hydrocarbons

sources of hydrocarbons

The main source of hydrocarbons is fossil fuelscoal, petroleum, and natural gas. Fossil fuels formed over hundreds of millions of years, as dead organisms were covered with sediments and put under great pressure. Giant ferns in ancient swamps turned into coal deposits. The Figure 1.2 shows one way that coal deposits are mined. Dead organisms in ancient seas gradually formed deposits of petroleum and natural gas. Open-Pit Coal Mine

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uses of hydrocarbons

It is hard to overstate the importance of hydrocarbons to modern life. Hydrocarbons have even been called the driving force of western civilization. You saw some ways they are used in the opening image. Several other ways are pictured in the Figure 1.1. The most important use of hydrocarbons is for fuel. Gasoline, natural gas, fuel oil, diesel fuel, jet fuel, coal, kerosene, and propane are just some of the commonly used hydrocarbon fuels. Hydrocarbons are also used to make things, including plastics and synthetic fabrics such as polyester. Motor oil: Motor oil consists of several hydrocarbons. It lubricates the moving parts of car engines. Asphalt: Asphalt pavement on highways is made of hy- drocarbons found in petroleum. Candle: Many candles are made of paraffin wax, a solid mixture of hydrocarbons. Lighter: This lighter burns the hydrocarbon named butane. Rain Boots: These rain boots are made of a mixture of several hydro- carbons. Transportation: These forms of transportation are fueled by different mixtures of hydrocarbons.

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classes of hydrocarbons

Hydrocarbons are placed in two different classes: saturated hydrocarbons and unsaturated hydrocarbons. This classification is based on the number of bonds between carbon atoms. Saturated hydrocarbons have only single bonds between carbon atoms, so the carbon atoms are bonded to as many hydrogen atoms as possible. In other words, they are saturated with hydrogen atoms. Unsaturated hydrocarbons have at least one double or triple bond between carbon atoms, so the carbon atoms are not bonded to as many hydrogen atoms as possible. In other words, they are unsaturated with hydrogen atoms.

what are hydrocarbons

Hydrocarbons are compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen. Hydrocarbons are the simplest type of carbon-based compounds, but they can vary greatly in size. The smallest hydrocarbons have just one or two carbon atoms. The largest hydrocarbons may have thousands of carbon atoms. Q: How are hydrocarbons involved in each of the photos pictured above? A: The main ingredient of mothballs is the hydrocarbon naphthalene. The main ingredient in nail polish remover is the hydrocarbon acetone. The lawn mower runs on a mixture of hydrocarbons called gasoline, and the camp stove burns a hydrocarbon fuel named isobutane.

properties of hydrocarbons

The size of hydrocarbon molecules influences their properties, including their melting and boiling points. As a result, some hydrocarbons are gases at room temperature, while others are liquids or solids. Hydrocarbons are generally nonpolar, which means that their molecules do not have oppositely charged sides. Therefore, they do not dissolve in water, which is a polar compound. In fact, hydrocarbons tend to repel water. Thats why they are used in floor wax and similar products.

instructional diagrams

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questions

hydrocarbons are the simplest type of carbon compounds.

-->  a. true

b. false

hydrocarbon molecules

a) are polar.

-->  b) do not dissolve in water.

c) are all liquids at room temperature.

d) two of the above

hydrocarbons are used to make

a) fuels.

b) waxes.

c) fabrics.

-->  d) all of the above

the size of hydrocarbon molecules influences their melting and boiling points.

-->  a. true

b. false

hydrocarbons consist only of carbon and hydrogen atoms.

-->  a. true

b. false

saturated hydrocarbons

a) contain only single bonds between carbon atoms.

b) contain as many hydrogen atoms as possible.

c) are called alkanes.

-->  d) all of the above

what is the general formula for a saturated hydrocarbon?

-->  a) cnh2n+2

b) cnh2n

c) cnh2n-2

d) none of the above

diagram questions

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