types of rocks

processes of the rock cycle

Any type of rock can change and become a new type of rock. Magma can cool and crystallize. Existing rocks can be weathered and eroded to form sediments. Rock can change by heat or pressure deep in Earths crust. There are three main processes that can change rock: Cooling and forming crystals. Deep within the Earth, temperatures can get hot enough to melt rock. This molten material is called magma. As it cools, crystals grow, forming an igneous rock. The crystals will grow larger if the magma cools slowly, as it does if it remains deep within the Earth. If the magma cools quickly, the crystals will be very small. Weathering and erosion. Water, wind, ice, and even plants and animals all act to wear down rocks. Over time they can break larger rocks into smaller pieces called sediments. Moving water, wind, and glaciers then carry these pieces from one place to another. The sediments are eventually dropped, or deposited, somewhere. The sediments may then be compacted and cemented together. This forms a sedimentary rock. This whole process can take hundreds or thousands of years. Metamorphism. This long word means to change form. A rock undergoes metamorphism if it is exposed to extreme heat and pressure within the crust. With metamorphism, the rock does not melt all the way. The rock changes due to heat and pressure. A metamorphic rock may have a new mineral composition and/or texture. An interactive rock cycle diagram can be found here: The rock cycle really has no beginning or end. It just continues. The processes involved in the rock cycle take place over hundreds, thousands, or even millions of years. Even though for us rocks are solid and unchanging, they slowly change all the time.

textbook_image

three main categories of rocks

Geologists group rocks based on how they were formed. The three main kinds of rocks are: 1. Igneous rocks form when magma cools below Earths surface or lava cools at the surface (Figure 4.3). 2. Sedimentary rocks form when sediments are compacted and cemented together (Figure 4.4). These sediments may be gravel, sand, silt or clay. Sedimentary rocks often have pieces of other rocks in them. Some sedimentary rocks form the solid minerals left behind after a liquid evaporates. 3. Metamorphic rocks form when an existing rock is changed by heat or pressure. The minerals in the rock change but do not melt (Figure 4.5). The rock experiences these changes within the Earth. Rocks can be changed from one type to another, and the rock cycle describes how this happens.

textbook_image

textbook_image

the rock cycle

All rocks on Earth change, but these changes usually happen very slowly. Some changes happen below Earths surface. Some changes happen above ground. These changes are all part of the rock cycle. The rock cycle describes each of the main types of rocks, how they form and how they change. Figure 4.1 shows how the three main rock types are related to each other. The arrows within the circle show how one type of rock may change to rock of another type. For example, igneous rock may break down into small pieces of sediment and become sedimentary rock. Igneous rock may be buried within the Earth and become metamorphic rock. Igneous rock may also change back to molten material and re-cool into a new igneous rock. Rocks are made of minerals. The minerals may be so tiny that you can only see them with a microscope. The minerals may be really large. A rock may be made of only one type of mineral. More often rocks are made of a mixture of different minerals. Rocks are named for the combinations of minerals they are made of and the ways those minerals came together. Remember that different minerals form under different environmental conditions. So the minerals in a rock contain clues about the conditions in which the rock formed (Figure 4.2).

textbook_image

textbook_image

instructional diagrams

description_image

This diagram shows how rocks can change from one type to another when they undergo certain processes. For magma, when it solidifies, it becomes an igneous rock. Igneous rocks can then turn into metamorphic rocks when they undergo metamorphism. They can also turn back into magma when they undergo melting. Otherwise, when igneous rocks go through erosion, they become sediment. Sediment can also be obtained from metamorphic and sedimentary rocks when they undergo erosion, too. Sediments can then undergo lithification to become sedimentary rocks. Sedimentary rocks can also become metamorphic rocks when they undergo metamorphism. And finally, metamorphic rocks can turn into magma when they undergo melting.

