fish

what are fish

Fish are aquatic vertebrates. They make up more than half of all living vertebrate species. Most fish are ectothermic. They share several adaptations that suit them for life in the water.

spawning and brooding

Many species of fish reproduce by spawning. Spawning occurs when many adult fish group together and release their sperm or eggs into the water at the same time. You can see fish spawning in Figure 13.8. Spawning increases the changes that fertilization will take place. It typically results in a large number of embryos forming at once. This makes it more likely that at least some of the embryos will avoid being eaten by predators. You can watch trout spawning in Yellowstone Park in this interesting video: http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/trout_spawning MEDIA Click image to the left or use the URL below. URL: With spawning, fish parents cant identify their own offspring. Therefore, in most species, there is no parental care of offspring. However, there are exceptions. Some species of fish carry their fertilized eggs in their mouth until they

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how fish reproduce

Almost all fish have sexual reproduction, generally with separate sexes. Each fish typically produces large numbers of sperm or eggs. Fertilization takes place in the water outside the body in the majority of fish. Most fish are oviparous. The embryo develops in an egg outside the mothers body.

organ systems of fish

Fish have a circulatory system with a heart. They also have a complete digestive system. It includes several organs and other structures. Fish with jaws use their jaws and teeth to chew food before swallowing it. This allows them to eat larger prey animals. Fish have a nervous system with a brain. Fish brains are small compared with the brains of other vertebrates. However, they are large and complex compared with the brains of invertebrates. Fish also have highly developed sense organs. They include organs to see, hear, feel, smell, and taste.

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aquatic adaptations

You can see some of the aquatic adaptations of fish in Figure 13.7. For a video introduction to aquatic adaptations of fish, go to this link: . MEDIA Click image to the left or use the URL below. URL: Fish are covered with scales. Scales are overlapping tissues, like shingles on a roof. They reduce friction with the water. They also provide a flexible covering that lets fish move their body to swim. Fish have gills. Gills are organs behind the head that absorb oxygen from water. Water enters through the mouth, passes over the gills, and then exits the body. Fish typically have a stream-lined body. This reduces water resistance. Most fish have fins. Fins function like paddles or rudders. They help fish swim and navigate in the water. Most fish have a swim bladder. This is a balloon-like organ containing gas. By inflating or deflating their swim bladder, fish can rise or sink in the water.

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fish ecology

Fish vary in the types of places they live and what they eat. Many fish live in the salt water of the ocean. Other fish live in freshwater lakes, ponds, rivers, or streams. Most fish are predators, but they may differ in their prey and how they get it. Hagfish are deep-ocean bottom dwellers. They feed on other fish, either living or dead. They enter the body of their prey through the mouth or anus. Then they literally eat their prey from the inside out. Lampreys generally live in shallow water, either salty or fresh. They eat small invertebrates or suck the blood of larger fish. Cartilaginous fish, such as sharks, mainly live in the ocean. They prey on other fish and aquatic mammals, or else they eat plankton. Their jaws and teeth allow them to eat large prey. Bony fish, such as ray-finned or lobe-finned fish, may live in salt water or fresh water. They may eat algae, smaller fish like the butterfly fish in Figure 13.10, or dead organisms. To see how one species of predatory bony fish catches its prey, watch this amazing video: http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/stonefish- MEDIA Click image to the left or use the URL below. URL:

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classification of fish

There are about 28,000 living species of fish. They are placed in five different classes. The classes are commonly called hagfish, lampreys, cartilaginous fish, ray-finned fish, and lobe-finned fish. Table 13.2 shows pictures of fish in each class. It also provides additional information about the classes. Class Hagfish Lampreys Cartilaginous Fish Distinguishing Traits Hagfish are very primitive fish. They lack scales and fins. They even lack a backbone, but they do have a cranium. They secrete large amounts of thick, slimy mucus. This makes them slippery, so they can slip out of the jaws of predators. Lampreys lack scales but have fins and a partial backbone. Their mouth is surrounded by a large round sucker with teeth. They use the sucker to suck the blood of other fish. Example hagfish Cartilaginous fish include sharks, rays, and ratfish. Their endoskele- ton is made of cartilage instead of bone. They also lack a swim blad- der. However, they have a complete vertebral column and jaws. They also have a relatively big brain. shark lampreys Class Ray-Finned Fish Lobe-Finned Fish Distinguishing Traits Ray-finned fish make up the ma- jority of living fish species. They are a type of bony fish, with an en- doskeleton made of bone instead of cartilage. Their fins consist of webs of skin over flexible bony spines, called rays. They have a swim blad- der. Lobe-finned fish include only coelacanths and lungfish. They are bony fish with an endoskeleton made of bone. Their fleshy fins contain bone and muscle. Lungfish are named for a lung-like organ that they can use for breathing air. It evolved from the swim bladder. It allows them to survive for long periods of time out of water. Example puffer lungfish

larvae and metamorphosis

Fish eggs hatch into larvae. Each larva swims around attached to a yolk sac from the egg (see Figure 13.9). The yolk sac provides it with food. Fish larvae look different from adult fish of the same species. They must go through metamorphosis to change into the adult form.

