Diabetes is a non-infectious disease in which the body is unable to control the amount of sugar in the blood. People with diabetes have high blood sugar, either because their bodies do not produce enough insulin, or because their cells do not respond to insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps cells take up sugar from the blood. Without enough insulin, the blood contains too much sugar. This can damage blood vessels and other cells throughout the body. The kidneys work hard to filter out and remove some of the extra sugar. This leads to frequent urination and excessive thirst. There are two main types of diabetes, type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes makes up about 5-10% of all cases of diabetes in the United States. Type 2 diabetes accounts for most of the other cases. Both types of diabetes are more likely in people that have certain genes. Having a family member with diabetes increases the risk of developing the disease. Either type of diabetes can increase the chances of having other health problems. For example, people with diabetes are more likely to develop heart disease and kidney disease. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are similar in these ways. However, the two types of diabetes have different causes.


Complications of diabetes can include the following: eye complications foot complications skin complications high blood pressure hearing issues nerve damage kidney disease artery disease stroke stress


Common symptoms of diabetes include the following: frequent urination feeling very thirsty feeling very hungry, even though you are eating extreme fatigue blurry vision cuts or bruises that are slow to heal weight loss, even though you are eating more (type 1) tingling, pain, or numbness in the hands or feet (type 2)

type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes occurs when body cells are no longer sensitive to insulin. The pancreas may still make insulin, but the cells of the body cannot use it efficiently. Being overweight and having high blood pressure increase the chances of developing type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes usually develops in adulthood, but it is becoming more common in teens and children. This is because more young people are overweight, due to a high sugar and fat diet, now than ever before. Some cases of type 2 diabetes can be cured with weight loss. However, most people with the disease need to take medicine to control their blood sugar. Regular exercise and balanced eating also help, and should be a regular part of the treatment for these people. Like people with type 1 diabetes, people with type 2 diabetes must frequently check their blood sugar.

type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes occurs when the immune system attacks normal cells of the pancreas. Since the cells in the pancreas are damaged, the pancreas cannot make insulin. Type 1 diabetes usually develops in childhood or adolescence. People with type 1 diabetes must frequently check the sugar in their blood. They use a meter to monitor their blood sugar ( Figure 1.1). Whenever their blood sugar starts to get too high, they need a shot of insulin. The insulin brings their blood sugar back to normal. There is no cure for type 1 diabetes. Therefore, insulin shots must be taken for life. Most people with this type of diabetes learn how to give themselves insulin shots. This is one type of meter used by people with diabetes to measure their blood sugar. Modern meters like this one need only a drop of blood and take less than a minute to use.


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in type 1 diabetes, the pancreas produces defective insulin.

a. true

-->  b. false

in type 2 diabetes, the pancreas produces insulin, but the insulin is not used correctly.

-->  a. true

b. false

what causes type 1 diabetes?

-->  a) damage to the cells of the pancreas

b) damage to the cells of the liver

c) the production of defective insulin

d) too much sugar in the diet

what causes type 2 diabetes?

a) damage to the cells of the kidney

b) damage to the cells of the pancreas

-->  c) cells that cannot use insulin

d) the production of defective insulin

which of the following is a symptom of diabetes?

a) loss of appetite

-->  b) feeling very thirsty

c) hearing loss

d) all of the above

which of the following is a complication of diabetes?

a) kidney disease

b) vision complications

c) high blood pressure

-->  d) all of the above

why is type 2 diabetes becoming more common in children?

a) because the gene for type 2 diabetes is more common in the population.

-->  b) because of a high sugar and fat diet.

c) because it is inherited from their parents.

d) because it is easy to get the disease now.

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