nuclear energy

mass and energy in nuclear reactions

When the nucleus of a radioisotope undergoes fission or fusion, it loses a tiny amount of mass. What happens to the lost mass? It isnt really lost at all. It is converted to energy. How much energy? E = mc2 . The change in mass is tiny, but it results in a great deal of energy. What about the laws of conservation of mass and conservation of energy? Do they not apply to nuclear reactions? We dont need to throw out these laws. Instead, we just need to combine them. It is more correct to say that the sum of mass and energy is always conserved in a nuclear reaction. Mass may change to energy, but the amount of mass and energy combined remains the same.

pros and cons of nuclear fission

In the U.S., the majority of electricity is produced by burning coal or other fossil fuels. This causes air pollution, acid rain, and global warming. Fossil fuels are also limited and may eventually run out. Like fossil fuels, radioactive elements are limited. In fact, they are relatively rare, so they could run out sooner rather than later. On the other hand, nuclear fission does not release air pollution or cause the other environmental problems associated with burning fossil fuels. This is the major advantage of using nuclear fission as a source of energy. The main concern over the use of nuclear fission is the risk of radiation. Accidents at nuclear power plants can release harmful radiation that endangers people and other living things. Even without accidents, the used fuel that is left after nuclear fission reactions is still radioactive and very dangerous. It takes thousands of years for it to decay until it no longer releases harmful radiation. Therefore, used fuel must be stored securely to people and other living things. You can learn more about the problem of radioactive waste at this URL:

using energy from nuclear fission

If a nuclear chain reaction is uncontrolled, it produces a lot of energy all at once. This is what happens in an atomic bomb. If a nuclear chain reaction is controlled, it produces energy more slowly. This is what occurs in a nuclear power plant. The reaction may be controlled by inserting rods of material that do not undergo fission into the core of fissioning material (see Figure 11.14). The radiation from the controlled fission is used to heat water and turn it to steam. The steam is under pressure and causes a turbine to spin. The spinning turbine runs a generator, which produces electricity.

textbook_image

what einsteins equation means

In Einsteins equation, the variable E stands for energy and the variable m stands for mass. The c in the equation is a constant. It stands for the speed of light. The speed of light is 300,000 kilometers (186,000 miles) per second, so c2 is a very big number, no matter what units are used to measure it. Einsteins equation means that the energy in a given amount of matter is equal to its mass times the square of the speed of light. Thats a huge amount of energy from even a tiny amount of mass. Suppose, for example, that you have 1 gram of matter. Thats about the mass of a paperclip. Multiplying that mass by the square of the speed of light yields enough energy to power 3,600 homes for a year!

using nuclear fusion

Scientists are searching for ways to create controlled nuclear fusion reactions on Earth. Their goal is develop nuclear fusion power plants, where the energy from fusion of hydrogen nuclei can be converted to electricity. How this might work is shown in Figure 11.17. The use of nuclear fusion for energy has several pros. Unlike nuclear fission, which involves dangerous radioiso- topes, nuclear fusion involves hydrogen and helium. These elements are harmless. Hydrogen is also very plentiful. There is a huge amount of hydrogen in ocean water. The hydrogen in just a gallon of water could produce as much energy by nuclear fusion as burning 1,140 liters (300 gallons) of gasoline! The hydrogen in the oceans would generate enough energy to supply all the worlds people for a very long time. Unfortunately, using energy from nuclear fusion is far from a reality. Scientists are a long way from developing the necessary technology. One problem is raising temperatures high enough for fusion to take place. Another problem is that matter this hot exists only in the plasma state. There are no known materials that can contain plasma, although a magnet might be able to do it. Thats because plasma consists of ions and responds to magnetism. You can learn more about research on nuclear fusion at the URL below.

textbook_image

textbook_image

nuclear energy and einsteins famous equation

Probably the most famous equation in the world is E = mc2 . You may have heard of it. You may have even seen it on a tee shirt or coffee mug. Its a simple equation that was derived in 1905 by the physicist Albert Einstein (see Figure 11.18). Although the equation is simple, it is incredibly important. It changed how scientists view two of the most basic concepts in science: matter and energy. The equation shows that matter and energy are two forms of the same thing. It also shows how matter and energy are related. In addition, Einsteins equation explains why nuclear fission and nuclear fusion produce so much energy. You can listen to a recording of Einstein explaining his famous equation at this URL:

textbook_image

energy from nuclear fusion

Nuclear fusion is the opposite of nuclear fission. In fusion, two or more small nuclei combine to form a single, larger nucleus. An example is shown in Figure 11.15. In this example, two hydrogen nuclei fuse to form a helium nucleus. A neutron and a great deal of energy are also released. In fact, fusion releases even more energy than fission does.