description_image

The diagram shows types of rocks and rock formation cycles. There are three major rock types. Rock of these three rock types can become rock of one of the other rock types. All rocks on Earth change, but these changes usually happen very slowly. Some changes happen below Earths surface. Some changes happen above ground. Any type of rock can change and become a new type of rock. Magma can cool and crystallize. Existing rocks can be weathered and eroded to form sediments. Rock can change by heat or pressure deep in Earths crust. There are three main processes that can change rock: Cooling and forming crystals. Deep within the Earth, temperatures can get hot enough to melt rock. This molten material is called magma. As it cools, crystals grow, forming an igneous rock. The crystals will grow larger if the magma cools slowly, as it does if it remains deep within the Earth. If the magma cools quickly, the crystals will be very small. Weathering and erosion. Water, wind, ice, and even plants and animals all act to wear down rocks. Over time they can break larger rocks into smaller pieces called sediments.

description_image

The Rock Cycle illustrates how rocks continually change form. There are three basic types of rocks: igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic, and each of these rocks can be changed into any one of the other types. The names of the rock types refer to the way the rocks are formed. Arrows in the diagram display how one type of rock may change to another type of rock. All igneous rocks start out as melted rock(magma) and then crystallize, or freeze. When an igneous rock is exposed on the surface, it goes through the process of weathering and erosion that breaks the rock down into smaller pieces. Wind and water carry the smaller pieces of igneous rock into piles called sediment. Through the process of compaction and cementation, the sediment gets buried and the pieces of rock become cemented together to form a new type of rock called a sedimentary rock. If a sedimentary rock is exposed at the surface, it can be eroded away and eventually changed into a new sedimentary rock. However, if a sedimentary(or an igneous) rock gets buried deep in the Earth, heat and pressure will cause profound physical and/or chemical change. This process is called metamorphosis, and the new rock is called a metamorphic rock. Metamorphic rock can also be weathered and eroded and eventually changed into a sedimentary rock. Or, if a metamorphic rock is forced deeper into the Earth, the rock can melt and become magma. Igneous rock and sedimentary rock can also be forced deep into the Earth and melt into magma. Once magma cools, it forms igneous rocks again.

questions

particle of rock or mineral

a. rock cycle

b. metamorphic rock

c. rock

-->  d. sediment

e. igneous rock

f. metamorphism

g. sedimentary rock

How many major rock types are in the rock cycle?

-->  a. 3

b. 4

c. 5

d. 7

any mixture of minerals in the solid state

a. rock cycle

b. metamorphic rock

-->  c. rock

d. sediment

e. igneous rock

f. metamorphism

g. sedimentary rock

Each type of rock has a particular

a. color

b. size

-->  c. set of minerals

d. shape

type of rock that forms when sediments are compacted and cemented together

a. rock cycle

b. metamorphic rock

c. rock

d. sediment

e. igneous rock

f. metamorphism

-->  g. sedimentary rock

The texture of a rock is describes what feature of the mineral grains?

a. size

b. shape

c. arrangement

-->  d. all of the above

Two rocks have the same minerals, but of very different sizes. Which statement is true?

a. One rock has more eroded fragments than the other.

-->  b. The minerals cooled at different rates from a magma.

c. The rocks have different compositions.

d. One rock is igneous and one rock is metamorphic.

type of rock that forms when existing rock is subjected to high heat and pressure

a. rock cycle

-->  b. metamorphic rock

c. rock

d. sediment

e. igneous rock

f. metamorphism

g. sedimentary rock

type of rock that forms when magma or lava cools

a. rock cycle

b. metamorphic rock

c. rock

d. sediment

-->  e. igneous rock

f. metamorphism

g. sedimentary rock

A rock that was once a different rock with a different mineral composition and/or texture is a(n)

a. igneous rock

b. sedimentary rock

-->  c. metamorphic rock

d. hard rock

continuous series of processes by which rocks change from one type to another

-->  a. rock cycle

b. metamorphic rock

c. rock

d. sediment

e. igneous rock

f. metamorphism

g. sedimentary rock

process in which a rock changes to a different type of rock due to extreme heat and pressure

a. rock cycle

b. metamorphic rock

c. rock

d. sediment

e. igneous rock

-->  f. metamorphism

g. sedimentary rock

Major types of rocks include

a. sedimentary rocks.

b. metamorphic rocks.

c. igneous rocks.

-->  d. all of the above

Which rocks may form on Earths surface?

a. sedimentary rocks

b. metamorphic rocks

c. igneous rocks

-->  d. two of the above

Weathering and erosion occur because of the actions of

a. ice.

b. wind.

c. water.

