sex linked inheritance
What determines if a baby is a male or female? Recall that you have 23 pairs of chromosomesand one of those pairs is the sex chromosomes. Everyone has two sex chromosomes. Your sex chromosomes can be X or Y. Females have two X chromosomes (XX), while males have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome (XY). If a baby inherits an X chromosome from the father and an X chromosome from the mother, what will be the childs sex? The baby will have two X chromosomes, so it will be female. If the fathers sperm carries the Y chromosome, the child will be male. Notice that a mother can only pass on an X chromosome, so the sex of the baby is determined by the father. The father has a 50 percent chance of passing on the Y or X chromosome, so there is a 50 percent chance that a child will be male, and there is a 50 percent chance a child will be female. This 50:50 chance occurs for each baby. A couples first five children could all be boys. The sixth child still has a 50:50 chance of being a girl. One special pattern of inheritance that doesnt fit Mendels rules is sex-linked inheritance, referring to the inher- itance of traits that are located on genes on the sex chromosomes. Since males and females do not have the same sex chromosomes, there will be differences between the sexes in how these sex-linked traitstraits linked to genes located on the sex chromosomesare expressed. Sex-linked traits usually refer to traits due to genes on the X chromosome. One example of a sex-linked trait is red-green colorblindness. People with this type of colorblindness cannot tell the difference between red and green. They often see these colors as shades of brown ( Figure 1.1). Boys are much more likely to be colorblind than girls ( Table 1.1). This is because colorblindness is a sex-linked, recessive trait. Boys only have one X chromosome, so if that chromosome carries the gene for colorblindness, they will be colorblind. As girls have two X chromosomes, a girl can have one X chromosome with the colorblind gene and one X chromosome with a normal gene for color vision. Since colorblindness is recessive, the dominant normal gene will mask the recessive colorblind gene. Females with one colorblindness allele and one normal allele are referred to as carriers. They carry the allele but do not express it. How would a female become colorblind? She would have to inherit two genes for colorblindness, which is very unlikely. Many sex-linked traits are inherited in a recessive manner. Xc Xc X (carrier female) Xc Y (colorblind male) X Y X XX (normal female) XY (normal male) According to this Punnett square ( Table 1.1), the son of a woman who carries the colorblindness trait and a male with normal vision has a 50% chance of being colorblind.
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the mother determines the sex of her baby.
a. true --> b. false
females have two x chromosomes.
--> a. true b. false
a couple has already had three daughters. what is the chance that the next baby will be a boy?
--> a) 0% b) 25% c) 50% d) 100%
a colorblind male marries a carrier female. what is the chance that their child will be colorblind?
--> a) 0% b) 25% c) 50% d) 100%
a normal male marries a carrier female. what is the chance that their child will be colorblind?
a) 0 --> b) 25% c) 50% d) 100%
a colorblind male marries a normal female. which statement is correct?
--> a) all their daughters will be carriers. b) all their sons will be colorblind. c) half of their daughters will be normal. d) both (a) and (b) are correct.
most sex-linked genes are _____.
a) dominant --> b) recessive c) incompletely dominant d) codominant
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