states of matter

water water everywhere

The photo above represents water in three common states of matter. States of matter are different phases in which any given type of matter can exist. There are actually four well-known states of matter: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma. Plasma isnt represented in the iceberg photo, but the other three states of matter are. The iceberg itself consists of water in the solid state, and the lake consists of water in the liquid state. Q: Where is water in the gaseous state in the above photo? A: You cant see the gaseous water, but its there. It exists as water vapor in the air. Q: Water is one of the few substances that commonly exist on Earth in more than one state. Many other substances typically exist only in the solid, liquid, or gaseous state. Can you think of examples of matter that usually exists in just one of these three states? A: Just look around you and you will see many examples of matter that usually exists in the solid state. They include soil, rock, wood, metal, glass, and plastic. Examples of matter that usually exist in the liquid state include cooking oil, gasoline, and mercury, which is the only metal that commonly exists as a liquid. Examples of matter that usually exists in the gaseous state include oxygen and nitrogen, which are the chief gases in Earths atmosphere.

phases are physical

A given kind of matter has the same chemical makeup and the same chemical properties regardless of its state. Thats because state of matter is a physical property. As a result, when matter changes state, it doesnt become a different kind of substance. For example, water is still water whether it exists as ice, liquid water, or water vapor.

properties of solids liquids and gases

The most common states of matter on Earth are solids, liquids, and gases. How do these states of matter differ? Their properties are contrasted in the Figure 1.1. Click image to the left or use the URL below. URL: Properties of matter in different states. Q: The Figure 1.2 shows that a liquid takes the shape of its container. How could you demonstrate this? A: You could put the same volume of liquid in containers with different shapes. This is illustrated below with a beaker (left) and a graduated cylinder (right). The shape of the liquid in the beaker is short and wide like the beaker, while the shape of the liquid in the graduated cylinder is tall and narrow like that container, but each container holds the same volume of liquid. Q: How could you show that a gas spreads out to take the volume as well as the shape of its container? A: You could pump air into a bicycle tire. The tire would become firm all over as air molecules spread out to take the shape of the tire and also to occupy the entire volume of the tire.

textbook_image

textbook_image

instructional diagrams

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questions

which of the following substances usually exists in the liquid state on earth?

a) nitrogen

-->  b) mercury

c) iron

d) none of the above

the state in which matter takes on the shape but not the volume of its container is

a) gas.

b) solid.

-->  c) liquid.

d) plasma.

the only state in which matter has a fixed shape is

a) gas.

-->  b) solid.

c) liquid.

d) plasma.

for matter to change from a liquid to a solid involves a loss of energy.

-->  a. true

b. false

diagram questions

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