-->  d. all of the above

As magma cools, all of the mineral grains form at the same temperature.

a. true

-->  b. false

The process in which sedimentary rocks form begins with

a. erosion.

b. deposition.

-->  c. weathering.

d. compaction.

Metamorphism may change the chemical composition of a rock.

a. true

-->  b. false

The rock called limestone forms when shells of sea organisms settle to the bottom of the water and gradually become pressed and cemented together. Which type of rock is limestone?

a. igneous

b. metamorphic

-->  c. sedimentary

d. none of the above

If limestone is buried under the ground and placed under pressure until it becomes extremely hot, it changes to marble. The process in which marble forms from limestone is

a. melting.

b. compression.

c. sedimentation.

-->  d. metamorphism.

Only one type of mineral can be present in a metamorphic rock.

a. true

-->  b. false

Which process is involved when a sedimentary rock changes to an igneous rock?

a. metamorphism

-->  b. melting

c. sedimentation

d. weathering

Rocks can be studied through a microscope

-->  a. true

b. false

A metamorphic rock must have a different mineral composition than its parent rock

a. true

-->  b. false

When a rock changes from one type to another, it usually happens very quickly.

a. true

-->  b. false

One type of rock can change to any other type of rock.

-->  a. true

b. false

All the processes of the rock cycle take place underground.

a. true

-->  b. false

To see the minerals in rock, you always need to use a microscope.

a. true

-->  b. false

Rocks are named for the minerals they contain and how the minerals came together.

-->  a. true

b. false

A rock formed from pieces of gravel and sand would be classified as an igneous rock.

a. true

-->  b. false

A rock resulting from the formation of mineral crystals would be classified as a sedimentary rock.

a. true

-->  b. false

Sedimentary rocks include sandstone and shale.

-->  a. true

b. false

Plants and animals can act to wear down rocks.

-->  a. true

b. false

Metamorphism may change a rocks mineral composition.

-->  a. true

b. false

diagram questions

question_image

Identify the type of rocks with minerals and global chemistry that give information about the composition of the mantle.

a. Rocks at surface

b. Metamorphic Rock

c. Sedimentary Rock

-->  d. Igenous rock

question_image

What is the step after Erosion and Transport?

-->  a. Deposition of SEDIMENT

b. Deformation and Metamorphism

c. Weathering of ROCKS at surface

d. Uplift

question_image

Which of the following is necessary to the forming of an igneous rock?

a. erosion and transport

b. uplift

c. weathering

-->  d. Crystallisation of magma

question_image

How are metamorphic rocks formed?

a. by the erosion of the igneous rock

b. by the weathering of rocks at the surface

-->  c. by the deformation and metamorphism of the sedimentary rock

d. by the deposition of the segment

question_image

After sediments undergo lithification, what do they become?

a. igneous rocks

b. magma

c. metamorphic rocks

-->  d. sedimentary rocks

question_image

What process forms extrusive igneous rocks?

a. Deposition

-->  b. Solidification

c. Melting

d. Erosion

question_image

What creates the sedimentary rocks?

a. Magma

b. Metamorphic rocks

c. Igneous rocks

-->  d. Sediments

question_image

How many alternatives the igneous rock has to transform?

a. 4

b. 3

-->  c. 2

d. 1

question_image

What rocks are below the sedimentary rocks?

a. Sediments

-->  b. Metamorphic rocks

c. Solidification

d. Igneous rocks

question_image

Rocks formed from crystallized magma are called:

a. Sedimentary Rocks

b. Anthropic Rocks

c. Metamorphic Rocks

-->  d. Igneous Rocks

question_image

Which rock is obtained when magma is crystallized?

a. Anthropic Rock

-->  b. Igneous Rock

c. Sedimentary Rock

d. Metamorphic Rock

question_image

How many phases are there in the rock cycle?

a. 5

b. 8

-->  c. 6

d. 2

question_image

How is magma formed?

a. through crystallization

b. through lithification

c. through metamorphism

-->  d. through melting

question_image

What causes a rock to become a metamorphic rock?

a. Compaction

b. Melting

c. Cooling

-->  d. Heat and pressure

question_image

What happens after Erosion in the rock cycle?

