protists

types of protists

Protists are classified based on traits they share with other eukaryotes. There are animal-like, plant-like, and fungus- like protists. The three groups differ mainly in how they get carbon and energy.

animallike protists

Animal-like protists are called protozoa (protozoan, singular). Most protozoa consist of a single cell. Protozoa are probably ancestors of animals. Protozoa are like animals in two ways: 1. Protozoa are heterotrophs. Heterotrophs get food by eating other organisms. Some protozoa prey on bacteria. Some are parasites of animals. Others graze on algae. Still others are decomposers that break down dead organic matter. 2. Almost all protozoa can move. They have special appendages for this purpose. You can see different types in Figure 9.3. Cilia (cilium, singular) are short, hair-like projections. Pseudopods are temporary extensions of the cytoplasm. Flagella are long, whip-like structures. Flagella are also found in most prokaryotes.

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plantlike protists

Plant-like protists are commonly called algae (alga, singular). Some algae consist of single cells. They are called diatoms. Other algae are multicellular. An example is seaweed. Seaweed called kelp can grow as large as trees. You can see both a diatom and kelp in Figure 9.4. Algae are probably ancestors of plants. Algae are like plants mainly because they contain chloroplasts. This allows them to make food by photosynthesis. Algae are important producers in water-based ecosystems such as the ocean. On the other hand, algae lack other plant structures. For example, they dont have roots, stems, or leaves. Also unlike plants, some algae can move. They may move with pseudopods or flagella.

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funguslike protists

Fungus-like protists include slime molds and water molds, both shown in Figure 9.5. They exist as individual cells or as many cells that form a blob-like colony. They are probably ancestors of fungi. Like fungi, many fungus-like protists are decomposers. They absorb nutrients from dead logs, compost, and other organic remains Slime molds are commonly found on rotting organic matter such as compost. Swarms of cells move very slowly over the surface. They digest and absorb nutrients as they go. Water molds are commonly found in moist soil and surface water. Many water molds are plant pathogens or fish parasites.

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protists and human diseases

Many human diseases are caused by protists. Most of them are caused by protozoa. They are parasites that invade and live in the human body. The parasites get a place to live and nutrients from the human host. In return, they make the host sick. Examples of human diseases caused by protozoa include giardiasis and malaria. Protozoa that cause giardiasis are spread by contaminated food or water. They live inside the intestine. They may cause abdominal pain, fever, and diarrhea. Protozoa that cause malaria are spread by a vector. They enter the blood through the bite of an infected mosquito. They live inside red blood cells. They cause overall body pain, fever, and fatigue. Malaria kills several million people each year. Most of the deaths occur in children.

general traits of protists

Despite the diversity of protists, they do share some traits. The cells of all protists have a nucleus. They also have other membrane-bound organelles. For example, all of them have mitochondria, and some of them have chloroplasts. Most protists consist of a single cell. Some are multicellular but they lack specialized cells. Most protists live in wet places. They are found in oceans, lakes, swamps, or damp soils. Many protists can move. Most protists also have a complex life cycle. The life cycle of an organism is the cycle of phases it goes through until it returns to the starting phase. The protist life cycle includes both sexual and asexual reproduction. Why reproduce both ways? Each way has benefits. Asexual reproduction is fast. It allows rapid population growth when conditions are stable. Sexual reproduction increases genetic variation. This helps ensure that some organisms will survive if conditions change.

evolution of protists

Scientists think that protists are the oldest eukaryotes. If so, they must have evolved from prokaryotes. How did this happen? How did cells without organelles acquire them? What was the origin of mitochondria, chloroplasts, and other organelles? The most likely way organelles evolved is shown in Figure 9.2. First, smaller prokaryotic cells invaded, or were engulfed by, larger prokaryotic cells. The smaller cells benefited by getting nutrients and a safe place to live. The larger cells benefited by getting some of the organic molecules or energy released by the smaller cells. Eventually, the smaller cells evolved into organelles in the larger cells. After that, neither could live without the other.

