layers of the atmosphere

temperature in the thermosphere

Temperature increases with altitude in the thermosphere. Surprisingly, it may be higher than 1000 C (1800 F) near the top of this layer! The Suns energy there is very strong. The molecules absorb the Suns energy and are heated up. But there are so very few gas molecules, that the air still feels very cold. Molecules in the thermosphere gain or lose electrons. They then become charged particles called ions.

mesopause

At the top of the mesosphere is the mesopause. Temperatures here are colder than anywhere else in the atmosphere. They are as low as -100 C (-212 F)! Nowhere on Earths surface is that cold.

exosphere

The exosphere is the layer above the thermosphere. This is the top of the atmosphere. The exosphere has no real upper limit; it just gradually merges with outer space. Gas molecules are very far apart in this layer, but they are really hot. Earths gravity is so weak in the exosphere that gas molecules sometimes just float off into space.

meteors in the mesosphere

Did you ever see a meteor shower, like the one in Figure 15.15? Meteors burn as they fall through the mesosphere. The space rocks experience friction with the gas molecules. The friction makes the meteors get very hot. Many meteors burn up completely in the mesosphere.

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stratopause

At the top of the stratosphere is a thin layer called the stratopause. It acts as a boundary between the stratosphere and the mesosphere.

thermosphere

The thermosphere is the layer above the mesosphere. It rises to 600 kilometers (372 miles) above the surface. The International Space Station orbits Earth in this layer as in Figure 15.16.

temperature in the stratosphere

Air temperature in the stratosphere layer increases with altitude. Why? The stratosphere gets most of its heat from the Sun. Therefore, its warmer closer to the Sun. The air at the bottom of the stratosphere is cold. The cold air is dense, so it doesnt rise. As a result, there is little mixing of air in this layer.

stratosphere

The stratosphere is the layer above the troposphere. The layer rises to about 50 kilometers (31 miles) above the surface.

northern and southern lights

Have you ever seen a brilliant light show in the night sky? Sometimes the ions in the thermosphere glow at night. Storms on the Sun energize the ions and make them light up. In the Northern Hemisphere, the lights are called the northern lights, or aurora borealis. In the Southern Hemisphere, they are called southern lights, or aurora australis.

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the ozone layer

The stratosphere contains a layer of ozone gas. Ozone consists of three oxygen atoms (O3 ). The ozone layer absorbs high-energy UV radiation. As you can see in Figure 15.14, UV radiation splits the ozone molecule. The split creates an oxygen molecule (O2 ) and an oxygen atom (O). This split releases heat that warms the stratosphere. By absorbing UV radiation, ozone also protects Earths surface. UV radiation would harm living things without the ozone layer.

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mixing of air

Air in the troposphere is warmer closer to Earths surface. Warm air is less dense than cool air, so it rises higher in the troposphere. This starts a convection cell. Convection mixes the air in the troposphere. Rising air is also a main cause of weather. All of Earths weather takes place in the troposphere.

properties of the troposphere

Look at the troposphere in Figure 15.12. This is the shortest layer of the atmosphere. It rises to only about 12 kilometers (7 miles) above the surface. Even so, this layer holds 75 percent of all the gas molecules in the atmosphere. Thats because the air is densest in this layer.

tropopause

At the top of the troposphere is a thin layer of air called the tropopause. You can see it in Figure 15.12. This layer acts as a barrier. It prevents cool air in the troposphere from mixing with warm air in the stratosphere.

temperature inversion

Sometimes air doesnt mix in the troposphere. This happens when air is cooler close to the ground than it is above. The cool air is dense, so it stays near the ground. This is called a temperature inversion. An inversion can trap air pollution near the surface. Temperature inversions are more common in the winter. Can you explain why?

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mesosphere

The mesosphere is the layer above the stratosphere. It rises to about 85 kilometers (53 miles) above the surface. Temperature decreases with altitude in this layer.

temperature in the mesosphere

There are very few gas molecules in the mesosphere. This means that there is little matter to absorb the Suns rays and heat the air. Most of the heat that enters the mesosphere comes from the stratosphere below. Thats why the mesosphere is warmest at the bottom.

troposphere

The troposphere is the lowest layer of the atmosphere. In it, temperature decreases with altitude. The troposphere gets some of its heat directly from the Sun. Most, however, comes from Earths surface. The surface is heated by the Sun and some of that heat radiates back into the air. This makes the temperature higher near the surface than at higher altitudes.

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temperature of the atmosphere

Air temperature changes as altitude increases. In some layers of the atmosphere, the temperature decreases. In other layers, it increases. You can see this in Figure 15.12. Refer to this figure as you read about the layers below.

instructional diagrams

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The Earth has five different layers in its atmosphere. The atmosphere layers vary by temperature. As the altitude in the atmosphere increases, the air temperature changes. The lowest layer is the troposphere, it gets some of its heat from the sun. However, it gets most of its heat from the Earth's surface. The troposphere is also the shortest layer of the atmosphere. It holds 75 percent of all the gas molecules in the atmosphere. The air is densest in this layer.