-->  a. Sediment

b. Sedimentary Rock

c. Compaction

d. Heat and Pressure

question_image

How many stages are there in the rock cycle?

a. 20

b. 11

c. 15

-->  d. 10

question_image

How are igneous rocks formed?

-->  a. by cooling magma and lava

b. through melting of the igneous rock

c. by applying heat and pressure to sedimentary rock

d. through compaction of the sedimentary rock

question_image

Identify the type of rock made from magma.

-->  a. Igneous Rocks

b. Other

c. Metamorphic Rocks

d. Sedimentary Rocks

question_image

What happens after weathering?

a. Igneous Rocks

b. Sediments

c. Deposition

-->  d. Transportation

question_image

How many processes are depicted in the diagram?

-->  a. 9

b. 10

c. 8

d. 7

question_image

How many types of rocks are shown in the diagram?

a. 2

b. 1

-->  c. 4

d. 7

question_image

Know the three main groups of rocks.

-->  a. The three main types, or classes, of rock are sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous and the differences among them have to do with how they are formed.

b. Sediments

c. Magma

d. Consolidation

question_image

What comes between the sedimentary rocks and the magma?

a. Weathering

b. Sediments

-->  c. Metamorphic rocks

d. Igneous Rocks

question_image

Which rock type is formed when an existing rock is changed by heat or pressure?

a. Igneous rocks

b. Sedimentry rocks

-->  c. Metamorphic rocks

d. Volcanic erruptions

question_image

Igneous rocks that have been heated, pressurized, and stress become what type of rock?

a. Magma

b. Erosion and Weathering

c. Sediments

-->  d. Metamorphic rocks

question_image

What happens after heat, pressure, and stress?

-->  a. Metamorphic Rocks

b. Sediments

c. Erosion

d. Magma

question_image

How many contributors to Igneous Rocks are shown in the diagram?

a. 3

-->  b. 2

c. 1

d. 4

question_image

What do igneous rocks transform into after erosion and weathering?

a. Metamorphic rocks

-->  b. Sediments

c. Magma

d. Volcanic eruptions

question_image

What is depicted by label 1?

a. Metamorphic rocks

b. Sediments

c. Igneous rocks

-->  d. Magma

question_image

How many steps are there in the rock cycle shown below?

a. 8

-->  b. 9

c. 4

d. 6

question_image

In the diagram, what comes after eruption?

-->  a. Weathering

b. Melting

c. Crystallization

d. Transportation & Deposition

question_image

What happens after the melting stage?

a. Compacting

-->  b. Crystallization

c. Eruption

d. Metamorphism

question_image

What turns Metamorphic rock into Magma?

a. eruption

-->  b. melting

c. transportation and deposition

d. weathering

question_image

How many stages are depicted in the rock cycle?

a. 6

b. 5

-->  c. 7

d. 8

question_image

How does a rock transform to a different type of rock?

a. through crystallization

b. through transportation

-->  c. through metamorphism

d. through weathering

question_image

Which processes convert igneous rocks into sediments?

a. Compacting - Metamorphism - Deposition

-->  b. Eruption - Weathering - Deposition

c. Weathering - Crystallization - Eruption

d. Melting - Crystallization - Deposition

question_image

What forms after the crystallization of magma?

a. Lava

b. Sedimentary rock

-->  c. Igneous rock

d. Metamorphic rock

question_image

How many kinds of rock are shown here?

a. one

-->  b. three

c. four

d. two

question_image

When magma is crystallized it slows becomes...

-->  a. igneous rock

b. volcanoes

c. sedimentary rock

d. metamorphic rock

question_image

What types of rocks are formed when magma cools beneath the surface of the earth?

a. Sedimentary rocks

b. Extrusive igneous rocks

-->  c. Intrusive igneous rocks

d. Metamorphic rocks

question_image

Which process is most closely involved in the formation of sedimentary rock?

a. Cooling

b. Uplift

c. Erosion

-->  d. Compaction

question_image

How many processes are involved in the formation of metamorphic rock?

a. 4

-->  b. 2

c. 1

d. 3

question_image

How many steps shown in the diagram?

a. 2

b. 4

c. 6

-->  d. 7

question_image

How many types of rocks are formed during the rock cycle?