textbook_image

the power of stars

Nuclear fusion of hydrogen to form helium occurs naturally in the sun and other stars. It takes place only at extremely high temperatures. Thats because a great deal of energy is needed to overcome the force of repulsion between positively charged nuclei. The suns energy comes from fusion in its core, where temperatures reach millions of Kelvin (see Figure 11.16).

nuclear chain reaction

The neutrons released in this nuclear fission reaction may be captured by other uranium nuclei and cause them to fission as well. This can start a nuclear chain reaction (see Figure 11.13). In a chain reaction, one fission reaction leads to others, which lead to others, and so on. A nuclear chain reaction is similar to a pile of wood burning. If you start one piece of wood burning, enough heat is produced by the burning wood to start the rest of the pile burning without any further help from you. You can see another example of a chain reaction at this URL:

textbook_image

textbook_image

textbook_image

energy from nuclear fission

Nuclear fission is the splitting of the nucleus of an atom into two smaller nuclei. This type of reaction releases a great deal of energy from a very small amount of matter. For example, nuclear fission of a tiny pellet of uranium-235, like the one pictured in Figure 11.11, can release as much energy as burning 1,000 kilograms of coal! Nuclear fission of uranium-235 can be represented by this equation: 235 92 U + 1 141 Neutron !92 36 Kr + 56 Ba + 3 Neutrons + Energy As shown in Figure 11.12, the reaction begins when a nucleus of uranium-235 absorbs a neutron. This can happen naturally or when a neutron is deliberately crashed into a uranium nucleus in a nuclear power plant. In either case, the nucleus of uranium becomes very unstable and splits in two. In this example, it forms krypton-92 and barium-141. The reaction also releases three neutrons and a great deal of energy.

instructional diagrams

description_image

This Diagram shows how a Nuclear plant Work. Heat is used to boil water into steam and drive a turbine which turns a generator, making electricity. There are two separate water systems involved. One pumps fluid around the core of the reactor, absorbing the heat and keeping the pile from going into a meltdown. This liquid is kept separate because it's highly radioactive. It's pumped through carefully sealed pipes that go through a second water tank. The heat from the irradiated water heats these pipes, and then the pipes heat the second water tank, turning that water into steam. The steam is used to spin turbines, which are kind of like an RC car's motor except kind of opposite like, this generate electricity. The turbine water is clean and relatively safe, because it's not in direct contact with the irradiated systems.

description_image

Nuclear energy is the energy released in nuclear reactions. Two types of reactions that release huge amounts of energy are nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. The diagram demonstrates Nuclear Fusion. Nuclear fusion is a nuclear reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons and/or protons). In the diagram, there are two hydrogen isotopes, Deuterium and Tritium. These combine to form a single, larger nucleus. They form a helium nucleus and a neutron. A great deal of energy is also released.

description_image

The diagram illustrates the process of Nuclear fission. Nuclear fission is the splitting of the nucleus of an atom into two smaller nuclei. This type of reaction releases a great deal of energy like heat and radiation from a very small amount of matter. Illustrated in the diagram is a neutron colliding with a uranium nucleus causing it to split into two smaller daughter nuclei. This process releases a large amount of energy and also releases three more fast neutrons. This type of reaction is used to create a chain reaction. If a nuclear chain reaction is uncontrolled, it produces a lot of energy all at once. This is what happens in an atomic bomb. If a nuclear chain reaction is controlled, it produces energy more slowly. This is what occurs in a nuclear power plant. The radiation from the controlled fission is used to heat water and turn it to steam. The steam is under pressure and causes a turbine to spin. The spinning turbine runs a generator, which produces electricity.

description_image

This is how we get electricity from nuclear power. The water near the cooling towers is through the reservoir and then back up to a filter. The water then goes through the reactor core and turns into steam. The steam from the reactor then travels into the condenser and turbines were it then goes through the generator and produces electricity.

questions

Which equation represents a nuclear fusion reaction?

a. 60

-->  b. 1 H + 1 H  42 He + 1 Neutron + Energy

c. 238

d. 92 U + 1 Neutron  92

A nuclear fission reaction occurs when a nucleus absorbs

a. a proton.

b. radiation.

-->  c. a neutron.

d. light energy.

Which of the following is a drawback of using nuclear fission for energy?

a. It adds carbon to the atmosphere.

-->  b. It produces radioactive waste.

c. It releases very little energy.

d. two of the above

If a successful nuclear fusion reactor could be built, the fuel it would use would be

a. water.

b. helium.

c. uranium.

-->  d. hydrogen.

Which statement describes a way that matter and energy are related?

