reproductive system health

female reproductive system disorders

Disorders of the female reproductive system may involve the vagina, uterus, or ovaries. They may also affect the breasts. Vaginitis is a very common disorder. Symptoms include redness and itching of the vagina. It may be caused by soap or bubble bath. Another possible cause is a yeast infection. Yeast normally grow in the vagina. If they multiple too quickly, they may cause irritation. A yeast infection can be treated with medication. Cysts may develop in the ovaries. A cyst is a sac filled with fluid or other material. Ovarian cysts are usually harmless and often disappear on their own. However, some cysts may be painful and require surgery. Many females experience abdominal cramps during menstruation. This is usually normal and not a cause for concern. Exercise, heat, or medication may help relieve the pain. In severe cases, prescription medicine may be needed. Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in females. It occurs when cells in the breast grow out of control and form a tumor. Breast cancer is rare in teens but becomes more common as females get older. Regular screening is recommended for most women starting around age 40. If found early, breast cancer usually can be cured with surgery.

viral stis

Several STIs are caused by viruses. Viral STIs cant be cured with antibiotics. Other drugs may help control the symptoms of viral STIs, but the infections usually last for life. Three viral STIs are genital warts, genital herpes, and AIDS. Genital herpes is a common STI caused by a herpes virus. The virus causes painful blisters on the penis or near the vaginal opening. The blisters generally go away on their own, but they may return repeatedly throughout life. There is no cure for genital herpes, but medicines can help prevent or shorten outbreaks. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV destroys lymphocytes that normally fight infections. AIDS develops if the number of lymphocytes drops to a very low level. People with AIDS come down with diseasessuch as certain rare cancersthat almost never occur in people with a healthy immune system. Medicines can delay the progression of an HIV infection and may prevent AIDS from developing. Genital warts is an STI caused by human papilloma virus (HPV), which is pictured in Figure 22.15. This is one of the most common STIs in U.S. teens. Genital warts cant be cured, but a vaccine can prevent most HPV infections. The vaccine is recommended for boys and girls starting at 11 or 12 years of age. Its important to prevent HPV infections because they may lead to cancer later in life.

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other disorders of the reproductive system

Other reproductive system disorders include injuries and noninfectious diseases. These are different in males and females.

male reproductive system disorders

Most common disorders of the male reproductive system involve the testes. They include injuries and cancer. Injuries to the testes are very common. In teens, such injuries occur most often while playing sports. Injuries to the testes are likely to be very painful and cause bruising and swelling. However, they generally subside fairly quickly. Cancer of the testes is most common in males aged 15 to 35. It occurs when cells in the testes grow out of control and form a tumor. If found early, cancer of the testes usually can be cured with surgery.

sti myths and facts

STIs are more common in teens and young adults than in older people. One reason is that young people are more likely to engage in risky behaviors. They also may not know how STIs spread. Instead, they may believe myths about STIs, like those in Table 22.1. Knowing the facts is important to prevent the spread of STIs. Myth If you are sexually active with just one person, then you cant get STIs. If you dont have any symptoms, then you dont have an STI. Getting STIs is no big deal, because they can be cured with medicines. Fact The only sure way to avoid getting STIs is to practice abstinence from sexual activity. Many STIs do not cause symptoms, especially in fe- males. Only some STIs can be cured with medicines; others cannot be cured.

sexually transmitted infections

A sexually transmitted infection (STI) is a disease that spreads mainly through sexual contact. STIs are caused by pathogens that enter the body through the reproductive organs. Many STIs also spread through body fluids such as blood. For example, a shared tattoo needle is one way that some STIs can spread. Some STIs can also spread from a mother to her infant during birth.

bacterial stis

A number of STIs are caused by bacteria. Bacterial STIs can usually be cured with antibiotics. However, some people with bacterial STIs may not have symptoms so they fail to get treatment. Left untreated, these infections may damage reproductive organs and lead to an inability to have children. Three bacterial STIs are chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Chlamydia is the most common bacterial STI in the U.S. Females are more likely to develop it than males. Symptoms may include burning during urination and a discharge from the vagina or penis. Gonorrhea is another common bacterial STI. Symptoms may include painful urination and a discharge from the vagina or penis. Syphilis is a very serious STI but somewhat less common than chlamydia or gonorrhea. It usually begins with a small sore on the genitals. This is followed a few months later by a rash and flu-like symptoms. If syphilis isnt treated, it can eventually damage the heart, brain, and other organs and even cause death.

