reducing ozone destruction

the montreal protocol

Two years after the British Antarctic Survey report, the "Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer" was ratified by nations all over the world. The Montreal Protocol controls the production and consumption of 96 chemicals that damage the ozone layer (Figure 1.1). Hazardous substances are phased out first by developed nations and one decade later by developing nations. More hazardous substances are phased out more quickly. CFCs have been mostly phased out since 1995, although were used in developing nations until 2010. Some of the less hazardous substances will not be phased out until 2030. The Protocol also requires that wealthier nations donate money to develop technologies that will replace these chemicals. Ozone levels over North America decreased between 1974 and 2009. Models of the future predict what ozone levels would have been if CFCs were not being phased out. Warmer colors indicate more ozone. Since CFCs take many years to reach the stratosphere and can survive there a long time before they break down, the ozone hole will probably continue to grow for some time before it begins to shrink. The ozone layer will reach the same levels it had before 1980 around 2068 and 1950 levels in one or two centuries.

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reducing ozone destruction

One success story in reducing pollutants that harm the atmosphere concerns ozone-destroying chemicals. In 1973, scientists calculated that CFCs could reach the stratosphere and break apart. This would release chlorine atoms, which would then destroy ozone. Based only on their calculations, the United States and most Scandinavian countries banned CFCs in spray cans in 1978. More confirmation that CFCs break down ozone was needed before more was done to reduce production of ozone- destroying chemicals. In 1985, members of the British Antarctic Survey reported that a 50% reduction in the ozone layer had been found over Antarctica in the previous three springs.

instructional diagrams

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questions

the initial ban on cfcs was done based on

a) measurements of ozone levels by the british antarctic survey.

b) skin cancer levels in people who lived in the far northern and southern latitudes.

-->  c) calculations of what would happen when cfcs reached the stratosphere.

d) none of these.

cfcs stand for _____.

-->  a) chlorofluorocarbon

b) chlorineflourinecarbon

c) carbofluorochloro

d) carbochlorflouro

cfcs that reach the stratosphere release chlorine atoms that destroy ___.

a) carbon dioxide

b) water

c) oxygen

-->  d) ozone

the united states and most scandinavian countries banned __ that were found to contain cfcs.

-->  a) spray cans

b) nail polish

c) toilet cleaner

d) water

when chlorine breaks an ozone molecule it becomes

a) one chlorine oxide molecule

-->  b) one oxygen molecule and one oxygen atom

c) one oxygen molecule and two oxygen atoms

d) three oxygen atoms

the montreal protocol

a) controls the way scientists monitor the ozone hole.

-->  b) regulates the production and consumption of chemicals that destroy the ozone layer.

c) regulates the release of greenhouse gases.

d) none of these.

the ozone hole will be back to its pre-1980 levels in one to two centuries.

-->  a) true

b) false

if damage to the ozone layer continues, the incidence of this disease will increase.

a) asthma

b) diabetes

c) asbestosis

-->  d) skin cancer

wealthier nations have donated money to develop technologies that will replace ozone destroying chemicals.

-->  a) true

b) false

if cfcs had not been phased out the ozone layer would have

-->  a) become thinner until it was virtually gone in 2060.

b) disappeared by 2009.

c) thinned at the same rate globally until it stabilized in about 2040.

d) none of these.

diagram questions

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