# expansion of the universe

## the expanding universe

Edwin Hubble combined his measurements of the distances to galaxies with other astronomers measurements of redshift. From this data, he noticed a relationship, which is now called Hubbles Law: the farther away a galaxy is, the faster it is moving away from us. What could this mean about the universe? It means that the universe is expanding. Figure 1.2 shows a simplified diagram of the expansion of the universe. One way to picture this is to imagine a balloon covered with tiny dots to represent the galaxies. When you inflate the balloon, the dots slowly move away from each other because the rubber stretches in the space between them. If you were standing on one of the dots, you would see the other dots moving away from you. Also, the dots farther away from you on the balloon would move away faster than dots nearby. In this diagram of the expansion of the universe over time, the distance between galaxies gets bigger over time, although the size of each galaxy stays the same. An inflating balloon is only a rough analogy to the expanding universe for several reasons. One important reason is that the surface of a balloon has only two dimensions, while space has three dimensions. But space itself is stretching out between galaxies, just as the rubber stretches when a balloon is inflated. This stretching of space, which increases the distance between galaxies, is what causes the expansion of the universe. One other difference between the universe and a balloon involves the actual size of the galaxies. On a balloon, the dots will become larger in size as you inflate it. In the universe, the galaxies stay the same size; only the space between the galaxies increases.

## redshift

If you look at a star through a prism, you will see a spectrum, or a range of colors through the rainbow. The spectrum will have specific dark bands where elements in the star absorb light of certain energies. By examining the arrangement of these dark absorption lines, astronomers can determine the composition of elements that make up a distant star. In fact, the element helium was first discovered in our Sun not on Earth by analyzing the absorption lines in the spectrum of the Sun. While studying the spectrum of light from distant galaxies, astronomers noticed something strange. The dark lines in the spectrum were in the patterns they expected, but they were shifted toward the red end of the spectrum, as shown in Figure 1.1. This shift of absorption bands toward the red end of the spectrum is known as redshift. Redshift is a shift in absorption bands toward the red end of the spectrum. What could make the absorption bands of a star shift toward the red? Redshift occurs when the light source is moving away from the observer or when the space between the observer and the source is stretched. What does it mean that stars and galaxies are redshifted? When astronomers see redshift in the light from a galaxy, they know that the galaxy is moving away from Earth. If galaxies were moving randomly, would some be redshifted but others be blueshifted? Of course. Since almost every galaxy in the universe has a redshift, almost every galaxy is moving away from Earth. Click image to the left or use the URL below. URL:

## expansion of the universe

After discovering that there are galaxies beyond the Milky Way, Edwin Hubble went on to measure the distance to hundreds of other galaxies. His data would eventually show how the universe is changing, and would even yield clues as to how the universe formed.

## instructional diagrams

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## questions

this element was first discovered in our sun by analyzing the absorption lines.

``````a) hydrogen

-->  b) helium

c) oxygen

d) carbon
``````

when edwin hubble measured the distance to other galaxies, he discovered that the galaxies

``````a) flickered on and off.

b) were moving toward us.

c) were stationary.

-->  d) were moving away from us.
``````

hubbles law states that:

``````-->  a) the farther away a galaxy is, the faster it is moving away from us.

b) the farther away a galaxy is, the slower it is moving away from us.

c) the closer a galaxy is, the faster it is moving away from us.

d) none of these.
``````

the universe is expanding in three-dimensions.

``````-->  a) true

b) false
``````

what is redshift?

``````a) sound waves are moving away from the observer.

-->  b) absorption bands are shifted toward the red end of the spectrum.

c) absorption bands are shifted toward the blue end of the spectrum.

d) all of the above.
``````

astronomers determine the composition of a star by examining the dark absorption lines.

``````-->  a) true

b) false
``````

which example is true about the doppler effect?

``````a) dopper effect is found only in sound waves.

b) as an object moves toward you, the waves spread further apart, and vice versa.

-->  c) as an object moves toward you, the waves pack closer together, and vice versa.

d) all of the above
``````

if a galaxy is moving closer to earth, it would have a blueshift.

``````-->  a) true

b) false
``````

as the universe expands it is the ____ that is expanding.

``````-->  a) space between the galaxies

b) entire universe and everything in it

c) space within the galaxies

d) space within atoms and molecules
``````

as the universe expands, the galaxies are also expanding.

``````a) true

-->  b) false
``````

## diagram questions

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