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classification of protists

The Protist Kingdom is hard to define. It includes many different types of organisms. You can see some examples of protists in Figure 9.1. The Protist Kingdom includes all eukaryotes that dont fit into one of the other three eukaryote kingdoms. For that reason, its sometimes called the trash can kingdom. The number of species in the Protist Kingdom is unknown. It could range from as few as 60,000 to as many as 200,000 species. For a beautiful introduction to the amazing world of protists, watch this video: MEDIA Click image to the left or use the URL below. URL:

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protist classification and evolution

Protists are placed in the Protist Kingdom. This kingdom is one of four kingdoms in the Eukarya domain. The other three Eukarya kingdoms are the Fungi, Plant, and Animal Kingdoms.

instructional diagrams

description_image

The diagram below shows the parts of an Euglena cell. Euglena is an eukaryotic unicellular organism, it contains the major organelles found in more complex life. Below are the organelles of an euglena. Its flagellum is a long, mobile filament that the Euglena uses to propel itself in its environment. The reservoir is the part used for storage of nutrients. The stigma is the light sensitive-spot that allows the Euglena to detect light, so that it may move towards it in order to conduct photosynthesis. The chloroplast is the organelle that allows the organism to conduct photosynthesis. The contractile Vacuole which Expels excess water into the reservoir, or else the cell would burst. The pellicle is the stiff membrane made of proteins and somewhat flexible, can also be used for locomotion when crunching up and down or wriggling. It has the nucleus which is the central organelle which contains DNA and controls the cell's activity, contained within the Nucleolus

description_image

This diagram shows the structure of a Paramecium. Paramecium is a small unicellular living organism that belongs to the kingdom of Protista. It can move, digest food, and reproduce. The pellicle, a stiff but elastic membrane, gives the Paramecium a definite shape but also allows some small changes. Covering the pellicle are many tiny hairs, called cilia. Paramecium uses its cilia to sweep prey organisms, along with some water, through the oral groove, and into the mouth opening. The food passes through the cell mouth into the gullet. Within the gullet, food particles are transformed into food vacuoles, and digestion takes place within each food vacuole; waste material is excreted through the anus. Depending on the species, a paramecium has from one to several contractile vacuoles located close to the surface near the ends of the cell. Contractile vacuoles function in regulating the water content within the cell and may also be considered excretory structures, since the expelled water contains metabolic wastes. A thin layer of ectoplasm lies directly beneath the pellicle and encloses the endoplasm. The endoplasm contains granules, food vacuoles, and crystals of different sizes. Embedded in the ectoplasm are spindle-shaped bodies (trichocysts) that may be released by chemical, electrical, or mechanical means. Paramecium has two kinds of nuclei: a large ellipsoidal nucleus called a macronucleus that controls vegetative functions and at least one small nucleus called a micronucleus. The organism cannot survive without the macronucleus and it cannot reproduce without the micronucleus.

description_image

The diagram shows some parts an organism called an Amoeba. The term amoeba refers to simple organisms that move in a characteristic crawling fashion. Amoebas are single celled organism that has a nucleus and appears transparent and gelatin like due to its clear ectoplasm and cell membrane. It is also the part of the cell that allows it to form its pseudopodia and preform its respective functions. Amoeba can change shape and move around by extending their pseudopodia (shown as pseudopodium), or 'false feet. A food vacuole is basically a storage unit of food for the amoeba and is formed only when the amoeba has engulfed its prey completely and then digestive enzymes are released into the vacuole. The contractile vacuole is basically a water bubble within the endoplasm. Its function is to regulate the water content of the cell. It is also a means of excreting its waste from the cell.

questions

Most protists

a. can move on their own

b. have a complex life cycle

c. live in a wet environment

-->  d. all of the above

Which trait characterizes protists but not prokaryotes?

-->  a. cell nucleus

b. cell membrane

c. cell wall

d. all of the above

Which statement about protists is false?

a. They are thought be the oldest eukaryotes

b. They probably evolved from prokaryotes

c. Most of them are single celled

-->  d. Some of them have specialized cells

The three main groups of protists differ in

a. the presence or absence of a nucleus in their cells

b. whether or not they have specialized cells

-->  c. how they get carbon and energy

d. all of the above

How do plant-like protists resemble plants?