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The diagram shows the 5 layers of Earth's atmosphere and their relative distance from the Earth's surface. Troposphere is the shortest layer closest to Earth's surface at about 15km away from the surface. The stratosphere is the layer above the troposphere and rises to about 50 kilometers above the surface. The mesosphere is the layer above the stratosphere and rises to about 80 kilometers above the surface. Temperature decreases with altitude in this layer. The thermosphere is the layer above the mesosphere and rises to 500 kilometers above the surface. The International Space Station orbits Earth in this layer. The exosphere is the layer above the thermosphere. This is the top of the atmosphere.

questions

layer of the atmosphere above the troposphere

a. exosphere

b. mesosphere

-->  c. stratosphere

d. thermosphere

e. troposphere

f. tropopause

g. stratopause

layer of the atmosphere above the mesosphere

a. exosphere

b. mesosphere

c. stratosphere

-->  d. thermosphere

e. troposphere

f. tropopause

g. stratopause

boundary between the troposphere and stratosphere

a. exosphere

b. mesosphere

c. stratosphere

d. thermosphere

e. troposphere

-->  f. tropopause

g. stratopause

layer of the atmosphere above the thermosphere

-->  a. exosphere

b. mesosphere

c. stratosphere

d. thermosphere

e. troposphere

f. tropopause

g. stratopause

boundary between the stratosphere and mesosphere

a. exosphere

b. mesosphere

c. stratosphere

d. thermosphere

e. troposphere

f. tropopause

-->  g. stratopause

lowest layer of the atmosphere

a. exosphere

b. mesosphere

c. stratosphere

d. thermosphere

-->  e. troposphere

f. tropopause

g. stratopause

layer of the atmosphere above the stratosphere

a. exosphere

-->  b. mesosphere

c. stratosphere

d. thermosphere

e. troposphere

f. tropopause

g. stratopause

Earths atmosphere is divided into layers based on

a. density.

b. pressure.

c. composition.

-->  d. temperature.

The shortest layer of the atmosphere is the

a. exosphere.

b. mesosphere.

-->  c. troposphere.

d. thermosphere.

The tropopause prevents cool air in the troposphere from mixing with

-->  a. warm air in the stratosphere.

b. hot air in the thermosphere.

c. cold air in the mesosphere.

d. cold air in the exosphere.

Which sentence about ozone is false?

-->  a. The splitting of ozone molecules warms the mesosphere.

b. Ozone protects Earths surface from harmful radiation.

c. A molecule of ozone consists of three oxygen atoms.

d. Ozone molecules absorb ultraviolet light.

Temperature decreases as altitude increases in the

-->  a. mesosphere.

b. stratosphere.

c. thermosphere.

d. two of the above

The coldest temperatures in the atmosphere occur in the

-->  a. mesopause.

b. tropopause.

c. stratopause.

d. none of the above

The International Space Station orbits Earth in the

a. exosphere.

b. mesosphere.

c. stratosphere.

-->  d. thermosphere.

Most of the heat in the troposphere comes directly from the sun.

a. true

-->  b. false

Convection currents occur in all five layers of the atmosphere.

a. true

-->  b. false

Most of the heat that enters the mesosphere comes from the stratosphere.

-->  a. true

b. false

Friction with gas molecules causes meteors to burn up in the atmosphere.

-->  a. true

b. false

The troposphere rises to about 50 kilometers above Earths surface.

a. true

-->  b. false

The top of the mesosphere is warmer than the bottom.

a. true

-->  b. false

The aurora borealis occurs because of storms on Earths surface.

a. true

-->  b. false

The thermosphere contains charged particles called ions.

-->  a. true

b. false

The exosphere merges gradually with outer space.

-->  a. true

b. false

Gas molecules in the exosphere are extremely cold.

a. true

-->  b. false

diagram questions

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Which letter represents the tropopause?

a. X

b. A

c. N

-->  d. K

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Identify the section which absorbs high energy radiation.

a. A

b. X

-->  c. P

d. C

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Which letter represents the troposphere?

a. M

-->  b. N

c. W

d. X

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In which season are temperature inversions most likely to occur in the troposphere?

a.  FALL

b. SUMMER

-->  c. WINTER

d. SPRING

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By what letter is the stratosphere represented in the diagram?

a. C

b. L

c. P

-->  d. X

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Identify the troposphere

a. C

b. P

-->  c. L

d. X

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Which layer lies between C and L?

a. L

-->  b. X

c. C

d. P

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Which label refers to the stratosphere?

a. F

b. J

-->  c. R

d. U

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Which label represents the exosphere?

a. F

-->  b. J

c. R

d. U

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Which letter represents the exosphere?

a. F

b. U

-->  c. J

d. R

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Which represents the exosphere?

-->  a. J

b. R

c. F

d. V

question_image

Which label shows the Thermosphere?

a. K

b. P

-->  c. C

d. F

question_image

Which atmospheric layer is labeled W?