-->  a. Matter and energy are two forms of the same thing.

b. Matter can be converted to energy in chemical reactions.

c. A large amount of matter contains a small amount of energy.

d. all of the above

E = mc2 explains why a small amount of mass can produce a great deal of energy.

-->  a. true

b. false

The letter c in the equation E = mc2 stands for chain reaction.

a. true

-->  b. false

The sum of mass and energy is conserved in nuclear reactions.

-->  a. true

b. false

Nuclear fusion is the opposite of nuclear fission.

-->  a. true

b. false

Nuclear fission happens only in nuclear power plants.

a. true

-->  b. false

An atom bomb explosion is an uncontrolled nuclear chain reaction

-->  a. true

b. false

Using nuclear fission for power contributes to global warming.

a. true

-->  b. false

Nuclear fusion releases less energy than nuclear fission does.

a. true

-->  b. false

Waste from nuclear fission is no longer harmful after a couple of years.

a. true

-->  b. false

The suns energy comes from nuclear fusion in its core.

-->  a. true

b. false

In the U.S., most electrical energy is produced in nuclear power plants.

a. true

-->  b. false

The fuel needed for nuclear fission is very plentiful.

a. true

-->  b. false

The use of nuclear fusion for energy involves dangerous isotopes.

a. true

-->  b. false

Matter that undergoes nuclear fusion is in the plasma state.

-->  a. true

b. false

One product of a nuclear fusion reaction is a proton.

a. true

-->  b. false

Both nuclear fission and nuclear fusion

a. are used for energy in electric power plants.

-->  b. release a huge amount of energy.

c. cannot yet be controlled.

d. produce three neutrons.

Which equation represents a nuclear fission reaction?

a. 60

b. 1 H + 1 H  42 He + 1 Neutron + Energy

c. 238

-->  d. 92 U + 1 Neutron  92

In a nuclear chain reaction, each fission reaction can lead directly to

a. four more fission reactions.

-->  b. three more fission reactions.

c. two more fission reactions.

d. one more fission reaction.

In a nuclear power plant, nuclear reactions are controlled by inserting rods made of a material that

a. cools down the fuel.

b. makes the fuel stop burning.

-->  c. does not undergo fission.

d. generates electric current.

Which of the following is an advantage of nuclear fission over the burning of fossil fuels?

a. Nuclear fission uses renewable resources.

-->  b. Nuclear fission produces no air pollution.

c. Nuclear fission produces no wastes.

d. Nuclear fission has no risks.

When tritium and deuterium fuse together, they form a nucleus of

a. hydrogen.

b. uranium.

-->  c. helium.

d. barium.

Which of the following is a problem in using nuclear fusion for energy?

-->  a. It produces dangerous nuclear wastes.

b. It requires very high temperatures to occur.

c. It depends on a very limited supply of fuel.

d. all of the above

process in which one nuclear reaction leads to others

a. electrical energy

b. nuclear reaction

-->  c. nuclear chain reaction

d. nuclear fission

e. neutron

f. nuclear energy

g. nuclear fusion

splitting of a nucleus into two smaller nuclei

a. electrical energy

b. nuclear reaction

c. nuclear chain reaction

-->  d. nuclear fission

e. neutron

f. nuclear energy

g. nuclear fusion

particle that starts a nuclear fission reaction

a. electrical energy

b. nuclear reaction

c. nuclear chain reaction

d. nuclear fission

-->  e. neutron

f. nuclear energy

g. nuclear fusion

form of energy generated by a nuclear power plant

-->  a. electrical energy

b. nuclear reaction

c. nuclear chain reaction

d. nuclear fission

e. neutron

f. nuclear energy

g. nuclear fusion

joining of two or more nuclei to form one larger nucleus

a. electrical energy

b. nuclear reaction

c. nuclear chain reaction

d. nuclear fission

e. neutron

f. nuclear energy

-->  g. nuclear fusion

reaction such as nuclear fission or nuclear fusion

a. electrical energy

-->  b. nuclear reaction

c. nuclear chain reaction

d. nuclear fission

e. neutron

f. nuclear energy

g. nuclear fusion

form of energy released in a nuclear reaction

a. electrical energy

b. nuclear reaction

c. nuclear chain reaction

d. nuclear fission

e. neutron

-->  f. nuclear energy

g. nuclear fusion

diagram questions

question_image

Which label represents the smoke?

a. L

b. K

c. W

-->  d. J

question_image

Identify the part of the nuclear power plant that produces electricity.

a. D

b. M

-->  c. K

d. R

question_image

From the diagram, where is the steam?

a. V

b. R

-->  c. J

d. M

question_image

Which label marks the steam turbine?