-->  a. Their cells contain chloroplasts

b. They have leaves, stems, and roots.

c. None of them have the ability to move

d. two of the above

What is a benefit of sexual reproduction over asexual reproduction?

a. Sexual reproduction can occur very quickly

b. Sexual reproduction allows rapid population growth

-->  c. Sexual reproduction increases genetic variation

d. two of the above

How do protozoa resemble animals?

a. They are producers

-->  b. Most of them can move

c. All of them are multicellular

d. Some of them can grow very large

Which statement about fungus-like protists is false?

a. They may form colonies of many cells

b. Many of them are decomposers

-->  c. They include seaweeds and kelp

d. Some of them are plant parasites

Examples of algae include

a. diatoms

b. seaweed

c. kelp

-->  d. all of the above

Malaria is a human disease that

a. is caused by animal-like protists

b. is spread by deer ticks

c. causes pain, fever, and fatigue

-->  d. two of the above

Which structures do algae share with plants?

a. roots

b. stems

c. leaves

-->  d. none of the above

Most protist diseases in humans are caused by

a. water molds

b. algae

-->  c. protozoa

d. slime molds

___type of fungus-like protist commonly found on rotting organic matter

a. flagellum

b. alga

c. life cycle

d. water mold

e. pseudopod

f. protozoan

-->  g. slime mold

___common name for an animal-like protist

a. flagellum

b. alga

c. life cycle

d. water mold

e. pseudopod

-->  f. protozoan

g. slime mold

___temporary extension of the cytoplasm that a protozoan uses to move

a. flagellum

b. alga

c. life cycle

d. water mold

-->  e. pseudopod

f. protozoan

g. slime mold

___all the phases an organism goes through in its life time

a. flagellum

b. alga

-->  c. life cycle

d. water mold

e. pseudopod

f. protozoan

g. slime mold

Protists are thought to be the oldest eukaryotes.

-->  a. true

b. false

Protists can reproduce only by budding or binary fission.

a. true

-->  b. false

___type of fungus-like protist commonly found in surface water

a. flagellum

b. alga

c. life cycle

-->  d. water mold

e. pseudopod

f. protozoan

g. slime mold

Most protozoa are producers.

a. true

-->  b. false

___common name for a plant-like protist

a. flagellum

-->  b. alga

c. life cycle

d. water mold

e. pseudopod

f. protozoan

g. slime mold

___appendage for movement that is found in protozoa and most prokaryotes

-->  a. flagellum

b. alga

c. life cycle

d. water mold

e. pseudopod

f. protozoan

g. slime mold

Some algae are multicellular organisms.

-->  a. true

b. false

Slime molds are commonly found on rotting organic matter.

-->  a. true

b. false

_Of all eukaryotes, protists are the simplest.

-->  a. true

b. false

_The Protist Kingdom is sometimes called the trash can kingdom because it includes mainly

a. true

-->  b. false

_The total number of living species of protists is unknown.

-->  a. true

b. false

_The cells of all protists contain membrane-bound organelles called chloroplasts.

a. true

-->  b. false

_Most protists have very simple life cycles.

a. true

-->  b. false

_Protists called protozoa are probably ancestors of plants.

a. true

-->  b. false

_Human diseases caused by protists include giardiasis and malaria.

-->  a. true

b. false

diagram questions

question_image

Which label shows the Gullet?

a. A

b. N

c. P

-->  d. R

question_image

Which of the labeled elements shows the micronucleus?

-->  a. P

b. F

c. A

d. N

question_image

Where is the food stored after being engulfed through the gullet?

a. CONTRACTILE VACUOLE

-->  b. FOOD VACUOLE

c. CILIA

d. ANAL PORE

question_image

Which of the labels in the drawing most likely identifies cilia?

a. Y

-->  b. M

c. W

d. F

question_image

Which letter depicts the cilia?

a. U

b. F

c. A

-->  d. M

question_image

Which letter represents the Nucleus?

a. D

b. K

-->  c. T

d. V

question_image

Which of the labeled elements shows the cytoplasm?

a. T

-->  b. D

c. S

d. N

question_image

Select the cytoplasm of the cell.

a. S

b. N

-->  c. D

d. T

question_image

Which letter represents the cytoplasm?

a. N

b. K

c. T

-->  d. D

question_image

Identify the stigma

a. P

b. A

-->  c. E

d. C

question_image

Which label represents the nucleus?

a. X

-->  b. A

c. E

d. P

question_image

Identify the pigment spot (stigma) in this picture

a. C

b. A

c. E

-->  d. K

question_image

The Nucleolus is identified by which letter in the diagram?

