protons

what do protons contain

Protons are made of fundamental particles called quarks and gluons. As you can see in the Figure 1.1, a proton contains three quarks (colored circles) and three streams of gluons (wavy white lines). Two of the quarks are called up quarks (u), and the third quark is called a down quark (d). The gluons carry the strong nuclear force between quarks, binding them together. This force is needed to overcome the electric force of repulsion between positive protons. Although protons were discovered almost 100 years ago, the quarks and gluons inside them were discovered much more recently. Scientists are still learning more about these fundamental particles.

what is a proton

A proton is one of three main particles that make up the atom. The other two particles are the neutron and electron. Protons are found in the nucleus of the atom. This is a tiny, dense region at the center of the atom. Protons have a positive electrical charge of one (+1) and a mass of 1 atomic mass unit (amu), which is about 1.67 1027 kilograms. Together with neutrons, they make up virtually all of the mass of an atom. Click image to the left or use the URL below. URL: Q: How do you think the sun is related to protons? A: The suns tremendous energy is the result of proton interactions. In the sun, as well as in other stars, protons from hydrogen atoms combine, or fuse, to form nuclei of helium atoms. This fusion reaction releases a huge amount of energy and takes place in nature only at the extremely high temperatures of stars such as the sun.

identical protons different elements

All protons are identical. For example, hydrogen protons are exactly the same as protons of helium and all other elements, or pure substances. However, atoms of different elements have different numbers of protons. In fact, atoms of any given element have a unique number of protons that is different from the numbers of protons of all other elements. For example, a hydrogen atom has just one proton, whereas a helium atom has two protons. The number of protons in an atom determines the electrical charge of the nucleus. The nucleus also contains neutrons, but they are neutral in charge. The one proton in a hydrogen nucleus, for example, gives it a charge of +1, and the two protons in a helium nucleus give it a charge of +2.

instructional diagrams

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questions

protons are one of three main types of particles that make up atoms.

-->  a. true

b. false

protons are found only in the atomic nucleus.

-->  a. true

b. false

which of the following correctly describes a proton?

a) it has an electrical charge of +2.

b) it has a mass of 1 mg.

c) it has a diameter of 1.7 x 10-27 km.

-->  d) none of the above

in the sun, protons of hydrogen atoms

a) fission to form energy.

-->  b) fuse to form helium nuclei.

c) melt to form light.

d) none of the above

the atoms of different elements have

-->  a) different numbers of protons.

b) different types of protons.

c) the same number of protons.

d) two of the above

what are protons made of?

a) gluons

b) neutrons

c) quarks

-->  d) two of the above

protons have less mass than electrons.

a. true

-->  b. false

diagram questions

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