) one or more atoms share electrons.

b) ions join together to create atoms.

-->  c) ions join together to create molecules.

d) none of these.

an atom that shares one or more electrons with another atom is a(n)

a) ionic bond

-->  b) covalent bond

c) hydrogen bond

d) none of the above

a polar molecule is slightly positive on one side and slightly negative on the other.

-->  a) true

b) false

water is good at dissolving things because it exhibits

a) ionic bonding

b) covalent bonding

-->  c) hydrogen bonding

d) all of the above

table salt is an example of hydrogen bonding in which sodium is positive and chlorine is negative.

a) true

-->  b) false

covalent bonds are weak; it does not take a lot of energy to break them apart.

a) true

-->  b) false

in the compound methane,

a) carbon gives an electron to each of four hydrogen ions as an example of covalent bonding.

b) carbon gives an electron to each of four hydrogen ions as an example of ionic bonding

c) carbon shares an electron with each of four hydrogen ions as an example of ionic bonding.

-->  d) carbon shares an electron with each of four hydrogen ions as an example of covalent

when a lithium ion and a fluorine ion combine

-->  a) lithium donates an electron to fluorine

b) lithium receives an electron from fluorine

c) lithiums positive side and fluorines negative side form a hydrogen bond.

d) they form a very strong covalent bond.

water forms droplets because a hydrogen bond is a strong bond.

a) true

-->  b) false

elements on the left side of the periodic table are electron donors, while those on the right side are electron acceptors.

-->  a) true

b) false

diagram questions

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