-->  a. C

b. E

c. T

d. A

question_image

Which part of the protozoa is labeled E?

a. RESERVOIR

b. CHLOROPLAST

-->  c. PYRENOID

d. NUCLEOLUS

question_image

The pyrenoid is located inside which organelle?

a. K

b. Y

-->  c. P

d. T

question_image

From the diagram please identify the label that refers to the protist's micronucleus.

-->  a. E

b. P

c. D

d. T

question_image

Which label refers to the gullet?

a. P

b. E

-->  c. S

d. T

question_image

What is represented by label S?

a. CYTOPLASM

b. CYTOPROCT

c. MICRONUCLEUS

-->  d. MACRONUCLEUS

question_image

Which label refers to the cilia?

a. X

b. A

c. S

-->  d. L

question_image

What is the movement appendage for the protist in the following diagram?

a. R

b. W

-->  c. L

d. K

question_image

Where is the cilia located?

a. A

-->  b. L

c. P

d. X

question_image

Which label refers to the nucleus?

-->  a. E

b. W

c. F

d. N

question_image

Which label represents the golgi apparatus?

a. X

b. W

c. N

-->  d. F

question_image

Which part of the protist is responsible for propulsion?

-->  a. Y

b. P

c. X

d. C

question_image

Which letter corresponds to the part that is surrounded by rough endoplasmic reticulum?

a. F

-->  b. E

c. X

d. N

question_image

Identify a pseudopod.

a. X

b. U

-->  c. N

d. P

question_image

Which letter represents the Membrane?

-->  a. E

b. A

c. P

d. H

question_image

Where is the membrane?

-->  a. E

b. U

c. X

d. P

question_image

Which is the powerhouse of the cell?

-->  a. A

b. X

c. N

d. H

question_image

By what letter is the cilia represented in the diagram?

-->  a. H

b. J

c. R

d. S

question_image

Which label shows the oral groove?

a. M

-->  b. U

c. S

d. C

question_image

Which label shows the cilia?

a. S

b. E

c. N

-->  d. W

question_image

Which letter represents the Oral Groove?

a. V

-->  b. E

c. W

d. N

question_image

What is the label for the cilia that surround the paramecium?

-->  a. W

b. S

c. K

d. M

question_image

What are the hair-like protrusions on the outside of the cell called?

a. contractile vacuole

b. gullet

c. anal pore

-->  d. cilia

question_image

What are the short, hair-like projections that help the protozoa move?

-->  a. Cilia

b. Micronucleus

c. Gullet

d. Food Vacuole

question_image

What is the outer hair-like part of the cell called?

a. Gullet

b. Anal pore

c. Contractile vacuole

-->  d. Cilia

question_image

Which of these structures is on the surface of the cell?

-->  a. Cilia

b. Food vacuole

c. Micronucleus

d. Macronucleus

question_image

How many parts make up this single celled organism?

-->  a. 7

b. 6

c. 5

d. 8

question_image

Protists are made up of how many parts?

a. 8

b. 10

c. 6

-->  d. 7

question_image

Which of the following does the cell represented in the picture not contain?

-->  a. normonucleus

b. cilia

c. micronucleus

d. gullet

question_image

What is the center of the protist called?

a. contractile vacuole

-->  b. Nucleus

c. cytoplasm

d. cell membrane

question_image

What is right in the center of the protists?

a. cytoplasm

b. cell membrane

-->  c. nucleus

d. food vacuoles

question_image

Which trait allows some algae to move?

-->  a. Pseudopod

b. Cell Membrane

c. Cytoplasm

d. Contractile Vacuole

question_image

What is in the center of the cell?

a. cytoplasm

-->  b. The nucleus

c. pseudopod

d. cell membrane

question_image

What surrounds the cell?

a. Cytoplasm

b. Nucleus

-->  c. Cell membrane

d. Food vacuole

question_image

How many food vacuoles are in the diagram?

a. 5

b. 9

-->  c. 7

d. 3

question_image

What is at the center of a cell?

a. Food Vacuoles

b. Membranes

c. Cytoplasm

-->  d. Nucleus

question_image

What is present in the center?

a. food

b. cytoplasm

c. pseudopod

-->  d. nucleus

question_image

What is the tail-like part called?

a. mitochondria

b. nucleus

c. eyespot

-->  d. flagellum

question_image

What is the name of the center of the cell?

a. Mitochondria

b. Flagellum

-->  c. Nucleus

d. Eyespot

question_image

How many mitochondria are there in the diagram?

a. 4

b. 1

c. 3

-->  d. 2

question_image

What is the long and thin green thing called?

a. pellicle

b. chloroplasts

-->  c. flagellum

d. golgi apparatus

question_image

What is an organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur?