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instructional diagrams

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This diagram depicts the anatomy of a fish. Several parts of the fish such as the cheek, gills, fins and guts are shown in the diagram. The gills are present towards the front of the fish and are a respiratory organ for the extraction of oxygen from water and for the excretion of carbon dioxide. There are several types of fins on a fish. The tail fin is located at the end of the fish and is used for propulsion. The pectoral fins are located at the sides of the fish. The pelvic fins are located below the pectoral fins. The dorsal fins are located at the back of the fish whereas the anal fin is located behind the anus, towards the back of the fish.

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Here is a diagram of the external parts of a fish. The caudal fin is used for steering. The adipose, anal, and dorsal fins are used for swimming and balance. The pelvic fin helps fish move up and down. The pectoral fin works like a brake, and also helps fish to move left and right. The lateral line is used to detect movement and vibration in the surrounding water. The gill plate/operculum is a flexible bony plate that covers the gills. The preopercle is part of the operculum. The maxillary holds the upper teeth.

questions

Fish are all of the following except

a. aquatic animals

b. chordate animals

-->  c. invertebrate animals

d. ectothermic animals

Which statement about fish is false?

-->  a. Most fish are endothermic

b. Fish have a nervous system with a brain

c. Fish make up more than half of all living vertebrate species

d. Fish brains are small compared with the brains of other vertebrates

Fish generally have

a. sexual reproduction

b. external fertilization

c. separate sexes

-->  d. all of the above

What happens when a fish deflates its swim bladder?

-->  a. It sinks in the water

b. It floats on its back

c. It shoots out toxins

d. It excretes urine

Fish with jaws

-->  a. can eat larger prey

b. evolved before jawless fish

c. have smaller brains than other fish

d. two of the above

Fish larvae swim around attached to

a. their mother

-->  b. a yolk sac

c. each other

d. none of the above

Which class(es) of fish lack scales?

a. hagfish

b. lampreys

c. bony fish

-->  d. two of the above

Spawning occurs when many fish group together and

a. fight for mates

-->  b. release gametes

c. defend territory

d. change to adults

Cartilaginous fish such as sharks lack

a. a vertebral column

b. jaws

-->  c. a swim bladder

d. fins

All of the following classes of fish have fins except for

a. lampreys

-->  b. hagfish

c. cartilaginous fish

d. bony fish

Most modern fish are

-->  a. bony fish

b. cartilaginous fish

c. hagfish

d. lampreys

The majority of fish are

a. decomposers

b. parasites

-->  c. predators

d. producers

Fish have a circulatory system with a heart.

-->  a. true

b. false

Fish can see and hear but they cant smell or taste.

a. true

-->  b. false

A fish embryo develops in an egg inside the mothers body.

a. true

-->  b. false

Mouth brooding refers to a form of predation in some species of fish.

a. true

-->  b. false

Fish have a nervous system with a brain.

-->  a. true

b. false

Almost all fish have internal fertilization of gametes.

a. true

-->  b. false

There are about 28,000 living species of fish.

-->  a. true

b. false

Most fish parents provide care to their offspring.

a. true

-->  b. false

Hagfish have a backbone but lack a cranium.

a. true

-->  b. false

Bony fish include ray-finned fish and lobe-finned fish.

-->  a. true

b. false

Fish larvae look like miniature versions of the adults.

a. true

-->  b. false

Ray-finned fish make up the majority of living fish species.

-->  a. true

b. false

__inflatable fish organ that allows a fish to rise or sink in the water

a. hagfish

b. bony fish

-->  c. swim bladder

d. cartilaginous fish

e. spawning

f. fin

g. gill

__common reproductive behavior in fish

a. hagfish

b. bony fish

c. swim bladder

d. cartilaginous fish

-->  e. spawning

f. fin

g. gill

__fish organ that functions like a paddle or rudder

a. hagfish

b. bony fish

c. swim bladder

d. cartilaginous fish

e. spawning

-->  f. fin

g. gill

__most primitive class of fish

-->  a. hagfish

b. bony fish

c. swim bladder

d. cartilaginous fish

e. spawning

f. fin

g. gill

__fish organ that absorbs oxygen from water

a. hagfish

b. bony fish

c. swim bladder

d. cartilaginous fish

e. spawning

f. fin

-->  g. gill

__fish class that includes sharks

a. hagfish

b. bony fish

c. swim bladder

-->  d. cartilaginous fish

e. spawning

f. fin

g. gill

__ray-finned or lobe-finned fish

a. hagfish

-->  b. bony fish

c. swim bladder

d. cartilaginous fish

e. spawning

f. fin

g. gill

diagram questions

question_image

Which label shows the anal fin?

