kinetic energy

defining kinetic energy

Kinetic energy is the energy of moving matter. Anything that is moving has kinetic energyfrom atoms in matter to stars in outer space. Things with kinetic energy can do work. For example, the spinning saw blade in the photo above is doing the work of cutting through a piece of metal.

calculating kinetic energy

The amount of kinetic energy in a moving object depends directly on its mass and velocity. An object with greater mass or greater velocity has more kinetic energy. You can calculate the kinetic energy of a moving object with this equation: Kinetic Energy (KE) = 12 mass velocity2 This equation shows that an increase in velocity increases kinetic energy more than an increase in mass. If mass doubles, kinetic energy doubles as well, but if velocity doubles, kinetic energy increases by a factor of four. Thats because velocity is squared in the equation. Lets consider an example. The Figure 1.1 shows Juan running on the beach with his dad. Juan has a mass of 40 kg and is running at a velocity of 1 m/s. How much kinetic energy does he have? Substitute these values for mass and velocity into the equation for kinetic energy: m2 2 KE = 12 40 kg (1 m s ) = 20 kg s2 = 20 N m, or 20 J Notice that the answer is given in joules (J), or N m, which is the SI unit for energy. One joule is the amount of energy needed to apply a force of 1 Newton over a distance of 1 meter. What about Juans dad? His mass is 80 kg, and hes running at the same velocity as Juan (1 m/s). Because his mass is twice as great as Juans, his kinetic energy is twice as great: m2 2 KE = 12 80 kg (1 m s ) = 40 kg s2 = 40 N m, or 40 J Q: What is Juans kinetic energy if he speeds up to 2 m/s from 1 m/s? A: By doubling his velocity, Juan increases his kinetic energy by a factor of four: m2 2 KE = 12 40 kg (2 m s ) = 80 kg s2 = 80 N m, or 80 J

textbook_image

instructional diagrams

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questions

things with kinetic energy can do work.

-->  a. true

b. false

an objects mass has a greater influence on its kinetic energy than does its velocity.

a. true

-->  b. false

how much kinetic energy does a 50-kg object have if it is moving at a velocity of 2 m/s?

a) 200 j

-->  b) 100 j

c) 50 j

d) none of the above

if the object in question 6 slows down to a velocity of 1 m/s, how much kinetic energy does it have?

a) 100 j

b) 50 j

-->  c) 25 j

d) none of the above

energy can be measured in the si unit n m.

-->  a. true

b. false

diagram questions

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