solids liquids gases and plasmas

energy and states of matter

Particles of matter of the same substance, such as the same element, are attracted to one another. The force of attraction tends to pull the particles closer together. The particles need a lot of kinetic energy to overcome the force of attraction and move apart. Its like a tug of war between opposing forces. The kinetic energy of individual particles is on one side, and the force of attraction between different particles is on the other side. The outcome of the "war" depends on the state of matter. This is illustrated in Figure 4.8 and in the animation at this URL: http://w In solids, particles dont have enough kinetic energy to overcome the force of attraction between them. The particles are packed closely together and cannot move around. All they can do is vibrate. This explains why solids have a fixed volume and shape. In liquids, particles have enough kinetic energy to partly overcome the force of attraction between them. They can slide past one another but not pull completely apart. This explains why liquids can change shape but have a fixed volume. In gases, particles have a lot of kinetic energy. They can completely overcome the force of attraction between them and move apart. This explains why gases have neither a fixed volume nor a fixed shape.

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energy and matter

Why do different states of matter have different properties? Its because of differences in energy at the level of atoms and molecules, the tiny particles that make up matter.

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plasmas

Youre probably less familiar with plasmas than with solids, liquids, and gases. Yet, most of the universe consists of plasma. Plasma is a state of matter that resembles a gas but has certain properties that a gas does not have. Like a gas, plasma lacks a fixed volume and shape. Unlike a gas, plasma can conduct electricity and respond to magnetism. Thats because plasma contains charged particles called ions. This gives plasma other interesting properties. For example, it glows with light. Where can you find plasmas? Two examples are shown in Figure 4.7. The sun and other stars consist of plasma. Plasmas are also found naturally in lightning and the polar auroras (northern and southern lights). Artificial plasmas are found in fluorescent lights, plasma TV screens, and plasma balls like the one that opened this chapter. You can learn more about plasmas at this URL: (2:58). MEDIA Click image to the left or use the URL below. URL:

kinetic theory of matter

The particles that make up matter are also constantly moving. They have kinetic energy. The theory that all matter consists of constantly moving particles is called the kinetic theory of matter. You can learn more about it at the URL below.

energy

Energy is defined as the ability to cause changes in matter. You can change energy from one form to another when you lift your arm or take a step. In each case, energy is used to move matter you. The energy of moving matter is called kinetic energy.

solids

Ice is an example of solid matter. A solid is matter that has a fixed volume and a fixed shape. Figure 4.3 shows examples of matter that are usually solids under Earth conditions. In the figure, salt and cellulose are examples of crystalline solids. The particles of crystalline solids are arranged in a regular repeating pattern. The steaks and candle wax are examples of amorphous ("shapeless") solids. Their particles have no definite pattern.

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liquids

Ocean water is an example of a liquid. A liquid is matter that has a fixed volume but not a fixed shape. Instead, a liquid takes the shape of its container. If the volume of a liquid is less than the volume of its container, the top surface will be exposed to the air, like the oil in the bottles in Figure 4.4. Two interesting properties of liquids are surface tension and viscosity. Surface tension is a force that pulls particles at the exposed surface of a liquid toward other liquid particles. Surface tension explains why water forms droplets, like those in Figure 4.5. Viscosity is a liquids resistance to flowing. Thicker liquids are more viscous than thinner liquids. For example, the honey in Figure 4.5 is more viscous than the vinegar. You can learn more about surface tension and viscosity at these URLs: http://io9.com/5668221/an-experiment-with-soap-water-pepper-and-surface-tension http://chemed.chem.wisc.edu/chempaths/GenChem-Textbook/Viscosity-840.html (1:40) MEDIA Click image to the left or use the URL below. URL:

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gases

Water vapor is an example of a gas. A gas is matter that has neither a fixed volume nor a fixed shape. Instead, a gas takes both the volume and the shape of its container. It spreads out to take up all available space. You can see an example in Figure 4.6.

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instructional diagrams

description_image

There are three states of matter. These three states include solid, liquid, and gas. Solid states of matter are rigid and have a fixed shape and fixed volume. They cannot be squashed. Liquid states of matter are not rigid and have no fixed shape, but have a fixed volume. They too cannot be squashed. Gas states of matter are not rigid and have no fixed shape and no fixed volume. This state of matter can be squashed.