-->  a. M

b. E

c. H

d. L

question_image

What part is represented by label F?

a. DORSAL FIN

b. CAUDAL FIN

c. PECTORAL FIN

-->  d. VENTRAL FIN

question_image

Which label shows the pectoral fin?

a. P

-->  b. V

c. L

d. F

question_image

What is F in this image of a fish?

a. DORSAL FIN

b. CAUDAL FIN

c. PECTORAL FIN

-->  d. VENTRAL FIN

question_image

What part covers the gill?

a. F

b. V

c. E

-->  d. A

question_image

Which label refers to the anal fin?

-->  a. X

b. V

c. Y

d. S

question_image

Which label shows the pectoral fin?

a. Y

b. S

-->  c. U

d. A

question_image

Which fin is located between the pelvic and caudal fins?

-->  a. X

b. U

c. A

d. S

question_image

What are the top fins called?

a. VENTRAL FIN

-->  b. DORSAL FINS

c. ANAL FIN

d. TAIL FIN

question_image

Which represents the dorsal fins?

a. Y

b. A

c. U

-->  d. S

question_image

Which label shows the pelvic fins?

a. W

-->  b. N

c. P

d. T

question_image

Which letter represents the spiny dorsal fin?

-->  a. W

b. L

c. S

d. T

question_image

Which label represents the dorsal fin on the fish diagram below?

a. P

-->  b. D

c. L

d. V

question_image

What appendages are found on the skin of the fish?

-->  a. N

b. H, C AND S

c. J

d. U

question_image

Which letter depicts the dorsal fin?

a. V

b. H

c. L

-->  d. D

question_image

Which label refers to the anal fin?

a. U

b. T

c. S

-->  d. H

question_image

Which fin is used to balance a fish?

-->  a. Pelvic fin

b. Dorsal fin

c. Anal fin

d. Pectoral fin

question_image

Which fin is located above the lateral line?

a. Pectoral Fin

b. Pelvic Fin

-->  c. Dorsal Fin

d. Anal Fin

question_image

How many types of fin does a fish have?

-->  a. 5

b. 7

c. 4

d. 2

question_image

How many types of fins are there on this fish diagram?

a. 4

b. 7

-->  c. 6

d. 3

question_image

What would happen if a fish did not have any fins?

a. It would not be able to see.

b. It would not be able to breathe under water.

-->  c. It would not be able to swim and navigate in water.

d. Its ability to swim would not be affected.

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What part of the fish helps to reduce friction with the water?

a. Anal Fin

-->  b. Scales

c. Caudal Fin

d. Operculum

question_image

What part of the fish propels it through the water?

a. fin ray

-->  b. caudal fin

c. dorsal fins

d. ventral fin

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What are the fins on the top of the fish called?

a. Pectoral

-->  b. Dorsal

c. Anal

d. Caudal

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How many types of fins are there in this diagram of a Striped Bass?

-->  a. 5

b. 4

c. 3

d. 6

question_image

How many parts of the fish are shown in the picture?

-->  a. 8

b. 7

c. 9

d. 6

question_image

What is the fin on the side of the fish?

a. tail fin

b. dorsal fins

c. anal fin

-->  d. pectoral fin

question_image

Identify which fin on a fish helps the fish propel forward.

-->  a. Caudal fin

b. Pectoral fin

c. Pelvic fin

d. Anal fin

question_image

What is another name for the Tail Fin?

a. Ventral Fin

b. Dorsal Fin

c. Pectoral Fin

-->  d. Caudal Fin

question_image

How many kinds of fins are there in these fish?

a. 7

b. 1

-->  c. 5

d. 3

question_image

How many types of fins are present in the diagram?

a. 3

b. 2

c. 4

-->  d. 5

question_image

How many types of fins are shown?

a. 3

b. 4

c. 2

-->  d. 5

question_image

Which fin do fish used to move forward?

a. Anal fin

b. Pelvic fin

c. Dorsal fin

-->  d. Caudal Fin

question_image

Which fin is responsible for the fish's balance?

a. Pelvic fin

b. Pectoral fin

c. Caudal fin

-->  d. Dorsal fin

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Which part helps protect the gills?