a. 4

b. 2

c. 1

-->  d. 3

question_image

How is metamorphic rock formed?

a. cooling

b. sedimentation and compaction

c. weathering and erosion

-->  d. heat and pressure

question_image

What comes after outcrop?

a. Magma

b. Metamorphic Rock

-->  c. Sediment

d. Uplift

question_image

How many types of igneous rocks are shown in the diagram?

a. 3

b. 1

c. 4

-->  d. 2

question_image

What happens before the sedimentary rocks are formed from sediments?

a. cooling

b. burial, compaction and cementation

-->  c. burial

d. weathering

question_image

Using the diagram, describe how an igneous rock could become a sedimentary rock.

a. Igneous rocks become sedimentary rocks through uplift and exposure.

b. Igneous rocks become sedimentary rocks by lithification.

c. Igneous rocks become sedimentary rocks by metamorphoses.

-->  d. First the rock is weathered, where water transports it into rivers or oceans. The deposits build up to form sediments. The sediments build up and become sedimentary rocks through lithification.

question_image

What process comes after transportation?

a. solidification

b. lithification

c. weathering

-->  d. deposition

question_image

How many types of igneous rock are there?

a. 5

b. 4

-->  c. 2

d. 3

question_image

What happens in the rock cycle after uplift and exposure?

-->  a. Weathering

b. Sediments

c. Solidification

d. Deposition

question_image

What process happens to magma to become intrusive igneous rocks?

a. solidification

-->  b. crystallization

c. melting

d. lithification

question_image

What is required for sediment to become sedimentary rock?

a. Heat and pressure

b. Weathering and erosion

-->  c. Pressure and cementing

d. Cooling and hardening

question_image

What happens if you apply heat and pressure to igneous rock?

a. Turn to magma

b. Turns to sediment

c. Turns to sedimentary rock

-->  d. Turns to metamorphic rock

question_image

What happens to the igneous rock when it melts?

a. Becomes sediment

b. Becomes sedimentary rock

-->  c. Becomes magma

d. Becomes metamorphic rock

question_image

How many times do you see heat and pressure in the diagram?

-->  a. 3

b. 1

c. 4

d. 2

question_image

In types of rocks, what does pressure and cementing lead sediment to?

a. Melting

b. Heat and pressure

-->  c. Sedimentary rock

d. Weathering and erosion

question_image

What conditions lead to the formation of sedimentary rock from sediment?

-->  a. Pressure and cementing

b. Heat and pressure

c. Melting

d. Weathering and erosion

question_image

Which process or processes creates metamorphic rock?

a. Weathering and erosion

b. Cooling

-->  c. Heat and pressure

d. Compaction and cementation

question_image

What type of rock is made by cooling magma?

a. Other

b. Metamorphic Rock

-->  c. Igneous Rock

d. Sedimentary Rock

question_image

What does igneous rock become when it is subjected to heat and pressure?

a. Magma

-->  b. Metamorphic rock

c. Sediments

d. Sedimentary rock

question_image

What is the first step in producing a sedimentary rock from an igneous or metamorphic rock?

a. Cooling

b. Melting

c. Compaction and cementation

-->  d. Weathering and erosion

question_image

How many forms can a rock take?

-->  a. 5

b. 4

c. 7

d. 6

question_image

What happens when magma is cooled?

a. it will form sediments

b. it will evaporate

-->  c. igneous rock is formed

d. it will be frozen

question_image

Which of the three main kinds of rocks form when magma cools below Earth's surface or when lava cools at the surface?

-->  a. Igneous rock

b. Sedimentary rock

c. Metamorphic rock

d. Sediment

question_image

What kind of rock cools and turns solid from a liquid?

a. sediment

b. igneous

-->  c. magma

d. metamorphic rock

question_image

How many types of rocks are represented?

a. 3

b. 1

c. 2

-->  d. 5

question_image

Which of these cannot become sediment directly?

a. igneous rock

b. metamorphic rock

-->  c. magma

d. sedimentary rock

question_image

Which will take the longest to form?

a. Sedimentary Rock.

b. Igneous Rock.