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The image below shows Gases, Liquids, and Solids. Gases, liquids and solids are all made up of atoms, molecules, and/or ions, but the behaviors of these particles differ in the three phases. Gas assumes the shape and volume of its container particles can move past one another. Liquid also assumes the shape of the part of the container which it occupies particles can move/slide past one another. While solids retains a fixed volume and shape rigid-particles locked into place

questions

state of matter that lacks a fixed volume and a fixed shape

a. solid

b. liquid

-->  c. gas

d. plasma

e. kinetic energy

f. state of matter

g. energy

In which state does most of the matter in the universe occur?

a. gas

b. liquid

c. solid

-->  d. plasma

state of matter with a fixed volume and a fixed shape

-->  a. solid

b. liquid

c. gas

d. plasma

e. kinetic energy

f. state of matter

g. energy

Which statement is true about crystalline solids?

a. Their particles are not arranged in a pattern.

b. They take the shape of their container.

-->  c. Their particles have a regular repeating pattern.

d. Examples include cellulose and candle wax.

energy that moves matter

a. solid

b. liquid

c. gas

d. plasma

-->  e. kinetic energy

f. state of matter

g. energy

Honey pours more slowly than vinegar because honey has greater

a. surface tension.

b. kinetic energy.

c. magnetism.

-->  d. viscosity.

Which of the following states of matter takes the volume of its container?

-->  a. gas

b. liquid

c. solid

d. two of the above

ability to cause changes in matter

a. solid

b. liquid

c. gas

d. plasma

e. kinetic energy

f. state of matter

-->  g. energy

state of matter with a fixed volume but not a fixed shape

a. solid

-->  b. liquid

c. gas

d. plasma

e. kinetic energy

f. state of matter

g. energy

Matter in the plasma state

a. responds to magnetism.

b. conducts electricity.

c. glows with light.

-->  d. all of the above

state of matter that consists of ions

a. solid

b. liquid

c. gas

-->  d. plasma

e. kinetic energy

f. state of matter

g. energy

solid, liquid, gas, or plasma

a. solid

b. liquid

c. gas

d. plasma

e. kinetic energy

-->  f. state of matter

g. energy

What happens when matter changes state?

a. Its chemical properties change.

-->  b. Its physical properties change.

c. The energy of its particles remains the same.

d. two of the above

The volume and shape of a solid could be changed by

a. placing it in a container with a different shape.

b. putting it in a container with a different volume.

-->  c. cutting or breaking it.

d. all of the above

An example of an amorphous solid is

-->  a. candle wax.

b. table salt.

c. cellulose.

d. none of the above

Particles with the greatest kinetic energy occur in liquids.

a. true

-->  b. false

Surface tension is a force that affects

a. gases.

b. plasmas.

c. solids.

-->  d. liquids.

Water forms droplets because of surface tension.

-->  a. true

b. false

Which statement is true about plasma?

a. It has a fixed volume.

b. It has a fixed shape.

-->  c. It contains ions.

d. It does not occur in nature.

Which state of matter has particles with the least energy?

a. plasma

b. gas

c. liquid

-->  d. solid

When matter changes state, its chemical properties change.

a. true

-->  b. false

The volume of a gas is

a. fixed.

b. viscous.

-->  c. the same as its container.

d. equal to its mass.

Table salt is an amorphous solid.

a. true

-->  b. false

Kinetic energy is energy that moves matter.

-->  a. true

b. false

A liquid takes the volume of its container.

a. true

-->  b. false

Particles of amorphous solids have no definite pattern.

-->  a. true

b. false

A beef steak is an example of a crystalline solid.

a. true

-->  b. false

Viscosity causes water to curve upward at the top rim of a glass.

a. true

-->  b. false

There is more gas than any other state of matter in the universe.

a. true

-->  b. false

All states of matter have a fixed mass and fixed volume.

a. true

-->  b. false

The volume and shape of a solid can never change.

a. true

-->  b. false

Surface tension explains why water forms droplets.

-->  a. true

b. false

Water has greater viscosity than any other liquid.

a. true

-->  b. false

A gas spreads out to fill all available space.