-->  a. Operculum

b. Pelvic Fin

c. Anal Fin

d. Dorsal Fin

question_image

How many dorsal fins on a fish?

a. 3

b. 4

c. 2

-->  d. 1

question_image

How many fins does the fish in the diagram have?

a. 4

b. 3

-->  c. 5

d. 2

question_image

What would happen to the fish if the dorsal were damaged or removed?

a. It would struggle to breathe

b. It would struggle to move forwards

c. It would struggle to eat

-->  d. It would struggle to balance and stay upright

question_image

Which fin is used for forward movement?

a. Pectoral fin

b. Anal fin

-->  c. Caudal fin

d. Dorsal fin

question_image

From the diagram, identify the fin used for forward movement.

a. dorsal fin

b. anal fin

-->  c. caudal fin

d. pelvic fin

question_image

What fin does a fish use for forward movement?

a. Pectoral Fin

b. Dorsal Fin

-->  c. Caudal Fin

d. Anal Fin

question_image

Which of the following parts of the fish helps propel a fish forward?

a. Pelvic fin

b. Pectoral fin

-->  c. Caudal fin

d. Dorsal fin

question_image

How many types of fins are shown?

a. 3

b. 2

-->  c. 5

d. 4

question_image

Which fin is used for forward movement?

-->  a. Caudal fin

b. Pelvic fin

c. Pectoral fin

d. Anal fin

question_image

How many fins does these fish have?

a. 2

b. 1

-->  c. 5

d. 3

question_image

Which fin is used for forward movement?

a. dorsal

-->  b. caudal

c. pelvic

d. pectoral

question_image

What fin is used by the fish to change direction?

a. pelvic fins

b. anal fin

-->  c. The pectoral fins

d. dorsal fin

question_image

How many types of fins does a fish have?

a. 3

b. 4

-->  c. 5

d. 6

question_image

How many kinds of fins does a fish have?

a. 4

-->  b. 5

c. 7

d. 2

question_image

What is shown in the diagram?

-->  a. Parts of a Fish

b. Parts of a Human

c. Parts of a Bird

d. Parts of a Worm

question_image

Identify the part which is located at the end of the peduncle and is used for propulsion

a. pelvic fin

b. soft dorsal fin

-->  c. Caudal fin

d. anal fin

question_image

Which part protects the fish?

a. nares

b. pectoral fins

-->  c. scales

d. peduncle

question_image

What is the correct name for the gill cover?

a. nares

b. peduncle

-->  c. operculum

d. pelvic fin

question_image

Which of the following external anatomical features of a fish is the gill cover?

a. Peduncle

b. Pectoral Fins

-->  c. Operculum

d. Nares

question_image

How many fins does the fish has?

-->  a. 6

b. 7

c. 5

d. 4

question_image

How many types of fins are shown?

-->  a. 6

b. 3

c. 5

d. 4

question_image

Which of the following isn't used to control movement by a fish?

a. Caudal Fin

b. Pelvic Fin

-->  c. Scales

d. Anal Fin

question_image

Where is the dorsal fin located?

a. bottom of fish

b. in front of fish

-->  c. top of fish

d. beside the fish

question_image

These structures create a lifting force to assist a fish in maintaining its depth.

a. caudal fin

-->  b. pectoral fins

c. pelvic fins

d. dorsal fins

question_image

Which fin is located at the top side of the fish?

a. Pelvic fin

b. Caudal fin

-->  c. Dorsal fin

d. Pectoral fin

question_image

Which type of fin is smaller than the anal fin?

a. Dorsal Fin

-->  b. Pelvic Fin

c. Caudal Fin

d. Tail

question_image

Count how many fins come in pairs?

a. 6

b. 7

c. 4

-->  d. 2

question_image

How many types of fins are shown?

a. 4

b. 2

c. 3

-->  d. 5

question_image

What is an unpaired fin on the back of a fish or whale?

-->  a. Dorsal Fin

b. Caudal Fin

c. Pectoral Fin

d. Pelvic Fin

question_image

What is the purpose of the fins?

-->  a. They help fish swim and navigate in the water

b. to reduce water resistance

c. for breathing

d. for staying long under water

question_image

Which fin is used for forward movement?

a. pelvic

-->  b. caudal

c. anal

d. pectoral

question_image

Which fin is located on the bottom or belly of the fish?

a. Caudal fin

b. Pectoral fin

c. Dorsal fin

-->  d. Pelvic fin

question_image

How many fins does this fish used to swim?

a. 3

b. 1

-->  c. 8

d. 5

question_image

How many types of fins are shown?

a. 5

b. 3

c. 4

-->  d. 6

question_image

What is the rearmost fin?

-->  a. Caudal fin

b. Pelvic fins

c. Anal fin

d. Finlets

question_image

Identify the vent

a. T

-->  b. C

c. W

d. K