-->  a. Mitochondria

b. Nucleus

c. Eyespot

d. Golgi Apparatus

question_image

What surrounds the outside of an amoeba?

a. contractile vacuole

-->  b. cell membrane

c. nucleus

d. pseudopod

question_image

Which part of the cell takes up the largest surface area?

a. Nucleus

b. Vacuole

-->  c. Cytoplasm

d. Membrane

question_image

What is the part connecting the nucleus and the contractile vacuole?

a. cytoplasm

-->  b. pseudopod

c. cell membrane

d. food vacuoles

question_image

What separates the amoeba cell from its external environment?

a. Pseudopod

b. Cytoplasm

c. Nucleus

-->  d. Cell membrane

question_image

How many nuclei does an amoeba have?

a. 2

b. 4

c. 3

-->  d. 1

question_image

How many parts are shown in the diagram below?

a. 5

b. 8

c. 4

-->  d. 6

question_image

What is in the middle of the cytoplasm?

a. cytoplasm

b. cell membrane

-->  c. nucleus

d. pseudopod

question_image

Which structure engulfs food?

a. Cytoplasm

b. Nucleus

c. Contractile vacuole

-->  d. Pseudopods

question_image

What does the amoeba used to capture food?

a. Contractile vacuole

b. Food vacuole

c. Nucleus

-->  d. Pseudopod

question_image

Which part of the cell absorbs food?

a. Contractile vacuole

-->  b. Psuedopod

c. Mitochondria

d. Nucleus

question_image

How many types of vacuoles are shown in the diagram?

-->  a. 2

b. 3

c. 4

d. 1

question_image

How many pseudopods does the amoeba proteus have?

a. 9

b. 8

c. 11

-->  d. 10

question_image

What will happen if there is no food vacuole?

-->  a. Food digestion will suffer

b. The food will digest normally

c. The cell wall will become thin

d. No excretion of water and waste

question_image

Which part excretes water and waste?

a. cytoplasm

b. pseudopod

c. cell membrane

-->  d. contractile vacuole

question_image

From the diagram, identify the part that contains chlorophyll.

a. polysaccharides

b. photoreceptor

c. nucleus

-->  d. chloroplast

question_image

Identify the part of the cell responsible for the movement.

a. Stigma

b. Nucleus

c. Chloroplast

-->  d. Flagellum

question_image

How many parts are in the diagram below?

a. 7

b. 5

-->  c. 8

d. 2

question_image

What is a plastid that contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes place?

-->  a. Chloroplast

b. Nucleus

c. Flagellum

d. Vacuole

question_image

Which of the organelles in this diagram would not be found in an animal cell?

a. Nucleolus

b. Vacuole

c. Nucleus

-->  d. Chloroplast

question_image

What structure is considered the tail?

a. Pyrenoid

-->  b. Flagellum

c. Stigma

d. Chloroplast

question_image

Which part is directly connected to the pyrenoid?

a. stigma

b. reservoir

-->  c. choloroplast

d. flagellum

question_image

How many flagella does the organism have?

a. One

b. Three

c. Ten

-->  d. Two

question_image

How many flagellums are there?

-->  a. 2

b. 4

c. 1

d. 3

question_image

What is inside the nucleus?