-->  a. K

b. T

c. E

d. S

question_image

Which label represents the reactor?

a. C

b. V

-->  c. S

d. W

question_image

Which letter represents a generator?

a. V

-->  b. T

c. C

d. W

question_image

In which step of the below diagram, does thermal energy get converted to kinetic energy?

-->  a. R

b. U

c. C

d. W

question_image

Where is the secondary loop?

a. K

b. V

c. W

-->  d. J

question_image

By which means would you moderate nuclear fission in this reactor?

a. BY USE OF THE GENERATOR

-->  b. BY USE OF THE CONTROL RODS

c. BY USE OF THE HEAT EXCHANGER

d. BY USE OF THE CONDENSER

question_image

Identify the control rods in this picture

-->  a. A

b. E

c. F

d. V

question_image

What is being represented by label T?

a. CONTAINMENT STRUCTURE

b. TURBINE

-->  c. CONDENSER

d. PRESSURE VESSEL

question_image

What part is responsible for turning the turbine?

-->  a. Y

b. D

c. V

d. A

question_image

Which label refers to the cooling water?

a. A

b. F

c. X

-->  d. J

question_image

Which letter indicated the Confinement Shell?

a. R

-->  b. A

c. L

d. S

question_image

Through which part of the system does steam travel from the confinement shell to the condenser?

a. REACTOR CORE

b. PUMP

c. CONTROL RODS

-->  d. STEAM TURBINE

question_image

Identify the steam generator in this picture

a. M

-->  b. L

c. J

d. T

question_image

Which label shows the Steam Line?

a. W

b. U

-->  c. X

d. C

question_image

Which label represents steam?

-->  a. C

b. V

c. D

d. J

question_image

Which letter is representing the steam?

a. S

b. J

c. D

-->  d. C

question_image

Identify the turbine in this picture

-->  a. D

b. C

c. V

d. S

question_image

What is the part represented by label M?

-->  a. BORON CONTROL RODS

b. URANIUM FUEL RODS

c. PUMP

d. CORE

question_image

Which label refers to the cold water?

a. M

b. U

c. W

-->  d. K

question_image

Which letter represents uranium fuel rods?

a. S

-->  b. W

c. M

d. U

question_image

What enters K?

-->  a. COLD WATER

b. HOT WATER

c. HOT VAPOR

d. COLD VAPOR

question_image

What is the reaction labeled by E?

a. FISSION

b. NEUTRON

-->  c. FUSION

d. PROTON

question_image

Which label shows the Neutron?

-->  a. H

b. C

c. W

d. E

question_image

Identify the condenser in this picture

a. C

-->  b. X

c. K

d. E

question_image

Which letter represents the Boiler?

-->  a. S

b. V

c. W

d. E

question_image

What is the name of the machine labeled P?

-->  a. TRANSFORMER

b. CONDENSER

c. BOILER

d. TURBINE

question_image

Where is the coal supply?

-->  a. C

b. V

c. N

d. K

question_image

Which label represents the neutron?

a. Y

b. U

-->  c. N

d. K

question_image

Which letter is representing the Energy in this diagram?

a. Y

-->  b. U

c. K

d. N

question_image

Which label shows Helium that forms in nuclear fusion?

a. M

-->  b. H

c. F

d. J

question_image

Which of the labels in the diagram represents helium?

a. K

b. F

c. J

-->  d. H

question_image

What is represented by the letter M?

a. PHOTOSYNTHESIS

b. PRODUCED GAS

-->  c. ENERGY

d. GLUCOSE

question_image

Identify the Uranium 236

a. S

-->  b. P

c. H

d. W

question_image

Which letter represents a neutron?

-->  a. S

b. H

c. R

d. W

question_image

By what letter is the uranium represented in the diagram?

a. V

b. J

c. N

-->  d. R

question_image

How's the extra neutron labeled?

a. V

b. W

c. H

-->  d. J

question_image

By what letter is energy represented in the diagram?

a. U

-->  b. C

c. F

d. T

question_image

What is represented by letter C?

a. SMALL AMOUNT OF ENERGY

b. GLUCOSE

-->  c. HUGE AMOUNT OF ENERGY

d. DANGEROUS NUCLEAR REMAINS

question_image

Which label refers to the coal?

a. K

-->  b. M

c. S

d. H

question_image

Where is the boiler (furnace)?

-->  a. K

b. U

c. L

d. H

question_image

Where does condenser cooling water come from?

a. F

-->  b. Y

c. M

d. X

question_image

What is represented by label X?

a. NUCLEUS DISTORTS

b. NEUTRON CAPTURE

-->  c. FISSION OCCURS

d. UNSTABLE NUCLEUS

question_image

Which illustration shows where nuclear fission occurs?

a. D

b. M

-->  c. X

d. L

question_image

Which label shows the neutron?

