excretory system problems

problems of the excretory system

The urinary system controls the amount of water in the body and removes wastes. Any problem with the urinary system can also affect many other body systems.

kidney stones

In some cases, certain mineral wastes can form kidney stones ( Figure 1.1). Stones form in the kidneys and may be found anywhere in the urinary system. Often, stones form when the urine becomes concentrated, allowing minerals to crystallize and stick together. They can vary in size, from small stones that can flow through your urinary system, to larger stones that cannot. Some stones cause great pain, while others cause very little pain. Some stones may need to be removed by surgery or ultrasound treatments. What are the symptoms of kidney stones? You may have a kidney stone if you have pain while urinating, see blood in your urine, and/or feel a sharp pain in your back or lower abdomen (the area between your chest and hips). The pain may last for a long or short time. You may also have nausea and vomiting with the pain. If you have a small stone that passes on its own easily, you may not experience any symptoms. If you have some of these symptoms, you should see your doctor. A kidney stone. The stones can form anywhere in the urinary system.


kidney failure

Kidney failure happens when the kidneys cannot remove wastes from the blood. If the kidneys are unable to filter wastes from the blood, the wastes build up in the body. Kidney failure can be caused by an accident that injures the kidneys, the loss of a lot of blood, or by some drugs and poisons. Kidney failure may lead to permanent loss of kidney function. But if the kidneys are not seriously damaged, they may recover. Chronic kidney disease is the slow decrease in kidney function that may lead to permanent kidney failure. A person who has lost kidney function may need to get kidney dialysis. Kidney dialysis is the process of filtering the blood of wastes using a machine. A dialysis machine ( Figure 1.2) filters waste from the blood by pumping the blood through a fake kidney. The filtered blood is then returned to the patients body.


urinary tract infections utis

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are bacterial infections of any part of the urinary tract. When bacteria get into the bladder or kidney and produce more bacteria in the urine, they cause a UTI. The most common type of UTI is a bladder infection. Women get UTIs more often than men. UTIs are often treated with antibiotics. Most UTIs are not serious, but some infections can lead to serious problems. Long lasting kidney infections can cause permanent damage, including kidney scars, poor kidney function, high blood pressure, and other problems. Some sudden kidney infections can be life threatening, especially if the bacteria enter the bloodstream, a condition called septicemia. What are the signs and symptoms of a UTI? a burning feeling when you urinate, frequent or intense urges to urinate, even when you have little urine to pass, pain in your back or side below the ribs, cloudy, dark, bloody, or foul-smelling urine, fever or chills. You should see your doctor if you have signs of a UTI. Your doctor will diagnose a UTIs by asking about your symptoms and then testing a sample of your urine.

instructional diagrams

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men get more uti than women.

a. true

-->  b. false

most utis are not serious.

-->  a. true

b. false

what is the goal of dialysis?

-->  a) to filter the blood when the kidneys cannot

b) to remove the pathogens causing a uti

c) to replace the kidneys

d) to remove kidney stones

what causes utis?

a) utis are caused by viruses.

-->  b) utis are caused by bacteria.

c) utis occur when minerals in the urine crystallize and stick together.

d) utis can occur by the loss of blood.

the most common type of uti is

a) kidney stone infection.

b) a kidney infection.

-->  c) a bladder infection.

d) an urethra infection.

causes of kidney failure include

a) accidents that injure the kidneys.

b) some drugs and poisons.

c) the loss of a lot of blood.

-->  d) all of the above

which of the following are symptoms of a uti?

a) a burning feeling when you urinate

b) intense urges to urinate

c) foul-smelling urine

-->  d) all of the above

diagram questions

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