-->  a. nucleolus

b. chloroplast

c. pyrenoid

d. reservoir

question_image

Which part of the paramecium contains rows of cilia used for eating?

a. pellicle

b. micronucleus

-->  c. buccal cavity

d. oral groove

question_image

This is the thin layer supporting the cell membrane of the protozoa.

a. Micropore

b. Conoid

-->  c. Pellicle

d. Cilia

question_image

What lies between the rhoptry and golgi apparatus?

a. polar ring

b. subpellicular tubule

c. conoid

-->  d. micropore

question_image

What outlines the outside of the Protist?

a. Oral groove

-->  b. Cilia

c. Pellicle

d. Polar ring

question_image

How many nuclei does each organism have?

a. 4

-->  b. 1

c. 2

d. 3

question_image

How many oral grooves in a cell?

a. 3

-->  b. 1

c. 4

d. 2

question_image

What do you call a thin skin, cuticle, membrane, or film?

a. Oral Groove

b. Polar Ring

-->  c. Pellicle

d. Macronucleus

question_image

Which part of the protist shown in the diagram below is used for movement?

-->  a. Cilia

b. Gullet

c. Lysosomes

d. Micronucleus

question_image

What are thick protuberances that project from the much larger cell body?

a. Contractile Vacuole

b. Food Vacuoles

-->  c. Cilia

d. Micronucleus

question_image

From the diagram, what is between the oral groove and cilia?

a. food vacuoles

-->  b. trichocyst

c. anal pore

d. lysosomes

question_image

How many contractile vacuoles does the amoeba in the diagram have?

a. 1

b. 3

c. 4

-->  d. 2

question_image

What are the hair-like protrusions coming out of the trichocyst called?

a. anal pore

b. oral groove

c. contractile vacuole

-->  d. cilia

question_image

What do you call the group of protozoans characterized by the presence of hair-like organelles called cilia?

a. Micronucleus

b. Food Vacuole

c. Gullet

-->  d. Ciliate

question_image

What is the surface of the cell covered in?

a. Macronucleus

b. Food vacuole

-->  c. Cilia

d. Cytoproct

question_image

How many parts are shown in the diagram below?

a. 6

b. 8

-->  c. 9

d. 7

question_image

The paramecium takes in nutrients through which structure?

a. Cytoproct

b. Micronucleus

c. Food Vacuole

-->  d. Gullet

question_image

What is a thin layer supporting the cell membrane in various protozoa?

a. Gullet

b. Macronucleus

-->  c. Pellicle

d. Micronucleus

question_image

How many types of nucleus are present inside the paramecium?

a. 1

-->  b. 2

c. 3

d. 4

question_image

What can be found between the food vacuoles and cilia?

a. cell mouth

-->  b. cytoplasm

c. cytoproct

d. oral groove

question_image

Within the paramecium, what leads to the food vacuole?

a. cytoplasm

b. micronucleus

c. cilia

-->  d. gullet

question_image

How many parts are shown in the paramecium?

a. 11

b. 4

-->  c. 12

d. 8

question_image

How many types of nucleus are there in a paramecium?

a. 4

b. 3

c. 1

-->  d. 2

question_image

What are the hair-like protrusions on the outside called?

a. gullet

b. food vacuoles

-->  c. cilia

d. cytoplasm

question_image

What is the larger type of nucleus in ciliates?

a. Cilia

b. Food Vacuoles

-->  c. Macronucleus

d. Cytoplasm

question_image

The core or the cell is called?

a. Mitochondrion

-->  b. Nucleus

c. Pellicle

d. Apparatus

question_image

Which of the following organelles from the diagram help a cell to move?

a. Nucleus

-->  b. Flagellum

c. Mitochondrion

d. Golgi Apparatus

question_image

What tail-like organelle helps the cell to move?

a. Golgi Apparatus

b. Ribosome

-->  c. Flagellum

d. Mitochondrion

question_image

Which organelle contains water for the cell?

a. Golgi apparatus

b. Nucleus

-->  c. Water vacuole

d. Ribosome

question_image

How many organelles are listed on these protozoa?

a. 4

b. 10

c. 7

-->  d. 8

question_image

How many types of cell organelles are there in the diagram given below?

a. 2

-->  b. 8

c. 6

d. 4

question_image

What is a thin layer supporting the cell membrane in various protozoa?

a. Golgi Apparatus

-->  b. Pellicle

c. Mitochondrion

d. Nucleus

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Which structure is a temporary extension of the cytoplasm?

a. Nucleus

b. Endoplasm

c. Food vacuole

-->  d. Pseudopod

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Which part of the cell is located between the endoplasm and membrane?