-->  a. X

b. C

c. E

d. L

question_image

Which letter represents Helium?

a. C

b. X

-->  c. W

d. L

question_image

Identify E.

a. ENERGY

b. NEUTRON

c. HELIUM

-->  d. TRITIUM

question_image

Which label refers to Cs-140?

-->  a. K

b. S

c. W

d. J

question_image

Which label shows U-235?

a. K

b. W

c. X

-->  d. J

question_image

Identify Tritium

a. T

-->  b. E

c. K

d. P

question_image

What letter represents energy?

a. P

b. N

c. T

-->  d. W

question_image

Where is the fusion?

a. T

-->  b. P

c. K

d. W

question_image

Which letter represents tritium?

-->  a. E

b. K

c. T

d. P

question_image

Which letter corresponds to the energy output after the process takes place?

a. T

-->  b. W

c. K

d. N

question_image

Which label refers to the neutron?

-->  a. U

b. X

c. F

d. C

question_image

Identify the helium in the following image:

a. R

-->  b. X

c. F

d. C

question_image

What does R represent?

a. NEUTRON

-->  b. ENERGY

c. HELIUM

d. TRITIUM

question_image

Where is helium?

a. C

-->  b. X

c. R

d. F

question_image

Identify the step in the nuclear power production process wherein the nuclear fission/reaction occurs

a. step 2

-->  b. step 1

c. step 5

d. step 4

question_image

Nuclear fission occurs at which step in the generation process?

-->  a. Step 1

b. Step 3

c. Step 2

d. Step 4

question_image

What does the steam turbine do?

-->  a. It powers the generator that creates electricity.

b. It pumps water into the exchanger.

c. It heats water to create steam.

d. It heats the coils in the reactor.

question_image

Which part of the nuclear fission power plant is located before the heat exchanger?

a. Generator

b. Condensor

-->  c. Reactor

d. Steam Turbine

question_image

In the diagram, how many steps are needed to generate electricity?

a. 3

b. 4

-->  c. 5

d. 2

question_image

What causes the turbine to spin, which in turn creates electricity?

a. Condenser

-->  b. Steam

c. Control Rod

d. Generator

question_image

What powers the turbine that runs the generator?

a. heat

-->  b. steam

c. uranium

d. cold water

question_image

Identify the part where the cooling takes place.

a. pump

b. steam turbine

c. reactor core

-->  d. condenser

question_image

The steam goes to which part?

a. control rods

b. condenser

-->  c. turbine

d. water pump

question_image

After all the nuclear process, how electric energy is sent to be used?

a. Turbines

b. Pumps

-->  c. Transmission lines

d. Steams

question_image

Where does the steam travel to?

-->  a. Turbine

b. Control Rods

c. Containment Structure

d. Pressure Vessel

question_image

How many water pumps are there?

-->  a. 2

b. 5

c. 3

d. 4

question_image

Equipment used to convert vapor to liquid

-->  a. Condenser

b. Pressure Vessel

c. Water Pump

d. Turbine

question_image

What process is shown in the diagram?

a. Solar System

b. Solar Power Plant

-->  c. Nuclear Power Plant

d. Energy Power

question_image

What is the Electric generator connected to in a power plant?

a. steam generator

b. control rods

-->  c. turbine

d. condenser

question_image

Which type of energy does the plant produce?

a. Turbine

-->  b. Electricity

c. Pump

d. Gas

question_image

Where does the cooling water go?

a. Pump

b. Generator

-->  c. Condenser

d. Body of Water

question_image

How many control rods?

a. 8

b. 6

-->  c. 4

d. 2

question_image

How many items are inside the Radiation Shielding?

a. 10

b. 20

-->  c. 5

d. 1

question_image

What would happen if the steam generator malfunctioned?

a. The nuclear reactor will need more fuel rods.

b. The pump will not be able to transport water into the condenser.

-->  c. There would be no steam to turn the turbine of the electric generator.

d. The turbine of the electric generator will turn even faster.

question_image

Which of these is in the reactor core?

a. electric generator

b. turbine

-->  c. fuel rods

d. steam

question_image

Where do nuclear reactions take place?

a. Electric Generator

-->  b. Reactor core

c. Pump

d. Condenser

question_image

Which main part of a nuclear power plant is essential in producing energy more slowly?

-->  a. control rods

b. confinement shell

c. heat exchanger

d. steam turbine

question_image

Where does the steam travel to?

a. control rods

-->  b. Steam turbine

c. confinement shell

d. pump

question_image

Cool water is contained in what?