-->  a. true

b. false

diagram questions

question_image

By what letter is the solid state represented in the diagram?

a. S

-->  b. D

c. R

d. P

question_image

Which container contains gas?

a. R

b. R AND D

c. D

-->  d. P

question_image

Sublimation would avoid which phase shown below?

a. P

b. D

c. NONE

-->  d. R

question_image

What letter represents matter in the gaseous state?

a. R

-->  b. P

c. Q

d. D

question_image

What state is M?

-->  a. GAS

b. SOLID

c. SOLID/LIQUID

d. LIQUID

question_image

Which label refers to a gas state?

a. Y

b. U

-->  c. M

d. W

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Sublimation causes molecules in the 'Y' phase to enter which phase?

a. D

-->  b. M

c. W

d. U

question_image

Which represents a liquid/gas?

a. W

b. U

-->  c. D

d. M

question_image

Which label shows gas?

a. D

b. T AND C

c. T

-->  d. C

question_image

Which label shows the gas state?

a. BOTH F AND S

b. F

c. T

-->  d. S

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Which letter represents a Solid?

-->  a. T

b. F

c. S

d. F AND S

question_image

Which glass contains a solid?

a. Y AND L

-->  b. T

c. L

d. Y

question_image

What state is next to solid?

a. T

b. L

-->  c. Y

d. M

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Identify the state of matter that has a fixed volume and a fixed shape.

-->  a. D

b. T

c. NOT ENOUGH INFORMATION

d. E

question_image

Which label refers to the liquid matter?

a. M

b. J

-->  c. W

d. K

question_image

Which label stands for the plasma state of matter?

a. X

b. L

-->  c. Y

d. W

question_image

In which state of matter is there a lot of kinetic energy?

a. W. LIQUID

b. X. SOLID

c. Y. PLASMA

-->  d. L. GAS

question_image

Which state of matter comes after the state that follows X?

a. Y

-->  b. W

c. J

d. L

question_image

Which form of matter is the densest?

a. Other

b. Gas

c. Liquid

-->  d. Solid

question_image

What state of matter occurs after liquid as a substance is frozen?

a. liquid

b. plasma

c. gas

-->  d. solid

question_image

Which has the most molecules?

a. liquid

b. gas

c. none

-->  d. Solid

question_image

What is shown in the picture?

a. The State of Nucleus

b. The State of Molecules

-->  c. The States of Matter

d. The State of Atoms

question_image

What state of matter has a fixed volume but not a fixed shape?

-->  a. Liquid

b. Plasma

c. Gas

d. Solid

question_image

What do cells look like in liquid state?

-->  a. All together but uneven

b. Half even and half uneven

c. All together and even

d. All floating around

question_image

How many states are shown in the diagram?

a. 2

b. 4

c. 1

-->  d. 3

question_image

In which phase of matter are molecules the most diverted?

a. Gas and liquid

b. Liquid

-->  c. Gas

d. Solid

question_image

This phase of matter holds its shape:

-->  a. Solid

b. Gas

c. Liquid Gas

d. Liquid

question_image

In what state does the substance hold shape?

-->  a. solid

b. liquid

c. gas

d. none

question_image

What is not a phase of matter?

a. Solid

b. Liquid

-->  c. Porus

d. Gas

question_image

How many phases does the matter have?

a. 1

-->  b. 3

c. 2

d. 4

question_image

How many phases of matter is shown in the diagram?

a. 1

b. 2

-->  c. 3

d. 4

question_image

What are states of matter?

-->  a. Solid, Liquid and Gas

b. Liquid

c. Solid

d. Gas

question_image

Which type of matter holds shape and has a fixed volume?

-->  a. Solid

b. Liquid

c. Condensation

d. Gas

question_image

Which water state has lost and separated molecules?

a. solid

b. liquid

c. solid/liquid

-->  d. gas

question_image

Which state of matter allows particles to move most freely?

a. Solid/liquid

b. Solid

-->  c. Gas

d. Liquid

question_image

How many more particles are shown in the liquid/gas state than the gas?

a. 14

b. 3

-->  c. 11

d. 6

question_image

The particles of this state are tightly packed and do not move.

a. Solid/liquid

b. Liquid

c. Liquid/gas

-->  d. Solid

question_image

Which state has its particles packed tightly?

a. gas

b. liquid

-->  c. solid

d. plasma

question_image

Which state of matter has the loosest particles?