-->  a. Ectoplasm

b. Pseudopod

c. Nucleus

d. Food vacuole

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How many types of vacuoles are shown?

a. 3

b. 1

-->  c. 2

d. 4

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What is the outermost part called?

a. endoplasm

b. nucleus

c. food vacuole

-->  d. membrane

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What protects the cell from the outside environment?

a. nucleus

-->  b. membrane

c. pseudopod

d. vacuole

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Identify the part of the cell that allows it to move.

a. Cytoplasm

-->  b. Cillia

c. Food vacuoles

d. Mouth pore

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What are the short hair-like projections that help the cell move?

a. Anal pore

b. Gullet

-->  c. Cilia

d. Micronucleus

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Which part of a protist's structure can be responsible for its movement?

a. Vacuoles

-->  b. Cilia

c. Pellicle

d. Gullet

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How many food vacuoles are shown on this diagram?

a. 5

-->  b. 7

c. 6

d. 8

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How many parts are shown in the diagram below?

a. 10

b. 9

-->  c. 11

d. 8

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What are the hair-like protrusions on the outside called?

a. mouth pore

b. gullet

c. macronucleus

-->  d. cilia

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By what number is the cilia represented in the diagram?

a. 5

b. 2

-->  c. 8

d. 4

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What is the function of the organelle marked with the number 8?

a. To store waste

-->  b. To help the cell move

c. To transport material

d. To provide energy

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What is number 8?

-->  a. Cilia

b. Chloroplast

c. Nucleus

d. Flagellum

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How many parts are labelled?

a. 7

b. 5

-->  c. 8

d. 9

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How many parts is indicated in the diagram?

a. 6

b. 5

c. 7

-->  d. 8

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Which number corresponds to the cilia?

-->  a. 8

b. 1

c. 4

d. 2

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What structure lines the outer surface of the organism?

a. Food vacuoles

-->  b. Cilia

c. Contractile vacuoles

d. Micronucleus

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What is the function of cilia?

a. Gives shape to protozoa

-->  b. It provides locomotion to protozoa.

c. Breakdown waste materials

d. Digests food

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Hair like projections that is covering the whole body of a protist

a. anal pore

b. macronucleous

-->  c. Cilia

d. food vacuoles

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Which part of the cell helps it moves around?

-->  a. Cilia

b. Oral groove

c. Food vacuoles

d. Anal Pore

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How many parts are labeled in the diagram?

a. 3

-->  b. 7

c. 8

d. 4

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How many parts are shown in the diagram below?

a. 9

-->  b. 7

c. 5

d. 6

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What are the hair-like protrusions on the outside called?

a. anal pore

-->  b. cilia

c. macronucleus

d. oral groove

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What are temporary extensions of the cytoplasm?

a. contractile vacuole

b. food vacuole

-->  c. pseudopods

d. cell membrane

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What is a type of cell or organism which has the ability to alter its shape, primarily by extending and retracting pseudopods?

a. Cell

b. Snake

-->  c. Amoeba

d. Nucleus

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What helps amoeba to engulf?

-->  a. pseudopods

b. nucleus

c. cytoplasm

d. contractile vacuole

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What structure digests food?

a. Cytoplasm

b. Nucleus

c. Cell Membrane

-->  d. Food Vacuole

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How many nuclei?

a. 74

b. 45

-->  c. 1

d. 15

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How many parts does the amoeba have?

a. 7

b. 2

-->  c. 8

d. 5

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What happens if food vacuoles are removed from the amoeba?

-->  a. The amoeba is unable to digest food.

b. The amoeba is unable to excrete water and waste.

c. The amoeba is unable to engulf food.

d. The amoeba functions normally.

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Which of the following does Amoeba need to used to get its food?

a. Cell Membrane

b. Cytoplasm

c. Nucleus

-->  d. Pseudopods

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Which of the following is an animal-like protist?

a. amoeba

b. paramecium

-->  c. all of the above

d. euglena

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How many flagella does the euglena have?

a. 2

b. 0

c. 8

-->  d. 1

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How many single-celled organisms are there in this diagram?

-->  a. 3

b. 2

c. 4

d. 5

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What are the hair-like protrusions on the outside of a paramecium called?

a. flagellum

b. ribosome

-->  c. cilia

d. nucleus