-->  a. Cooling towers

b. generator

c. turbine

d. switchyard

question_image

How many pumps are shown in the diagram?

a. 4

-->  b. 2

c. 1

d. 3

question_image

How many pumps are there in the diagram?

a. 5

-->  b. 2

c. 1

d. 7

question_image

What is the purpose of the condenser in the following diagram?

a. Provide water for the cooling towers

-->  b. Cool the steam and turn it back into water

c. Transfer excess water from the turbine to the reservoir

d. Heat the water to create steam

question_image

What powers the turbine?

a. Generator

b. Reaction chamber

-->  c. Steam

d. Control rods

question_image

What causes the turbine to spin?

a. control rods

-->  b. steam

c. generator

d. reaction chamber

question_image

Where does the steam go after the turbine?

a. Reaction Chamber

b. Control Rods

-->  c. Generator

d. Control Value

question_image

Where does the steam go to?

a. reaction chamber

b. generator

c. control rods

-->  d. turbine

question_image

Which component of a nuclear power plant absorbs neutrons and stops the chain reaction to proceed further?

a. Pump

-->  b. Control Rods

c. Reactor Vessel

d. Generator

question_image

Where does electricity come from?

-->  a. generator

b. reactor vessel

c. containment structure

d. steam line

question_image

Which structure shown in the diagram below is responsible for converting the energy to electricity?

-->  a. Generator

b. Control Rods

c. Pump

d. Reactor

question_image

How many pumps are there?

a. 3

b. 4

c. 5

-->  d. 2

question_image

How many pumps are used in this electricity generation process?

-->  a. 2

b. 4

c. 1

d. 3

question_image

Which of these is in the reactor vessel?

a. generator

b. steam line

-->  c. control rods

d. pump

question_image

What is the final product in the diagram?

-->  a. Steam

b. Cold gas

c. Hot gas

d. Cold water

question_image

What is the purpose of this thermoreactor?

a. To heat water

-->  b. To convert cold water into steam

c. To cool down a system

d. To convert steam into cold water

question_image

How much uranium fuel rods are found in the nuclear power station diagram?

-->  a. 4

b. 7

c. 3

d. 2

question_image

Which part brings water to the core?

-->  a. pump

b. heat exchanger

c. uranium fuel rods

d. boron control rods

question_image

What is released during nuclear fusion of hydrogen isotopes?

-->  a. Helium, heat energy and an electron

b. An electron

c. Only Helium

d. Only energy

question_image

How many neutrons are obtained through this fusion process?

a. 3

b. 2

c. 0

-->  d. 1

question_image

How many neutrons released?

a. 2

b. 3

-->  c. 1

d. 4

question_image

What comes out of the fusion among these?

a. Carbon

b. Deuterium

-->  c. Helium

d. Tritium

question_image

What is a stable isotope of hydrogen with a mass approximately twice that of the usual isotope?

-->  a. Deuterium

b. Fusion

c. Neutron

d. Helium

question_image

What generation comes after the first?

-->  a. Second

b. Third

c. Fourth

d. Fifth

question_image

How many generations are shown in this nuclear chain reaction?

a. 2

b. 1

c. 6

-->  d. 3

question_image

How many nuclei are present at the third generation?

a. 3

b. 2

c. 4

-->  d. 6

question_image

During the first generation, which elements are created from uranium?

a. cesium and rubidium

b. silver and gold

c. strontium and xenon

-->  d. krypton and barium

question_image

What among these does U not break into in second generation?

a. Cs

b. Xe

c. Sr

-->  d. Kr

question_image

What powers the turbine in this diagram?

a. water

b. coal

-->  c. steam

d. electricity

question_image

Where does the water supply go first?

a. Turbine

b. Steam line

-->  c. Condenser

d. Boiler

question_image

Where does the coal supply travel to first?

a. The steam line

-->  b. The boiler

c. The turbine

d. The water supply

question_image

Which component uses coal and water to make steam?

-->  a. Boiler

b. Generator

c. Condenser

d. Turbine

question_image

How many generators in this diagram?

-->  a. 1

b. 3

c. 2

d. 4

question_image

What does the boiler heat?

a. air

b. condenser

-->  c. water

d. generator

question_image

What comes out of fusion?

a. hlium

b. tritium

-->  c. energy

d. deuterium

question_image

Which atoms shown below are responsible for the fusion?

a. Tritium and Helium

b. Deuterium and Helium

c. Tritium and Neutron

-->  d. Deuterium and Tritium

question_image

How many chemical elements form during the fusion?