-->  a. STRATOSPHERE

b. THERMOSPHERE

c. EXOSPHERE

d. MESOSPHERE

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Where is the exosphere

-->  a. K

b. F

c. C

d. W

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Which label represents the mesosphere?

a. J

-->  b. M

c. W

d. P

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Which label shows the ozone layer?

a. W

-->  b. J

c. Y

d. M

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Identify the coldest layer of the earth's atmosphere

a. J

-->  b. M

c. S

d. W

question_image

Which letter is vertically the highest?

-->  a. P

b. M

c. J

d. W

question_image

Which layer of the atmosphere are satellites orbit in?

a. Mesosphere

b. Stratosphere

-->  c. Thermosphere

d. Troposphere

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Which layer is Mt. Everest in?

a. Mesosphere

b. Stratosphere

-->  c. Troposphere

d. Thermosphere

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Which layer of the atmosphere is furthest from the surface of the Earth?

a. stratosphere

b. troposphere

c. mesosphere

-->  d. thermoshpere

question_image

How many layers of the atmosphere display temperature inversion?

a. 1

b. 4

-->  c. 2

d. 3

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How many levels are there in the atmosphere?

a. 3

b. 2

c. 5

-->  d. 4

question_image

At what height is the rocket when it reaches the mesosphere?

a. 10-45km

-->  b. 45-79.9km

c. 80-100km

d. 0-10km

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Which layer of the atmosphere is between the troposphere and mesosphere?

a. troposphere

b. thermosphere

c. mesosphere

-->  d. stratosphere

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Which part of the atmosphere is the warmest?

-->  a. troposphere

b. stratosphere

c. mesosphere

d. thermosphere

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What layer of the atmosphere is the closest one to earth?

a. Stratosphere

-->  b. Troposphere

c. Thermosphere

d. Mesosphere

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Which of the following is the area between the Earth and the Stratosphere?

a. Mesophere

b. Stratosphere

c. Thermosphere

-->  d. Troposphere

question_image

How many spheres are shown in the diagram?

a. 5

-->  b. 4

c. 7

d. 3

question_image

As you go further away from the earth what happens to the temperature?

a. it increases

b. it decreases

c. it stays the same

-->  d. it fluctuates

question_image

Identify the layer after the Ozone layer.

-->  a. Ionosphere

b. Exosphere

c. outer space

d. Troposphere

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Which layer of atmosphere contains ozone?

a. Troposphere

b. Mesosphere

c. Thermosphere

-->  d. Stratosphere

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What connects the ozone to the exosphere?

a. outer space

b. troposphere

-->  c. ionosphere

d. tropopause

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How many atmospheric layers are found 7 to 16 kilometers from the Earth's surface?

a. 8

-->  b. 2

c. 4

d. 11

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What layer is between the tropopause and stratopause?

a. thermosphere

b. exosphere

-->  c. stratosphere

d. mesosphere

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Which layer is at 30-50km

a. Troposphere

b. Exosphere

c. Stratosphere

-->  d. Mesosphere

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Which layer is between the troposphere and the mesosphere?

a. exosphere

b. outersphere

-->  c. stratosphere

d. thermosphere

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Which layer of the atmosphere is located approximately 50 kilometers away from the surface of the Earth?

-->  a. Mesosphere

b. Troposphere

c. Exosphere

d. Thermosphere

question_image

How many layers of the atmosphere is identified in the diagram?

a. 3

b. 2

-->  c. 5

d. 4

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How many layers of the atmosphere is shown in the diagram?

a. 4

b. 3

-->  c. 5

d. 2

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What is the layer between the troposphere and mesosphere?

a. thermosphere

b. endosphere

-->  c. stratosphere

d. exosphere

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Identify the layer in the atmosphere wherein the International Space Station orbits Earth.

a. Exosphere

b. Stratosphere

c. Mesosphere

-->  d. Thermosphere

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Which layer is directly after the Stratosphere?

a. Exosphere

-->  b. Mesosphere

c. Troposphere

d. Thermosphere

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Which layer of the scheme below is found at 550km from the earth crust?

a. Mesosphere

b. Exosphere

c. Stratosphere

-->  d. Thermosphere

question_image

How long is the exosphere?

a. 80km

b. 50km

c. 100km

-->  d. >700km

question_image

What is the layer between the troposphere and mesosphere?

a. exosphere

b. endosphere

c. thermosphere

-->  d. stratosphere

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Which layer of the atmosphere contains the ozone layer?

a. Troposphere.

b. Thermosphere.

-->  c. Stratosphere.

d. Mesosphere.

question_image

What is located above the Stratopause?

a. Stratosphere

b. Troposphere

-->  c. Mesosphere

d. Tropopause

question_image

What lies between the mesosphere and troposphere?

a. thermosphere

b. exosphere

c. atmosphere

-->  d. stratosphere

question_image

How many major layers is Earths atmosphere divided into?

a. 3

-->  b. 5

c. 6

d. 1

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What are the layers of the atmosphere?

-->  a. troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere

b. straphere

c. triposphere

d. misoshpere

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What is in between stratopause stratosphere and tropopause troposphere?

a. 10km

-->  b. oxone layer

c. 100km

d. mesosphere

question_image

Identify thermosphere

a. A

b. M

c. C

-->  d. X