keeping your reproductive system healthy

Maintaining overall good health will help keep your reproductive system healthy. You should eat right, get regular exercise, and follow other healthy lifestyle behaviors. In addition, the following practices will help keep the reproductive system healthy: Keep the genitals clean. A daily shower or bath is all thats needed. Avoid harsh soaps or other personal hygiene products that may be irritating. Avoid risky behaviors. This includes contact with blood or dirty needles as well as sexual activity. If you are a girl and use tampons, be sure to change them every 4 to 6 hours. This will reduce your risk of toxic shock syndrome. This is a very dangerous condition that may occur if tampons are left in too long. If you are a boy, wear a protective cup if you play a contact sport. This will help protect the testes from injury. You should also learn how to check yourself for testicular cancer (see Figure 22.16). You can learn how by watching this video: MEDIA Click image to the left or use the URL below. URL:

instructional diagrams

No diagram descriptions associated with this lesson

questions

Which STI cannot be cured with antibiotics?

a. gonorrhea

-->  b. genital herpes

c. syphilis

d. chlamydia

__serious condition that may occur if tampons are not changed often

a. chlamydia

b. STI

c. genital warts

d. HPV

e. AIDS

-->  f. toxic shock syndrome

g. HIV

__any sexually transmitted infection

a. chlamydia

-->  b. STI

c. genital warts

d. HPV

e. AIDS

f. toxic shock syndrome

g. HIV

Most females should start regular breast cancer screening at about age

a. 10 years.

b. 20 years.

c. 30 years.

-->  d. 40 years.

Which age group has the greatest risk of cancer of the testes?

a. below age 15 years

-->  b. between ages 15 and 35 years

c. between ages 35 and 50 years

d. older than age 50 years

__virus that causes genital warts

a. chlamydia

b. STI

c. genital warts

-->  d. HPV

e. AIDS

f. toxic shock syndrome

g. HIV

__virus that may cause AIDS

a. chlamydia

b. STI

c. genital warts

d. HPV

e. AIDS

f. toxic shock syndrome

-->  g. HIV

Ways STIs may spread include

a. exposure to contaminated blood.

b. childbirth.

c. sexual contact.

-->  d. all of the above

__viral STI that can be prevented with a vaccine

a. chlamydia

b. STI

-->  c. genital warts

d. HPV

e. AIDS

f. toxic shock syndrome

g. HIV

Which STI can be prevented with a vaccine?

a. genital herpes

b. AIDS

c. syphilis

-->  d. genital warts

__disease that may develop in someone infected with HIV

a. chlamydia

b. STI

c. genital warts

d. HPV

-->  e. AIDS

f. toxic shock syndrome

g. HIV

__most common bacterial STI in the U.S.

-->  a. chlamydia

b. STI

c. genital warts

d. HPV

e. AIDS

f. toxic shock syndrome

g. HIV

An STI is any medical problem that affects the reproductive organs.

a. true

-->  b. false

STIs always cause symptoms.

a. true

-->  b. false

STIs are most common in teens and young adults.

-->  a. true

b. false

HIV destroys lymphocytes that normally fight infections.

-->  a. true

b. false

It is normal to have abdominal cramps during menstruation.

-->  a. true

b. false

Many STIs can spread through body fluids such as blood.

-->  a. true

b. false

A person with just one sexual partner cannot get STIs by sexual contact.

a. true

-->  b. false

Untreated STIs may lead to the inability to have children.

-->  a. true

b. false

Viral STIs usually last for life.

-->  a. true

b. false

AIDS is diagnosed in anyone who has an HIV infection.

a. true

-->  b. false

Injuries to the testes are very rare.

a. true

-->  b. false

Ovarian cysts are usually harmless.

-->  a. true

b. false

In which of the following age groups are STIs most common?

a. preteens

-->  b. teens and young adults

c. middle-aged adults

d. elderly adults

What causes STIs?

-->  a. pathogens

b. injuries

c. environmental toxins

d. two of the above

Which STI can be treated with antibiotics?

a. genital herpes

b. genital warts

-->  c. syphilis

d. AIDS

The most common reproductive system cancer in young males is cancer of the

a. penis.

-->  b. testes.

c. prostate gland.

d. vas deferens.

Infection with HPV may eventually lead to

a. AIDS.

b. herpes.

-->  c. cancer.

d. gonorrhea.

Which statement about STIs is false?

-->  a. All STIs can be cured with antibiotics.

b. Many STIs do not cause symptoms.

c. Some STIs can be fatal if left untreated.

d. STIs may be caused by viruses or bacteria.

Which STI below is linked with the wrong initial symptom?

a. chlamydia: discharge from the genitals

b. gonorrhea: small sore on the genitals

c. syphilis: painful urination

-->  d. two of the above

diagram questions

No diagram questions associated with this lesson