-->  a. 1

b. 2

c. 3

d. 4

question_image

How many neutrons are depicted in the figure?

a. 7

-->  b. 9

c. 8

d. 10

question_image

In nuclear energy, how many positive charges does helium have?

a. 1

b. 4

c. 3

-->  d. 2

question_image

Which is not a result of the fusion?

a. Energy

b. Neutron

-->  c. D

d. He

question_image

Which of the following is not produced when tritium and deuterium fuse together?

a. Neutron

-->  b. Hydrogen

c. Helium

d. Energy

question_image

How many neutrons released?

a. 3

b. 2

-->  c. 1

d. 4

question_image

What does He represent?

a. Carbon

b. Oxygen

c. Nitrogen

-->  d. Helium

question_image

How many neutrons are necessary to split a nucleus?

a. 2

b. 3

-->  c. 1

d. 4

question_image

How many neutrons are produced by the fission diagram?

a. 0

b. 4

-->  c. 3

d. 1

question_image

What is needed for the production of energy?

a. Deuterium and Helium

b. Helium and Neutron

-->  c. Deuterium and Tritium

d. Tritium and Neutron

question_image

What happens in nuclear fusion reaction?

a. it releases a great deal of energy from a very small amount of matter

b. it releases three neutrons and a great deal of energy

c.  the nucleus of uranium becomes very unstable and splits in two

-->  d. nuclei of two hydrogen isotopes (tritium and deuterium) fuse together and form a helium nucleus, a neutron, and energy.

question_image

How many neutrons released

a. 2

-->  b. 1

c. 3

d. 4

question_image

When deuterium and tritium combine, which of these is not created?

a. energy

b. helium

c. neutron

-->  d. hydrogen

question_image

Which type of energy is made in this diagram?

a. Electricity

b. Water

c. Gas

-->  d. Nuclear

question_image

Cesium in the figure is an example of what?

-->  a. fission fragment

b. proton

c. energy

d. neutron

question_image

In this nuclear chain reaction, what does Uranium-236 split into first?

a. reaction

b. Neutrons and Protons

c. energy

-->  d. Cesium and Rubidium

question_image

What causes the nuclear chain reaction?

a. rubidium

b. nearby atom

-->  c. energy

d. uranium

question_image

What is the next stage after neutron bombardment?

-->  a. fragmentation of uranium to cesium and rubidium

b. released uranium causes chain reaction

c. energy released from chain reaction increases

d. other uranium molecules split

question_image

What particles are emitted in this fission reaction?

a. fission product

-->  b. neutron

c. energy

d. electron

question_image

Which of the following is not a product of nuclear fission?

a. Energy

b. Barium-141

c. Neutron

-->  d. Oxygen

question_image

Describe nuclear fission and how it is used for energy.

a.  Less than one-quarter of the electricity used in the U.S. is generated from nuclear energy.

-->  b. Nuclear fission is the splitting of the nucleus of an atom into two smaller nuclei. This type of reaction releases a great deal of energy from a very small amount of matter.

c.  It is concerned with concepts such as motion and forces as well as mass and energy.

d. Fusion releases even more energy than fission.

question_image

What are the fission products of uranium?

-->  a. barium and krypton

b. silver and gold

c. cesium and rubidium

d. hydrogen and xenon

question_image

What is produced that is converted to energy?

a. Sunlight

b. Water

c. Oxygen

-->  d. heat

question_image

What kind of energy is released in a nuclear reactor?

a. Light energy

b. Electric energy

-->  c. Heat energy

d. Mechanical energy

question_image

How many stages are in the nuclear fission of Uranium-235 atom?

a. 1

b. 2

c. 4

-->  d. 3

question_image

What does the heat do?

a. extra neutron creates very unstable uranium-236 isotope which splits instantly

b. uranium-236 splits into smaller stable atoms of Bariumand Krypton

-->  c. is converted to energy for power

d. fire one neutron at uranium 235 atom

question_image

What happens when an extra neuron is fired at Uranium-235 atom?

a. It absorbs heat.

b. It breaks down into a very unstable Uranium-236 atom.

-->  c. It creates a very unstable Uranium-236 atom that splits almost instantly.

d. Nothing happens.

question_image

What is released when the unstable nucleus undergoes nuclear fission

a. hydrogen

-->  b. energy

c. boron

d. uranium

question_image

During nuclear fission, what is produced after the release of energy?

a. Uranium 235

-->  b. Krypton, Barium, and Three neutrons

c. Uranium 236

d. Potassium and Sodium

question_image

What are formed in the nuclear fission of U?

a. energy conversion

-->  b. Kr and Ba

c. U

d. unstable nuclues

question_image

How many neutrons released?

-->  a. 3

b. 1

c. 2

d. 4

question_image

How many neutrons are depicted in the diagram?

a. 15

b. 12

-->  c. 13

d. 11

question_image

How many generations are there in the nuclear fission of U?

a. 2

b. 3

c. 5

-->  d. 4

question_image

How many neutrons are there?

