satellites shuttles and space stations

space shuttles

Craft designed for human spaceflight, like the Apollo missions, were very successful, but were also very expensive, could not carry much cargo, and could be used only once. To outfit the ISS, NASA needed a space vehicle that was reusable and able to carry large pieces of equipment, such as satellites, space telescopes, or sections of a space station. The resulting spacecraft was a space shuttle, shown in (Figure 1.4). Satellites operate with solar panels for energy. A photograph of the International Space Station was taken from the space shuttle Atlantis in June 2007. Construction of the station was completed in 2011, but new pieces and experiments continue to be added. A space shuttle has three main parts. The part you are probably most familiar with is the orbiter, with wings like an airplane. When a space shuttle launches, the orbiter is attached to a huge fuel tank that contains liquid fuel. On the sides of the fuel tank are two large "booster rockets." All of this is needed to get the orbiter out of Earths atmosphere. Once in space, the orbiter can be used to release equipment (such as a satellite or supplies for the International Space Station), to repair existing equipment such as the Hubble Space Telescope, or to do experiments directly on board the orbiter. When the mission is complete, the orbiter re-enters Earths atmosphere and flies back to Earth more like a glider than an airplane. The Space Shuttle program did 135 missions between 1981 and 2011, when the remaining shuttles were retired. The ISS is now serviced by Russian Soyuz spacecraft. Atlantis on the launch pad in 2006. Since 1981, the space shuttle has been the United States primary vehicle for carrying people and large equipment into space.

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rockets

A rocket is propelled into space by particles flying out of one end at high speed (see Figure 1.1). A rocket in space moves like a skater holding the fire extinguisher. Fuel is ignited in a chamber, which causes an explosion of gases. The explosion creates pressure that forces the gases out of the rocket. As these gases rush out the end, the rocket moves in the opposite direction, as predicted by Newtons Third Law of Motion. The reaction force of the gases on the rocket pushes the rocket forward. The force pushing the rocket is called thrust. Nothing would get into space without being thrust upward by a rocket.

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satellites

One of the first uses of rockets in space was to launch satellites. A satellite is an object that orbits a larger object. An orbit is a circular or elliptical path around an object. The Moon was Earths first satellite, but now many human- made "artificial satellites" orbit the planet. Thousands of artificial satellites have been put into orbit around Earth (Figure 1.2). We have even put satellites into orbit around the Moon, the Sun, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. There are four main types of satellites. Imaging satellites take pictures of Earths surface for military or scientific purposes. Imaging satellites study the Moon and other planets. Communications satellites receive and send signals for telephone, television, or other types of communica- tions. Navigational satellites are used for navigation systems, such as the Global Positioning System (GPS). The International Space Station, the largest artificial satellite, is designed for humans to live in space while conducting scientific research.

space stations

Humans have a presence in space at the International Space Station (ISS) (pictured in Figure 1.3). Modern space stations are constructed piece by piece to create a modular system. The primary purpose of the ISS is scientific research, especially in medicine, biology, and physics.

instructional diagrams

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questions

this is propelled into space by particles flying out one end at high speed.

a) plane

-->  b) rocket

c) satellite

d) helicopter

which of newtons laws of motion explains rocket propulsion?

a) first

b) second

-->  c) third

d) fourth

any object that orbits a larger object is a(n)

a) earth

b) moon

-->  c) satellite

d) plane

imaging satellites

-->  a) take photos of earth for scientific or military purposes.

b) are used only to study earth.

c) transmit images to satellite dishes for television sets.

d) none of these.

gps uses this type of satellite.

a) communications satellite

b) imaging satellite

-->  c) navigational satellite

d) the international space station

the largest artificial satellite, which is designed for human habitation is

a) human-occupied satellite

b) imaging satellite

c) navigational satellite

-->  d) the international space station

satellites used for televisions and phones are

a) carry a lot of cargo.

b) take people to a space station.

c) be used many times.

-->  d) all of these.

for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction, also known as thrust.

-->  a) true

b) false

the main purpose of the international space station is

a) peace negotiations between europe, the united states and russia.

-->  b) scientific research.

c) breaking the record for days in space by a human.

d) breaking the record for days in space by a number of humans.

diagram questions

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