-->  c. Metamorphic Rock

d. Sediment.

question_image

Identify the type of rock that is formed by melting and remelting.

a. Sedimentary

b. Weathering

-->  c. Igneous

d. Metamorphic

question_image

What process converts sedimentary rocks to igneous rocks?

a. remelting

b. weathering and erosion

c. metamorphism

-->  d. melting

question_image

What process creates sedimentary rocks?

a. Meltin

b. Pressure

c. Metamorphism

-->  d. Weathering and Erosion

question_image

How many processes directly result in Igneous rock from a different type of rock?

-->  a. 2

b. 3

c. 1

d. 4

question_image

How many times does weathering and erosion appear in the diagram?

a. 4

b. 2

-->  c. 3

d. 1

question_image

What happens after igneous undergoes metamorphism?

a. Erosion

-->  b. Metamorphic

c. Melting

d. Sedimentary

question_image

What type of rocks form from weathering and erosion?

a. geodic

b. igneous

c. metamorphic

-->  d. sedimentary

question_image

Identify the process which turns metamorphic rock to magma.

-->  a. Melting

b. Erosion

c. Diagenesis

d. Crystalliization

question_image

What do you get after melting sedimentary rocks?

a. Metamorphic Rock

b. Igneous Rock

c. Lava

-->  d. Magma

question_image

What changes igneous rock to metamorphic rock?

-->  a. pressure and temperature

b. melting

c. diagenesis

d. erosion

question_image

What happens when sedimentary rock melts?

a. turns into lava

-->  b. turns into magma

c. turns into dust

d. turns into harder rock

question_image

How many elements make up the rock cycle?

a. 15

-->  b. 12

c. 13

d. 10

question_image

How many types of rock are involved in the rock cycle?

a. 2

b. 1

c. 3

-->  d. 4

question_image

When sedimentary rock undergoes melting, what do they become?

a. Limestone

b. Igneous rocks

c. Metamorphic rocks

-->  d. Magma

question_image

Stage where in rock sediments are compacted and cemented together. This whole process can take hundreds or thousands of years.

a. Erosion

b. Melting

c. Extrusion

-->  d. Compaction/Cementation

question_image

Which process creates sedimentary rock?

a. Intrusive Crystallisation

-->  b. Compaction/Cementation

c. Erosion

d. Melting

question_image

What happens to the rocks right after weathering?

a. it undergoes intrusive crystallisation

b. it undergoes extrusion

c. It undergoes melting

-->  d. It undergoes erosion

question_image

How many processes in the diagram bring rocks to the earth's surface?

-->  a. 2

b. 1

c. 5

d. 4

question_image

After surface rocks undergo weathering, what is the next step they go through?

a. extrusion

b. deposition

c. uplift

-->  d. erosion

question_image

What process causes rock from the mountain top to be transported to the sea?

a. Melting of metamorphic rock

b. Sedimentation

c. Volcano eruption

-->  d. Weathering and erosion

question_image

How many types of rock are in the diagram?

a. 2

-->  b. 4

c. 3

d. 6

question_image

How many types of rock are shown in the diagram?

-->  a. 4

b. 3

c. 2

d. 5

question_image

This forms when original rock is subjected to very high heat and pressure, which cause obvious physical and/or chemical changes.

a. Sedimentary rock

b. Fossil

c. Igneous rock

-->  d. Metamorphic rock

question_image

When sediments undergo compaction and cementation, what do they become?

a. Igneous rocks

b. Magma

-->  c. Sedimentary rock

d. Metamorphic rocks

question_image

Which rock is formed through heat and pressure?

a. igneous rock

b. sedimentary rock

c. magma

-->  d. metamorphic rocks

question_image

How many stages are there in the rock cycle?

-->  a. 12

b. 15

c. 13

d. 7

question_image

How many types of rock are involved in the rock cycle?

a. 1

b. 2

c. 3

-->  d. 4

question_image

What process happens to magma to become igneous rocks?

a. heat and pressure

b. compacting and cementing

-->  c. cooling

d. weathering and erosion

question_image

What is between weathering and deposition?

a. Uplift

b. extrusion

-->  c. erosion

d. intrusive crystallisation

question_image

What is the first step in the formation process?

-->  a. volcanic eruption

b. rock formation

c. erosion

d. breakup