-->  a. Gas

b. Solid

c. Liquid

d. Plasma

question_image

What's the state of matter between solid and gas?

-->  a. Liquid

b. Gas

c. Solid

d. There none

question_image

According to the diagram, how many states does the matter have?

a. 1

b. 2

-->  c. 3

d. 4

question_image

How many states of matter are in the diagram?

a. 2

b. 4

c. 1

-->  d. 3

question_image

This state of matter can be seen AFTER sublimation:

a. Plasma

-->  b. Gas

c. Solid

d. Liquid

question_image

Which of the following represents the states of matter that ice is?

a. Gas

-->  b. Solid

c. Ice does not have a state of matter

d. Liquid

question_image

Which state of matter floats through the air?

-->  a. Gas

b. Liquid

c. Solid

d. Ice

question_image

How many jars shown?

a. 2

b. 1

-->  c. 3

d. 4

question_image

How many states of matter are presented in the diagram?

a. 4

-->  b. 3

c. 10

d. 5

question_image

This type of matter has a fixed volume and state.

-->  a. Solid

b. Liquid

c. Plasma

d. Gas

question_image

What is the diagram that shows the liquid state?

a. Left

-->  b. Middle

c. Left & right

d. Right

question_image

Which has the strongest force of attraction between particles?

a. Gas

-->  b. Solid

c. Liquid

d. Plasma

question_image

Which state of matter has particles which are tightly packed together and cannot move around?

-->  a. Solid

b. Liquid

c. Plasma

d. Gas

question_image

Which state of matter has the lowest force of attraction between particles?

a. Liquid

-->  b. Gas

c. Solid

d. Plasma

question_image

How many states of matter do we know?

a. 4

-->  b. 3

c. 1

d. 2

question_image

Is solid state the only state where a substance retains its shape?

a. Depends

b. Sometimes

-->  c. Yes

d. No

question_image

Which state has its molecules packed tightly?

a. plasma

b. gas

-->  c. solid

d. liquid

question_image

Which state has its particles packed tightly?

a. plasma

b. liquid

-->  c. solid

d. gas

question_image

Which of the following has its particles freely moving?

a. Liquid

b. Solid

-->  c. Gas

d. Plasma

question_image

Which state of matter has particles which can partly overcome the force of attraction between them?

a. Solid

b. Plasma

-->  c. Liquid

d. Gas

question_image

How many jars shown?

a. 2

b. 1

c. 4

-->  d. 3

question_image

How many states of matter are there according to the diagram?

a. 1

-->  b. 3

c. 4

d. 5

question_image

Which among the phases of matter follows the shape of the container but has a fixed volume?

a. Solid

b. Plasma

c. Gas

-->  d. Liquid

question_image

Which state has its particles' arrangement be regular?

a. gas

b. liquid

-->  c. solid

d. plasma

question_image

Which matter's particles stay relatively still?

a. Gas

b. Plasma

-->  c. Solid

d. Liquid

question_image

In what state water has medium energy?

-->  a. Liquid

b. No one of the above is correct

c. Gas

d. Solid

question_image

How many states have an irregular molecular arrangement?

a. 0

b. 3

c. 1

-->  d. 2

question_image

How many states of matter are there?

a. 2

-->  b. 3

c. 4

d. 5

question_image

Which state of matter occurs at the lowest temperature?

a. Gas

-->  b. Solid

c. Plasma

d. Liquid

question_image

How many states of matter can be observed in the diagram?

a. 1

b. 3

-->  c. 4

d. 5

question_image

What is added to gas to make it turn into plasma?

a. Melting

-->  b. Heat

c. Reduction

d. Deposition

question_image

Which state of matter is composed of charged particles such as nucleus and electron?

a. Gas

-->  b. Plasma

c. Liquid

d. Solid

question_image

How many states of matter are there according to the diagram?

a. 1

-->  b. 4

c. 5

d. 3

question_image

If you cool gas, what do you get?

a. an explosion

b. plasma

c. solid

-->  d. liquid

question_image

What happens to the atoms when matter turns from gas into plasma?

-->  a. They become nucleuses and electrons.

b. They don't change.

c. They return to the previous state.

d. They dissolve.

question_image

Identify gas

a. R

b. D

-->  c. P

d. PURPLE