-->  a. 13

b. 11

c. 12

d. 14

question_image

What elements result from uranium fission?

a. silver and gold

b. xenon and argon

-->  c. krypton and barium

d. rubidium and cesium

question_image

What is the second step displayed in this diagram?

-->  a. uranium 235

b. neutron

c. fission fragments

d. uranium 236

question_image

From the diagram, what stage comes after uranium 235?

a. protons

-->  b. uranium 236

c. fission fragments

d. neutrons

question_image

What are fission fragments that break off?

a. Atoms

b. Electrons

-->  c. Neutrons

d. Protons

question_image

How many figures are in the diagram below?

a. 6

-->  b. 4

c. 1

d. 3

question_image

In the diagram, how many neutrons were released after fission?

-->  a. 3

b. 1

c. 6

d. 5

question_image

How many chimneys present?

a. 3

b. 2

-->  c. 1

d. 4

question_image

Where does the coal go?

-->  a. Into the boiler

b. Transmission lines

c. Steam

d. Turbine

question_image

Which fuel is used in the furnace?

a. turbine

b. transmission

-->  c. coal

d. oil

question_image

This is caused by the splitting of an atom.

a. Gas

b. Neutron

-->  c. Energy

d. Hemium

question_image

Which combination of atoms is the one used to provide nuclear energy?

a. Tritium and Neutron

b. Deuterium and Helium

-->  c. Deuterium and Tritium

d. Helium and Neutron

question_image

How many stages are in the nuclear fusion?

-->  a. 3

b. 1

c. 4

d. 2

question_image

When deuterium and tritium combine, which of these is not created?

a. neutron

-->  b. argon

c. helium

d. energy

question_image

What stage comes after N?

a. Rb-92

b. Cs-140

-->  c. U-235

d. 200 MeV

question_image

How many neutrons are depicted in the figure?

a. 2

-->  b. 3

c. 4

d. 1

question_image

What does the spinning turbine run?

a. pressurizer

-->  b. generator

c. reactor vessel

d. condenser

question_image

Where does the water go after going through the turbine?

-->  a. Generator

b. Containment Structure

c. Steam Generator

d. Pressurizer

question_image

Which of these is not within the containment structure?

a. Pressurizer

b. Steam Generator

c. Reactor Vessel

-->  d. Generator

question_image

How many generators are shown in the diagram?

a. 2

b. 4

c. 3

-->  d. 1

question_image

How many generators does this reactor have?

a. 2

-->  b. 1

c. 3

d. 4

question_image

If the steam generator is removed, what happens?

-->  a. The turbine cannot function, no electricity is produced.

b. The containment structure collapses.

c. The generator can take in water directly and create electricity.

d. The condenser can create electricity directly.

question_image

What sends the power to the city?

a. air

b. containment structure

c. turbine

-->  d. generator

question_image

Which of the following does not come after the fusion?

a. Energy

-->  b. Deuterium

c. Neutron

d. Helium

question_image

What doesn't result from fusion?

a. Helium

b. Tritium

c. Deuterium

-->  d. Oxygen

question_image

What process fuses Hydrogen atoms to form a Helium atom?

a. Nuclear fission

b. Evaporation

c. Combination reaction

-->  d. Nuclear Fusion

question_image

How many elements are shown?

a. 5

b. 2

-->  c. 4

d. 3

question_image

How many neutrons are produced by the fusion reaction?

a. 3

b. 4

c. 2

-->  d. 1

question_image

What happens during fusion?

a. Energy is lost.

b. Energy is absorbed.

c. Energy remains the same.

-->  d. Energy is released

question_image

Which part of the diagram is present before fusion?

a. Neutron

-->  b. Deuterium

c. Helium

d. Energy

question_image

How many neutrons are present?

a. 8

b. 7

c. 10

-->  d. 9

question_image

How many neutrons does tritium have?

a. 3

b. 1

c. 4

-->  d. 2

question_image

When deuterium and tritium combine, which of these is not created?

a. energy

b. neutron

c. helium

-->  d. radium

question_image

Identify calcium

a. S

b. H

-->  c. N

d. R

question_image

Which has more energy Kr or Ba

a. equal

b. U

c. Kr

-->  d. Ba

question_image

Identify the turbine

a. X

-->  b. D

c. J

d. L

question_image

Identify steam

a. L

b. V

-->  c. R

d. K

question_image

Identify the steam

a. K

b. M

-->  c. H

d. E

question_image

What is label A?

a. COOLING BASIN

b. HEAT EXCHANGER

c. STEAM

-->  d. THE CORE